Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine

Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine

Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Ocean Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Grant No. 01-0008 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-08311-7 Cover: design by Van Nguyen; salmon illustration by Walter H.Rich from Fishes of New England: The Salmons, plate 4 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800–624–6242 202–334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm. A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine This page in the original is blank.

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine COMMITTEE ON ATLANTIC SALMON IN MAINE Members MICHAEL T.CLEGG (Chair), University of California, Riverside, California PAUL K.BARTEN, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts IAN A.FLEMING, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon MART R.GROSS, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario LEWIS S.INCZE, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, W.Boothbay Harbor, Maine ANNE R.KAPUSCINSKI, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota PATRICK O’BRIEN, Chevron Research and Technology Company, Richmond, California BARBARA NEIS, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland NILS RYMAN, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden PETER E.SMOUSE, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey JENNIFER L.SPECKER, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island ROBERT R.STICKNEY, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas JON G.SUTINEN, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island National Research Council Staff DAVID POLICANSKY, Project Director SUSAN ROBERTS, Senior Program Officer RUTH E.CROSSGROVE, Editor JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Research Assistant MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Assistant LEAH L.PROBST, Senior Project Assistant KELLY CLARK, Senior Editorial Assistant JESSICA BROCK, Project Assistant Sponsor NATIONAL FISH AND WILDLIFE FOUNDATION

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members GORDON ORIANS (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington JOHN DOULL (Vice Chair), University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas DAVID ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin, Texas INGRID C.BURKE, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland WILLIAM L.CHAMEIDES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia CHRISTOPHER B.FIELD, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California J.PAUL GILMAN, Celera Genomics, Rockville, Maryland DANIEL S.GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts BRUCE D.HAMMOCK, University of California, Davis, California ROGENE HENDERSON, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico CAROL HENRY, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan JAMES H.JOHNSON, Howard University, Washington, D.C. JAMES F.KITCHELL, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin DANIEL KREWSKI, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario JAMES A.MACMAHON, Utah State University, Logan, Utah WILLEM F.PASSCHIER, Health Council of the Netherlands, The Hague ANN POWERS, Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York LOUISE M.RYAN, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts KIRK SMITH, University of California, Berkeley, California LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, New York Senior Staff JAMES J.REISA, Director DAVID J.POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology RAYMOND A.WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for Committee on Toxicology ROBERTA M.WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis K.JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer RUTH E.CROSSGROVE, Managing Editor

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine OCEAN STUDIES BOARD Members KENNETH BRINK (Chair), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana CORT COOPER, Chevron Petroleum Technology, San Ramon, California LARRY CROWDER, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina G.BRENT DALRYMPLE, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (ret.), Sugar Land, Texas ROBERT DUCE, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas D.JAY GRIMES, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs, Mississippi RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington MIRIAM KASTNER, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California CINDY LEE, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii BONNIE MCCAY, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey RAM MOHAN, Blasland, Bouck & Lee, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island NANCY RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin, Louisiana WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida JON SUTINEN, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island NANCY TARGETT, University of Delaware, Lewes, Delaware PAUL TOBIN, Xtria, Chantilly, Virginia Senior Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director SUSAN ROBERTS, Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer JOANNE C.BINTZ, Program Officer JENNIFER MERRILL, Program Officer TERRY L.SCHAEFER, Program Officer JOHN DANDELSKI, Research Associate ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Officer SHIREL SMITH, Office Manager JODI BACHIM, Senior Project Assistant NANCY CAPUTO, Senior Project Assistant DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant DARLA KOENIG, Senior Project Assistant JULIE PULLEY, Project Assistant

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Acknowledgment of Review Participants This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Edward Baum, Atlantic Salmon Unlimited Roger Doyle, Genetic Computation Ltd. William Hershberger, National Center for Cool and Cold Water AquacultureJames Kitchell, University of Wisconsin Irving Kornfield, University of Maine Martha Mather, University of Massachusetts-Amherst Nancy Targett, University of Delaware Fred Utter, University of Washington David Wake, University of California, Berkeley

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Dowling, Harvard University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Contents     Summary   1 1   Introduction   6 2   Biology and Evolution of Atlantic Salmon   10 3   Current State of Atlantic Salmon in Maine   15 4   Genetics of Wild Maine Salmon Populations   22 5   Quality of the Data   37 6   Conclusions   46     References   49 Appendix A.   Statement of Task   59 Appendix B.   Meetings and Presenters   60

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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine

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