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  • “Teachers must help students be confident, engaged mathematics learners.” (p. 374)

  • “Teacher-leaders support on a day-to-day basis can be crucial to a teacher's work life.” (p. 375)

  • “Administrators and policymakers must carefully consider the impact of high-stakes assessments on the instructional climate in schools.” (p. 377)

  • “Families become advocates for education standards when they understand the importance of a high-quality mathematics education for their children.” (p. 378)

  • “Conceptual understanding is an important component of proficiency.” (p. 20)

Putting this vision into action requires thoughtful and ongoing consideration of the following questions:

  • “How can all students have access to high-quality mathematics education?” (p. 368)

  • “Are good instructional materials chosen, used, and accepted?” (p. 369)

  • “How can teachers learn what they need to know?” (p. 370)

  • “Do all students have time and the opportunity to learn?” (p. 371)

  • “Are assessments aligned with instructional goals?” (p. 372)

  • “Is technology supporting learning?” (p. 372)


As a resource for high-quality mathematics programs, Principles and Standards can be used to guide analysis and decision making about current programs and evolving program components. To consider what mathematics all students should know and at what grade bands it should be taught, educators and policymakers might do the following:

  • Compare their curricular guidelines and frameworks with the standards and expectations delineated in Principles and Standards and examine the differences.

  • Compare the content and format of classroom, district, and state assessments in current use with the vision of curriculum described in these documents and consider the implications of mismatches.

  • Disaggregate enrollment and achievement data to analyze patterns of equity of opportunity and equity of outcome and develop plans and programs that respond to any differences that are found.

  • Develop and implement professional development opportunities to ensure that all teachers of mathematics have the mathematical and pedagogical knowledge and skill needed to implement a curriculum that will meet the needs of their students.

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