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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science REVIEW OF EARTHSCOPE INTEGRATED SCIENCE Committee on the Review of EarthScope Science Objectives and Implementation Planning Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Contract No. EAR-0126428. The opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. International Standard Book Number (ISBN) 0-309-07644-7 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800–624–6242 202–334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Cover: Both images (SRTM image of fault-bounded Antelope Valley, CA, with Landsat overlay; and fully-lit composite hemisphere image showing North America) are non-copyrighted, courtesy of National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF EARTHSCOPE SCIENCE OBJECTIVES AND IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING GEORGE M.HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ARTHUR R.GREEN, ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas SUSAN E.HUMPHRIS, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts JAMES A.JACKSON, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom ELDRIDGE M.MOORES, University of California, Davis BARRY E.PARSONS, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom ROBIN P.RIDDIHOUGH, Natural Resources Canada (emeritus), Ottawa, Canada KARL K.TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut National Research Council Staff DAVID A.FEARY, Study Director (until 9/2001) JENNIFER T.ESTEP, Administrative Associate SHANNON L.RUDDY, Project Assistant
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES RAYMOND JEANLOZ, Chair, University of California, Berkeley JOHN J.AMORUSO, Amoruso Petroleum Company, Houston, Texas PAUL B.BARTON, JR., U.S. Geological Survey (emeritus), Reston, Virginia DAVID L.DILCHER, University of Florida, Gainesville BARBARA L.DUTROW, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge ADAM M.DZIEWONSKI, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts WILLIAM L.GRAF, Arizona State University, Tempe GEORGE M.HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville SUSAN W.KIEFFER, S.W.Kieffer Science Consulting, Inc., Bolton, Ontario, Canada DIANNE R.NIELSON, Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City JONATHAN G.PRICE, Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology, Reno BILLIE L.TURNER II, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts National Research Council Staff ANTHONY R.DE SOUZA, Director TAMARA L.DICKINSON, Senior Program Officer DAVID A.FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M.LINN, Senior Program Officer PAUL CUTLER, Program Officer LISA M.VANDEMARK, Program Officer KRISTEN L.KRAPF, Research Associate KERI H.MOORE, Research Associate MONICA LIPSCOMB, Research Assistant JENNIFER T.ESTEP, Administrative Associate VERNA J.BOWEN, Administrative Assistant YVONNE FORSBERGH, Senior Project Assistant KAREN IMHOF, Senior Project Assistant SHANNON L.RUDDY, Project Assistant TERESIA K.WILMORE, Project Assistant WINFIELD SWANSON, Editor
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science This page in the original is blank.
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science Preface The Committee on the Review of EarthScope Science Objectives and Implementation Planning had the task of reviewing aspects of a very complex project plan in a very short time. Furthermore, because the members of the committee were selected to avoid any perceived conflict arising from direct scientific association with EarthScope, many members had to learn the details of EarthScope starting from a base of relatively general knowledge about the initiative. Nevertheless, the committee did collectively incorporate detailed knowledge concerning the technical aspects of the various components of the EarthScope initiative, and also had experience with large and expensive NSF projects and broad overview perspectives on earth science research. The advantages attending appointment of a committee with such a broad earth science perspective far outweighed any perceived disadvantage from the absence of EarthScope “insiders” as members, who could possibly reveal some problem areas in the details of the planning that might be missed by “outsiders.” The committee’s specific task was to review the scientific objectives and implementation planning of three components of the EarthScope initiative (see Box ES1 for complete statement of task), rather than to conduct a detailed technical review of the initiative. The committee approached its evaluation with a critical and skeptical view. Members came to the committee meeting in August 2001 after having read a wealth of material on the proposed initiative, and initially were concerned that the plans had seemed to evolve in a way that may not have been optimal for advancing earth science. The committee members certainly were prepared to highlight any fundamental weaknesses that were identified. Conversely, the committee did not think it would be useful to identify minor shortcomings or implementation details that may not have been documented or presented in the material put before the committee—it was clear that the more detailed aspects of the science and implementation plans were continuing to evolve. The committee deter-
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science mined that its most constructive role would be to offer overall “high-level” comments and advice. The report contains five chapters. Chapter 1, the introduction, sets the context for the proposed EarthScope initiative and briefly describes the basic components of the project. Chapters 2 to 4 cover the major topics the committee was asked to address: Chapter 2 discusses the components of EarthScope in relation to the science questions to be addressed; Chapter 3 discusses the two implementation and management components—EarthScope as a scientific facility and EarthScope as a scientific endeavor; and Chapter 4 discusses the broad range of appropriate partnerships that will be engaged in the EarthScope initiative. The final chapter (Chapter 5) presents summary observations and the committee’s recommendations. The committee would like to acknowledge the many members of the earth science community who, at short notice, briefed the committee or provided other input. As chair of the committee, I thank the members of the committee for their hard work in a short time and for their good-natured interactions that allowed the report to be completed expeditiously. Finally, I thank David Feary, Jennifer Estep, and Shannon Ruddy for sharing ideas and for all the logistical support. George M.Hornberger Chair
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William R.Dickinson, Department of Geosciences (emeritus), University of Arizona, Tucson Brian L.N.Kennett, Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra Alan Levander, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Rice University, Houston, Texas Bruce D.Marsh, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Raymond A.Price, Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering (emeritus), Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada Donald L.Turcotte, Department of Geological Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Marcia K.McNutt, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute.
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science Appointed by the National Research Council, the coordinator was responsible for ensuring that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1. INTRODUCTION 9 2. SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE AND SCIENCE QUESTIONS 21 Overview, 21 The EarthScope Initiative, 22 EarthScope Components: Unites States Seismic Array (USArray), 23 EarthScope Components: San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), 25 EarthScope Components: Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), 27 EarthScope Components: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), 28 Education and Outreach, 30 Summary Comments, 31 3. IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT 33 4. APPROPRIATE PARTNERSHIPS 37 5. SUMMARY OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 41 Scientific Rationale and Science Questions, 41 Implementation and Management, 43
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Review of Earthscope Integrated Science Education, Outreach, and Communication, 45 Appropriate Partnerships, 47 Summary, 49 APPENDIXES A Meeting Participants and Presentations 53 B Committee Biographies 57 C Acronyms 61