Biographical Memoirs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES



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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 80 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 80 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS The National Academy Press publishes the reports issued by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council, all operating under a charter granted by the Congress of the United States.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 80 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 80 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 80 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-08281-1 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077–2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5–26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 COPYRIGHT 2001 BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 80 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     DANIEL I.ARNON BY BOB B.BUCHANAN   3     LIPMAN BERS BY IRWIN KRA AND HYMAN BASS   23     GEORGE DAVID BIRKHOFF BY OSWALD VEBLEN   45     KARL WOLFGANG DEUTSCH BY RICHARD L.MERRITT, BRUCE M.RUSSETT, AND ROBERT A.DAHL   59     ZVI GRILICHES BY MARC NERLOVE   81     JOHN C.HARSANYI BY KENNETH J.ARROW   109     MICHAEL HEIDELBERGER BY HERMAN N.EISEN   123     ALFRED DAY HERSHEY BY FRANKLIN W.STAHL   143

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 80     KARL FERDINAND HERZFELD BY JOSEPH F.MULLIGAN   161     WILLIAM SUMMER JOHNSON BY GILBERT STORK   185     RICHARD STOCKTON MACNEISH BY KENT V.FLANNERY AND JOYCE MARCUS   201     EDWARD JAMES MCSHANE BY LEONARD D.BIRKOVITZ AND WENDELL H.FLEMING   227     ROBERT LEE METCALF BY MAY R.BERENBAUM AND RICHARD LAMPMAN   241     DAVID RITTENBERG BY DAVID SHEMIN AND RONALD BENTLEY   257     RUTH SAGER BY ARTHUR B.PARDEE   277     RAY FRED SMITH BY PERRY ADKISSON, WILLIAM ALLEN, JOHN CASIDA, AND EDWARD SYLVESTER   291     FRANK HAROLD SPEDDING BY JOHN D.CORBETT   301     SAM BARD TREIMAN BY STEPHEN L.ADLER   329     ROBERT RATHBUN WILSON BY BOYCE D.MCDANIEL AND ALBERT SILVERMAN   349     ROBERT BURNS WOODWARD BY ELKAN BLOUT   367

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 80 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy’s goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject’s work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation’s contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. R.STEPHEN BERRY Home Secretary

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 80 This page in the original is blank.