Biological Review Team for Anadromous Atlantic Salmon. 1999. Review of the Status of Anadromous Atlantic Salmon (Salmo solar) Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. [Online]. Available: http://news.fws.gov/salmon/asalmon.html [Nov. 12, 2001].
Bley, P.W., and J.R.Moring. 1988. Freshwater and Ocean Survival of Atlantic Salmon and Steelhead: A Synopsis. Biological Report 88(9). Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office. 1997. Salmon Aquaculture Review: Summary+Vols. 1–5. Victoria: British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office.
Brown, B.L., J.M.Epifanio, P.E.Smouse, and C.J.Kobak. 1996. Temporal stability of mtDNA haplotype frequencies in American shad populations: to pool or not to pool across years? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53(10):2274–2283.
Buckley, D.B. 1999. Summary of Maine Atlantic Salmon Collections for Broodstock and Genetic Analyses 1990–1998. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, East Orland, ME.
Carr, J.W., J.M.Anderson, F.G.Whoriskey, and T.Dilworth. 1997. The occurrence and spawning of cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) in a Canadian river. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 54(6): 1064–1073.
Chakraborty, R., P.E.Smouse, and J.V.Neel. 1988. Population amalgamation and genetic variation: Observations on artificially agglomerated tribal populations of Central and South America. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 43(5):709–725.
Copeland, T.A., T.K.King, and D.Bean. 1998. Atlantic Salmon Spawning Activities at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery 1990–1997. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, East Orland, ME.
Cutler, M.G., S.E.Bartlett, S.E..Hartley, and W.S.Davidson. 1991. A polymorphism in the ribosomal RNA genes distinguishes Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) from North America and Europe. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 48(9): 1655–1661.
Davidson, W.S., T.P.Birt, and J.M.Green. 1989. A review of genetic variation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo solar L., and its importance for population identification, enhancement programs and aquaculture. J. Fish Biol. 34(4):547–560.
DOI and DOC (U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Department of Commerce). 2000. Endangered and threatened Species; Final endangered status for a distinct population segment of anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) in the Gulf of Maine. Final rule. Fed. Regist. 65(223):69459–69483. (November 17, 2000).
Excoffier, L., P.E.Smouse, and J.M.Quattro. 1992. Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: Application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131(2):479–491.
Fleming, I.A., and S.Einum. 1997. Experimental tests of genetic divergence of farmed from wild salmon due to domestication. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 54(6): 1051– 1063.