Alliance, The, 422–423

Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, 79–80

American Academy of Family Physicians, 215

American Association for Cancer Education, 302f, 306

American Association of Health Plans, 329– 330

American Association of Medical Colleges, 301–303, 302f, 304–305

American Cancer Society, 13, 183, 306, 421

Cancer Prevention Studies, 43f, 45–46, 50, 52–53, 54

cancer reduction goals, 33, 34–35t

clinician training programs, 328–329

research programs, 392, 399

screening guidelines, 228, 274–275

American College of Physicians, 215

American College of Radiology, 286–287, 288

American Gastroenterological Association, 183

American Legacy Foundation, 330, 394– 395

American Lung Association, 97, 317

American Society of Preventive Oncology, 302–303f

American Urological Association, 215

Anti-Lung Cancer Action, 277, 283

Association of American Medical Colleges, 426

Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine, 302f, 303, 305

B

Barium enema, 179

Behavioral interventions

conceptual models of change processes, 89–92

effectiveness, 2, 87, 153–155, 407

health care system implementation, 148– 153

to improve eating habits, 138–145

to improve physical activity, 111, 113– 120

to improve screening participation, 244– 250

incentive programs, 132

latency of effects, 39

predictive modeling, 32–33, 37, 38

public education campaigns, 11–12, 432

risk factor counseling, 345t

service delivery strategies, 87–89

smoking cessation programs, 93–101

target behaviors, 2n, 17, 401

weight-loss programs, 127–129

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 57

Benzene, 52

Beta-carotene, 69, 79–80

Bladder cancer, 44, 47–48, 54

fruit and vegetable consumption and, 68–69

Body mass index, 65–66

Breast biopsy, 197

Breast cancer

alcohol consumption and, 84

carotenoid consumption and, 79

clinician education for early detection, 324–325

dietary fat intake and, 77

epidemiology, 25, 26

fruit and vegetable consumption and, 69

incidence, 19

obesity and, 62, 402

physical activity and, 58, 60, 402

potential effectiveness of preventive intervention, 1, 36, 37

quality of preventive services, 9

risk factors, 25–26

screening, 6, 7, 37, 158, 351–352, 403, 424

breast self-examination, 195–196

clinical breast examination, 186–187

cost-effectiveness, 198–199

DCIS detection, 186

effectiveness of early detection, 188– 194

genetic, 195, 197–198

insurance coverage, 6, 421

mammography, 403

Medicare coverage, 355

modalities, 186–187

for older women, 194

potential harms, 196–198

practice guidelines, 203–204f, 223

public awareness and understanding, 240–241, 242–243, 245, 246

strategies for improving, 244–250

subjective value judgments in, 199– 203

utilization, 225–226, 238–239

selenium intake and, 80



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