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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine References Allendorf, F.W., and N.Ryman. 1987. Genetic management of hatchery stocks. Pp. 141–159 in Population Genetics and Fishery Management, N.Ryman, and F. Utter, eds. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Allendorf, F.W., and R.S.Waples. 1996. Conservation genetics of salmonid fishes. Pp. 238–280 in Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature, J.C.Avise, and J.L.Hamrick, eds. New York: Chapman & Hall. Bailey, R.G. 1995. Descriptions of the Ecoregions of the United States, 2nd Rev. Ed. Misc. Pub. No. 1391. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service. Baum, E.T. 1995. Maine Atlantic Salmon Restoration and Management Plan, 1995– 2000. Bangor, ME: Atlantic Sea Run Salmon Commission. Baum, E.T. 1997. Maine Atlantic Salmon: A National Treasure, 1st Ed. Harmon, ME: Atlantic Salmon Unlimited. Baum, E.T. 1998. History and Description of the Atlantic Salmon Aquaculture Industry of Maine. Division of Fisheries and Oceans. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document (DFO) 98/152. Ottawa, Ontario. Beland, K.F. 1984. Strategic Plan for Management of Atlantic Salmon in the State of Maine. Bangor, ME: Atlantic Sea Run Salmon Commission. Beland, K.F., P.Gaston, T.King, J.Kocik, and I.Kornfield. 1997. Management and Spawning Protocols for Atlantic Salmon Broodstocks at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery. Report to Maine Atlantic Salmon Technical Advisory Committee. Atlantic Salmon Commission, Bangor, Maine. Bermingham, E., F.H.Forbes, K.Friedland, and C.Pla. 1991. Discrimination between Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of North American and European origin using restriction analyses of mitochondrial DNA. Can. J.Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48(5): 884–893.
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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Biological Review Team for Anadromous Atlantic Salmon. 1999. Review of the Status of Anadromous Atlantic Salmon (Salmo solar) Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. [Online]. Available: http://news.fws.gov/salmon/asalmon.html [Nov. 12, 2001]. Bley, P.W., and J.R.Moring. 1988. Freshwater and Ocean Survival of Atlantic Salmon and Steelhead: A Synopsis. Biological Report 88(9). Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office. 1997. Salmon Aquaculture Review: Summary+Vols. 1–5. Victoria: British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office. Brown, B.L., J.M.Epifanio, P.E.Smouse, and C.J.Kobak. 1996. Temporal stability of mtDNA haplotype frequencies in American shad populations: to pool or not to pool across years? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53(10):2274–2283. Buckley, D.B. 1999. Summary of Maine Atlantic Salmon Collections for Broodstock and Genetic Analyses 1990–1998. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, East Orland, ME. Carr, J.W., J.M.Anderson, F.G.Whoriskey, and T.Dilworth. 1997. The occurrence and spawning of cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) in a Canadian river. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 54(6): 1064–1073. Chakraborty, R., P.E.Smouse, and J.V.Neel. 1988. Population amalgamation and genetic variation: Observations on artificially agglomerated tribal populations of Central and South America. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 43(5):709–725. Copeland, T.A., T.K.King, and D.Bean. 1998. Atlantic Salmon Spawning Activities at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery 1990–1997. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, East Orland, ME. Cutler, M.G., S.E.Bartlett, S.E..Hartley, and W.S.Davidson. 1991. A polymorphism in the ribosomal RNA genes distinguishes Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) from North America and Europe. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 48(9): 1655–1661. Davidson, W.S., T.P.Birt, and J.M.Green. 1989. A review of genetic variation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo solar L., and its importance for population identification, enhancement programs and aquaculture. J. Fish Biol. 34(4):547–560. DOI and DOC (U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Department of Commerce). 2000. Endangered and threatened Species; Final endangered status for a distinct population segment of anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) in the Gulf of Maine. Final rule. Fed. Regist. 65(223):69459–69483. (November 17, 2000). Excoffier, L., P.E.Smouse, and J.M.Quattro. 1992. Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: Application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131(2):479–491. Fleming, I.A., and S.Einum. 1997. Experimental tests of genetic divergence of farmed from wild salmon due to domestication. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 54(6): 1051– 1063.
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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Fleming, I.A., and M.R.Gross. 1993. Breeding success of hatchery and wild coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in competition. Ecol. Appl. 3(2):230–245. Fleming, I.A., and E.Petersson. 2001. The ability of released, hatchery salmonids to breed and contribute to the natural productivity of wild populations. Nord. J. Freshwater. Res. 75:71–98. Fleming, I.A., K.Hindar, I.B. Mjø1nerød, B.Jonsson, T.Balstad, and A.Lamberg. 2000. Lifetime success and interactions of farm salmon invading a native population. Proc. R. Soc. Lond Biol. Sci. 267(1452):1517–1523. Fleming, I.A., B.Jonsson, M.R.Gross, and A.Lamberg. 1996. An experimental study of the reproductive behavior and success of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar). J. Appl. Ecol. 33(4):893–905. Fleming, I.A., A.Lamberg, and B.Jonsson. 1997. Effects of early experience on the reproductive performance of Atlantic salmon. Behav. Ecol. 8(5):470–480. Friedland, K.D. 1994. History of salmon fisheries and management in the North Atlantic. Pp. 6–22 in Ninth ICES Dialogue Meeting, “Atlantic Salmon: A Dialogue” ICES Cooperative Research Report 197. International Coucil for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, Denmark. March 1994. Garcia-Vazquez, E., P.Moran, J.L.Martinez, J.Perez, B.de Gaudemar, and E.Beall. 2001. Alternative mating strategies in Atlantic salmon and brown trout. J.Hered. 92(2): 146–149. Gharrett, A.J., and W.W.Smoker. 1993. A perspective on the adaptive importance of genetic infrastructure in salmon populations to ocean ranching in Alaska. Fish. Res. 18(l/2):45–58. Gjedrem, T., H.M.Gjøen, and B.Gjerde. 1991. Genetic origin of Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 98(1–3):41–50. Gold, J.R. 2000. A Review/Critique of: Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Atlantic Salmon with Emphasis on Small Coastal Drainages of the Downcast and Midcoast Regions of Maine. A Report to Region 5, U.S.F.W.S., Hadley, MA, March 1999, by T.L.King, W.B.Schill, A.B.Lubinski, M.C. Smith, M.S.Eackles, and R.Coleman. Prepared by Center for Biosystematics and Biodiversity, Texas A & M University, Texas. Gross, M.R. 1998. One species with two biologies: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the wild and in aquaculture. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55(Suppl.l): 131–144. Gross, M. 2002. Net risk: assessing potential impact of fish farming on BC’s wild salmon. Pp. 107–117 in Ghost Runs: The Future of Wild Salmon on the North and Central Coasts of British Columbia, B.Harvey, M.MacDuffee, and S. Thomson, eds. Victoria, BC: Raincoast Conservation Society. Guffey, S. 2000. Persistence of native brook trout in Great Smoky Mountains National Park after 35 years of stocking with northern hatchery-derived strains. Pp. 109–117 in Wild Trout VII: Management in the New Millennium: Are We Ready? Symposium held at Old Faithful Inn, Yellowstone National Park, October 1–4, 2000, D.Schill, S.Moore, P.Byorth, and R.H.Hamre, eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service.
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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Hansen, L.P., T.Hastein, G.Nævdal, R.L.Saunders, and J.E.Thorpe. 1991. Interactions between cultured and wild Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 98(1/3):1–324. Hansen, M.M., E.E.Nielsen, and K.L.D.Mensberg. 1997. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L. Mol. Ecol. 6(5):469–474. Hedrick, P.W. 2001. Conservation genetics: Where are we now? Trends Ecol. Evol. 16(11):629–636. Heggberget, T.G., R.A.Lund, N.Ryman, and G.Ståhl. 1986. Growth and genetic variation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) from different sections of the River Alta, North Norway. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43(10):1828–1835. Hindar, K., N.Ryman, and F.Utter. 1991. Genetic effects of cultured fish on natural fish populations. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48(5):945–957. Hovey, S.J., D.P.F.King, D.Thompson, and A.Scott. 1989. Mitochondrial DNA and allozyme analysis of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in England and Wales. J. Fish Biol. 35(Suppl. A):253–260. Hutchings, J., and M.Jones. 1998. Life history variation and growth rate thresholds for maturity and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55(Suppl. l):22–47. Johnsson, J.I., J.Höjesjö, and I.A.Fleming. 2001. Behavioural and heart rate responses to predation risk in wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(4):788–794. Jorde, P.E., and N.Ryman. 1995. Temporal allele frequency change and estimation of effective size in populations with overlapping generations. Genetics 139(2):1077- 1090. Kendall, W. 1935. The Fishes of New England: The Salmon Family, Part 2. The Salmon. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History: Monographs on the Natural History of New England, Vol. 9(1). Boston, MA: Boston Society of Natural History. Kincaid, H., L.Mengel, and J.Johnson. 1994. Meristic and Morphometric Evaluation of parr from Atlantic Salmon Stocks Collected from the Downcast Rivers of Maine in 1992–1993. Preliminary Report submitted to the Federal Atlantic Salmon Technical Working Group. National Biological Survey, Research and Development Laboratory, Wellsboro, PA. King, D.P.F., S.J.Hovey, D.Thompson, and A.Scott. 1993. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., populations. J. Fish Biol. 42(1):25– 33. King, T.L., S.T.Kalinowski, W.B.Schill, A.P.Spidle, and B.A.Lubinski. 2001. Population structure of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): A range-wide perspective from microsatellite DNA variation. Mol. Ecol. 10(4):807–821. King, T.L., W.B.Schill, B.A.Lubinski, M.C.Smith, M.S.Eackles, and R.Coleman. 1999. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Atlantic Salmon with Emphasis on Small Coastal Drainages of the Downeast and Midcoast Regions of Maine. A Report to Region 5, USFWS, Hadley, MA, by USGS-BRD-Leetown
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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Meyers, T. 1994. The program to restore Atlantic salmon in the Connnecticut River. Pp. 11–21 in A Hard Look at Some Tough Issues: Proceedings of the New England Atlantic Salmon Management Conference, S.Calibi and A.Stout, eds. Newburyport, MA: New England Salmon Association. NRC (National Research Council). 1992. DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1995. Science and the Endangered Species Act. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Nielsen, E.E., M.M.Hansen, and V.Loeschcke. 1997. Analysis of microsatellite DNA from old scale samples of Atlantic salmon Salmo solar. A comparison of genetic composition over 60 years. Mol. Ecol. 6(5):487–492. Nielsen, J.L. 1998. Population genetics and the conservation and management of Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55(Suppl. 1):145–152. Nilsson, J., R.Gross, T.Asplund, O.Dove, H.Jansson, J.Kelloniemi, K.Kohlmann, A.L’ytynoja, E.E.Nielsen, T.Paaver, C.R.Primmer, S.Titov, A.Vasemagi, A. Veselov, T.Ost, and J.Lumme. 2001. Matrilineal phylogeography of Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar L.) in Europe and postglacial colonization of the Baltic Sea area. Mol. Ecol. 10(1):89–102. O’Connell, M., D.O.F.Skibinski, and J.A.Beardmore. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA and allozyme variation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) populations in Wales. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52(1): 171–178. Paetkau, D., L.P.Waits, P.L.Clarkson, L.Craighead, and C.Strobeck. 1997. An empirical evaluation of genetic distance statistics using microsatellite data from bear (Ursidae) populations. Genetics 147(4):1943–1957. Palva, T.K., H.Lehvaslaiho, and E.T.Palva. 1989. Identification of anadromous and non-anadromous salmon stock in Finland by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Aquaculture 81(3/4):237–244. Pálsson, S., and E.Arnason. 1994. Sequence variation and cytochrome b genes of three salmonid species from Iceland. Aquaculture 128(1–2):29–39. Parsons, J.W. 1973. History of Salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850–1970. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Technical Papers No. 68. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Petersson, E., and T.Järvi. 1997. Reproductive behaviour of sea trout (Salmo trutta) - consequences of sea-ranching. Behaviour 134(1/2):1–22. Reddin, D.G., and K.D.Friedland. 1999. A history of identification of continent of origin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar L.) at west Greenland, 1969–1997. Fish. Res.43(1–3):221–235. Reddin, D.G., W.M.Shearer, and R.F.Burfitt. 1984. Inter-continental migrations of Atlantic salmon. ICES. C.M. 1984/M:11. Rice, W.R. 1989. Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43(l):223–225.
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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine Ricker, W.E. 1972. Hereditary and environmental factors affecting certain salmonid populations. Pp. 19–160 in The Stock Concept in Pacific Salmon, R.C.Simon and P.A.Larkin, eds. Vancouver: University of British Columbia. Ryman, N. 1983. Patterns of distribution of biochemical genetic variation in salmonids: differences between species. Aquaculture 33(1/4):1–21. Ryman, N. 1997. Minimizing adverse effects of fish culture: Understanding the genetics of populations with overlapping generations. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 54(6):1149–1159. Saunders, R.L. 1981. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks and management implications in the Canadian Atlantic provinces and New England, USA. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 38(12):1612–1625. Schill, W.B., and R.L.Walker. 1994. Genetic Evaluation of Atlantic Salmon Populations of the “Downcast” Rivers of Maine: RAPD Markers. National Fish Health Research Laboratory, Kearneysville, WV. Scott, W.B., and E.J.Crossman. 1973. Atlantic salmon. Pp. 192–197 in Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Bulletin 184. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Scientific Information and Publication Branch, Ottawa. Skaala, Ø., K.E.Jørstad, and A.Ferno. 1993. A method of observing the spawning behavior of farmed and wild salmonids in a natural stream habitat. ICES C.M. 1993/M:21. Smoker, W.W., A.J.Gharrett, and M.S.Stekoll. 1998. Genetic variation of return date in a population of pink salmon: Consequence of fluctuating environment and dispersive selection? Alaska Fish. Res. Bull. 5(l):46–54. Smouse, P.E., and C.Chevillon. 1998. Analytical aspects of population-specific DNA-fingerprinting for individuals. J. Hered. 89(2):143–150. Smouse, P.E., and R.C.Williams. 1982. Multivariate analysis of HLA disease associations. Biometrics 38(3):757–768. Smouse, P.E., R.S.Spielman, and M.H.Park. 1982. Multiple-locus allocation of individuals to groups as a function of the genetic variation within and differences among human populations. Am. Nat. 119(4):445–463. Spielman, R.S., and P.E.Smouse. 1976. Multivariate classification of human populations. I. Allocation of Yanomama indians to villages. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 28(4):317–331. Spidle, A.P., W.B.Schill, B.A.Lubinski, and T.L.King. 2001. Fine-scale population structure in Atlantic salmon from Maine’s Penobscot River drainage. Conserv. Genet. 2(1):11–24. Ståhl, G. 1987. Genetic population structure of Atlantic salmon. Pp. 121–140 in Population Genetics & Fishery Management, N.Ryman and F.Utter, eds. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Stolte, L. 1981. The Forgotten Salmon of the Merrimack. Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, Northeast Region. Stolte, L.W. 1994. Atlantic salmon restoration in the Merrimack River Basin. Pp. 22– 35 in A Hard Look at Some Tough Issues: Proceedings of the New England
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Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine North Atlantic Salmon, Part One, Aberdeen, Scotland, April 2–11, 2001. ICES CM 2001/ACFM: 15. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen. WWF (World Wild Foundation). 2001. The Status of Wild Atlantic Salmon: A River by River Assessment. [Online]. Available:www.panda.org/endangeredseas/salmon2.pdf [December 27, 2001]. Youngson, A.F., J.H.Webb, J.C.MacLean, and B.M.Whyte. 1997. Frequency of occurrence of reared Atlantic salmon in Scottish salmon fisheries. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 54(6):1216–1220.
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