TABLE 4.5 Summary of AHRQ Analyses of the Efficacy of Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior Related to Cancer Risk: Dietary Fat Intake (percentage of energy from fat)

Outcome

Number of Studies

Median (range)

Median differences in percentage change in dietary fat intake between intervention and control groups

Total fat (% energy)

33

–15.7 (–76.4 to –1.0)

Total fat (grams/day)

7

–38.0 (–74.0 to –15.9)

Saturated fat (% energy)

16

–14.5 (–41.9 to +0.5)

Median differences in percentage change in total fat (% of energy) by population

Risk Status

 

General risk

12

–8.0 (–27.9 to –1.0)

High risk

20

–20.0 (–76.4 to –3.5)

Median differences in percentage change in total fat (% of energy) by intervention characteristics

Social Support

 

Yes

7

–26.7 (–76.4 to –3.5)

No

26

–10.4 (–44.2 to –1.0)

Interactions with food

 

Yes

7

–11.0 (–26.7 to –3.2)

No

26

–17.8 (–76.4 to –1.0)

Goal Setting

 

Yes

18

–18.9 (–44.2 to –2.7)

No

15

–11.0 (–76.4 to –1.0)

 

SOURCE: AHRQ, 2001a.

fruit and vegetable consumption. In general, studies in these health settings allowed retrieval of information on additional biochemical measures, including total cholesterol levels, and more intensive dietary measures (e.g., 3-day food records) that are not as frequently retrievable in other settings. These settings also allowed ongoing monitoring of at-risk groups.

A paper published subsequent to publication of the literature review in the AHRQ Diet Report extended these findings by showing both reduced levels of dietary fat intake and increased levels of fruit and vegetable consumption after an individualized intervention delivered by personalized mailings, standard dietary information, and personalized phone calls (Kristal et al., 2000a).

In summary, behavioral interventions tested in health care settings can have a significant impact on the dietary intakes of participants. These settings allow the targeting of participants at risk for disease, who may be more willing to engage in behavioral change, and offer an ideal environment for the monitoring of individuals.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement