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mathematics, that includes a 6-hour capstone course connecting their college mathematics courses with high school mathematics.” (P. 7)

  • “Courses on fundamental ideas of school mathematics should focus on a thorough development of basic mathematical ideas. All courses designed for prospective teachers should develop careful reasoning and mathematical “common sense” in analyzing conceptual relationships and in solving problems.” (p. 8)

  • “Along with building mathematical knowledge, mathematics courses for prospective teachers should develop the habits of mind of a mathematical thinker and demonstrate flexible, interactive styles of teaching.” (p. 8)

  • “Teacher education must be recognized as an important part of mathematics departments' mission at institutions that educate teachers. More mathematicians should consider becoming deeply involved in K– 12 mathematics education.” (p. 8)

  • “The mathematical education of teachers should be seen as a partnership between mathematics faculty and mathematics education faculty.” (p. 9)

  • “There needs to be greater cooperation between two-year and four-year colleges in the mathematical education of teachers.” (p. 9)

  • “There need to be more collaborations between mathematics faculty and school mathematics teachers.” (p. 10)

  • “Efforts to improve standards for school mathematics instruction as well as for teacher preparation, accreditation, and teacher certification, will be strengthened by the full-fledged participation of the academic mathematics community.” (p. 10)

  • “Teachers need the opportunity to develop their understanding of mathematics and its teaching throughout their careers, through both self-directed and collegial study, and through formal coursework.” (p. 10)

  • “Mathematics in middle grades (grades 5–8) should be taught by mathematics specialists.” (p. 11)

ACTIONS EDUCATORS MIGHT CONSIDER

After a period of collaborative planning and preparation—following the steps proposed in Before It's Too Late (pp. 38–1) and the detailed recommendations in Educating Teachers (pp. 109–130) —teachers, teacher educators, administrators, and policymakers concerned with how teachers learn the content knowledge and skills to teach might do the following:

  • Establish partnerships between K–12 communities and higher education institutions to share the responsibility for preparing and



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