Prevention and Health Promotion, 2000), and efforts are under way to chart the nation’s progress toward those goals. Such objectives provide invaluable guidance to policy makers, and assessments of the achievement of these objectives often provide the impetus needed to stimulate systematic changes. Cancer-related objectives from Healthy People 2010 are shown in Box 9.1.

Evidence-based guidelines for clinical and community practice also provide maps for action. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) periodically conducts rigorous assessments of the effectiveness of clinical

BOX 9.1 Cancer-Related Healthy People 2010 Objectives

  • Reduce the overall cancer death rate and death rates for lung cancer, breast cancer, cancer of the uterine cervix, colorectal cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma (Objectives 3-1 to 3-8).

  • Increase the proportion of persons who use at least one of the following protective measures that may reduce the risk of skin cancer: avoid the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., wear sun-protective clothing when exposed to sunlight, use sunscreen with a sun-protective factor (SPF) of 15 or higher, avoid artificial sources of ultraviolet light (Objective 3-9).

  • Increase the proportion of physicians and dentists who counsel their at-risk patients about tobacco use cessation, physical activity, and cancer screening (Objective 3-10).

  • Increase the proportion of women who receive a Pap test (Objective 3-11).

  • Increase the proportion of adults who receive a colorectal cancer screening examination (Objective 3-12).

  • Increase the proportion of women aged 40 years and older who have received a mammogram within the preceding 2 years (Objective 3-13).

  • Increase the number of states that have a statewide population-based registry that captures case information on at least 95 percent of the estimated number of reportable cancers (Objective 3-14).

  • Increase the proportion of cancer survivors who are living 5 years or longer after diagnosis (Objective 3-15).

  • Increase the proportion of local health departments that have established culturally appropriate and linguistically competent community health promotion and disease prevention programs (Objective 7-11)

  • Increase the proportion of adults who are at a healthy weight (Objective 19-1).

  • Reduce the proportion of adults who are obese (Objective 19-2).

  • Increase the proportion of oral and pharyngeal cancers detected at the earliest stage (Objective 21-6).

  • Increase the proportion of adults who, in the past 12 months, report having had an examination to detect oral and pharyngeal cancers (Objective 21-7).

  • Reduce the proportion of adults who engage in no leisure-time physical activity (Objective 22-1).

SOURCE: US DHHS and Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2000 (

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