APPENDIX TABLES



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies APPENDIX TABLES

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Appendix Tables TABLE 1 Federal funding of R&D and Research (in constant 1999 dollars)   1999 Dollars: GDP Current Dollars:   R&D Research Deflator R&D Research 1980 61.880 21.717 0.5340 33.044 11.597   63.721 20.849 0.5858 37.327 12.213 1982 61.803 20.775 0.6268 38.738 13.022   61.192 21.783 0.6544 40.042 14.254 1984 67.808 22.077 0.6785 46.007 14.979   73.810 23.017 0.7009 51.734 16.133 1986 76.096 22.990 0.7178 54.621 16.502   79.515 24.326 0.7375 58.645 17.941 1988 80.132 24.486 0.7617 61.033 18.650   81.276 26.255 0.7909 64.284 20.766 1990 80.963 26.346 0.8207 66.446 21.622   80.628 28.110 0.8526 68.747 23.968 1992 82.222 27.991 0.8750 71.941 24.491   81.406 30.017 0.8959 72.928 26.891 1994 77.658 29.950 0.9152 71.074 27.411   75.876 30.409 0.9351 70.948 28.434 1996 74.659 29.631 0.9537 71.206 28.260   76.037 30.201 0.9723 73.934 29.366 1998 77.007 31.356 0.9862 75.942 30.922   80.171 33.528 1.0000 80.171 33.528 2000a 82.186 35.643 1.0193 83.769 36.330 SOURCES: For R&D: http://www.aaas.org/spp/dspp/rd/hist02p.pdf For research: Tables C-95, C-95a, C-98, C-98a in NSF, Federal Funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. Volume 49. For deflator, Table 10.1 in OMB, Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2002. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001. aPreliminary

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 2 Federal Funding of Research, by Selected Agencies, FY 1990–2000 (in billions of 1999 dollars)   1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000a All 26.3 28.1 28.0 30.0 30.0 30.4 29.6 30.2 31.4 33.5 35.6 All but NIH 18.6 20.2 19.5 20.4 20.0 20.4 19.3 19.4 19.9 20.7 21.2 NIH 7.7 8.0 8.5 9.6 9.9 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.4 12.9 14.4 DOD 4.3 4.4 4.7 5.3 4.6 4.5 4.2 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.4 DOE 3.1 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.1 SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. NOTE: Constant dollar conversions were made using the fiscal year GDP deflators in OMB, Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2002. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001, Table 10.1. They are: FY 1990=.8207, FY 1991=.8526, FY 1992=.8750, FY 1993=.8959, FY 1994=.9152, FY 1995=.9351, FY 1996=.9537, FY 1997=.9723, FY 1998=.9862, FY 1999=1.0000, FY 2000=1.0204. aPreliminary

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 3 Federal Obligations for Research in Selected Fields, FY 1990–1999 (in millions of 1999 dollars)   Change, FY90–99 Change, FY93–99   1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Amount Percent Amount Percent Biological sciences 5.1 5.2 5.1 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.6 5.5 5.8 6.5 1.4 28.3% 1.1 21.2% Medical sciences 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.9 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.7 6.1 6.8 2.7 65.0% 1.9 38.3% Electrical engineering 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 –0.1 –10.4% –0.3 –29.0% Computer science 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0.8 121.3% 0.6 64.4% SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. NOTE: Constant dollar conversions were made using the GDP deflators provided by OMB in January 2001: FY 1990=.8207, FY 1991=.8526, FY 1992=.8750, FY 1993=.8959, FY 1994=.9152, FY 1995=.9351, FY 1996=.9537, FY 1997=.9723, FY 1998=.9862, FY 1999=1.0000.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 4a Federal Obligations for Biological Sciences Research, by Agency, FY 1990–1999 (in millions of 1999 dollars)a   Change, FY90–99 Change, FY93–99     1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Amount Percent Amount Percent USDA 141.8 166.7 155.9 161.1 145.5 139.2 125.0 150.7 130.6 152.7 10.8 7.6% –8.4 –5.2 Commerce 0.0 12.0 26.3 18.6 24.7 40.5 61.0 25.6 36.0 37.5 37.5 NA 18.9 102.0 DOD 71.6 77.6 82.2 96.6 60.1 64.9 63.6 67.8 139.2 161.9 90.4 126.3% 65.4 67.7 DOE 194.3 178.0 186.3 201.7 184.8 212.7 196.3 167.3 191.8 188.8 –5.5 –2.8% –12.9 –6.4 DHHS 4,143.7 4,274.3 4,074.1 4,404.0 4,245.2 4,284.6 4,626.6 4,555.8 4,792.5 5,358.3 1,214.6 29.3% 954.3 21.7 NIH 3,730.7 3,749.7 3,931.6 4,252.9 4,076.6 4,121.5 4,460.2 4,392.7 4,647.6 5,227.5 1,496.8 40.1% 974.5 22.9 Interior 63.6 55.8 55.8 52.8 89.0 81.4 73.4 78.1 62.8 82.0 18.4 29.0% 29.2 55.4 EPA 89.9 109.7 119.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 52.2 –37.6 –41.9% 52.2 0.0 NASA 58.6 72.6 63.5 113.9 120.7 124.5 113.7 116.4 128.6 125.5 66.8 113.9% 11.5 10.1 NSF 226.5 217.4 249.7 239.3 252.9 258.3 244.3 247.2 285.9 302.2 75.7 33.4% 62.9 26.3 All Others 60.2 64.3 55.0 58.6 62.7 61.2 63.9 62.9 19.0 16.6 –43.5 –72.3% –42.0 –71.6 TOTAL 5,050.1 5,228.5 5,068.6 5,346.5 5,185.5 5,267.2 5,567.7 5,471.8 5,786.4 6,477.6 1,427.5 28.3% 1,131.2 21.2 All but NIH 1,319.4 1,478.8 1,137.0 1,093.5 1,108.9 1,145.7 1,107.5 1,079.1 1,138.8 1,250.2 –69.3 –5.3% 156.6 14.3 SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. NOTE: Constant dollar conversions were made using the GDP deflators provided by OMB in January 2001: FY 1990=.8207, FY 1991=.8526, FY 1992=.8750, FY 1993=.8959, FY 1994=.9152, FY 1995=.9351, FY 1996=.9537, FY 1997=.9723, FY 1998=.9862, FY 1999=1.0000. aBiological sciences includes anatomy, biochemistry, biology, biometry and biostatistics, biophysics, botany, cell biology, entomology and parasitology, genetics, microbiology, neuroscience (biological), nutrition, physiology, zoology, and other biological disciplines. It excludes environmental and agricultural disciplines.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 4b Federal Obligations for Biological Sciences Research, FY 1990–1999 (in millions of current dollars)a   1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 USDA 116.4 142.1 136.4 144.3 133.1 130.2 119.2 146.5 128.8 152.7 Commerce 0.0 10.3 23.0 16.6 22.6 37.9 58.2 24.9 35.5 37.5 DOD 58.7 66.2 71.9 86.5 55.0 60.7 60.7 65.9 137.3 161.9 DOE 159.4 151.7 163.0 180.7 169.2 198.9 187.2 162.7 189.1 188.8 DHHS 3,400.7 3,644.3 3,564.9 3,945.5 3,885.2 4,006.5 4,412.4 4,429.6 4,726.4 5,358.3 NIH 3,061.8 3,197.0 3,440.2 3,810.2 3,730.9 3,854.0 4,253.7 4,271.0 4,583.4 5,227.5 Interior 52.2 47.6 48.8 47.3 81.5 76.1 70.0 75.9 61.9 82.0 EPA 73.7 93.6 104.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 52.2 NASA 48.1 61.9 55.5 102.1 110.4 116.4 108.4 113.1 126.8 125.5 NSF 185.9 185.3 218.5 214.4 231.4 241.5 233.0 240.4 282.0 302.2 All Others 49.4 54.9 48.1 52.5 57.4 57.2 60.9 61.1 18.7 16.6 TOTAL 4,144.6 4,457.8 4,435.1 4,789.9 4,745.8 4,925.4 5,309.9 5,320.2 5,706.6 6,477.6 All but NIH 1,083 1,261 995 980 1,015 1,071 1,056 1,049 1,123 1,250 SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. aBiological sciences includes anatomy, biochemistry, biology, biometry and biostatistics, biophysics, botany, cell biology, entomology and parasitology, genetics, microbiology, neuroscience (biological), nutrition, physiology, zoology, and other biological disciplines. It excludes environmental and agricultural disciplines.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 5a Federal Obligations for Medical Sciences Research, by Agency, FY 1990–1999 (in millions of 1999 dollars)a   Change, FY90–99 Change, FY93–99     1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Amount Percent Amount Percent USDA 29.9 25.7 33.4 32.9 32.6 29.5 26.0 24.0 24.6 24.7 –5.2 –17.4% –8.2 –24.8% Commerce 1.7 3.0 1.9 4.8 5.2 20.6 17.6 22.2 11.5 8.2 6.5 NA 3.4 69.1% DOD 202.3 210.6 252.5 248.4 248.9 219.8 162.0 176.3 258.5 224.4 22.1 10.9% –24.0 –9.7% DOE 44.9 135.6 141.8 54.6 77.4 50.7 47.4 53.8 54.4 53.0 8.1 17.9% –1.6 –2.9% DHHS 3,494.9 3,366.0 3,658.8 4,104.9 4,530.5 4,656.0 4,617.2 5,077.3 5,358.5 6,091.4 2,596.5 74.3% 1,986.5 48.4% NIH 3,077.5 2,983.5 3,449.8 3,876.4 4,250.4 4,253.7 4,254.3 4,685.1 4,957.0 5,575.5 2,498.1 81.2% 1,699.1 43.8% Interior 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% EPA 23.0 13.2 15.3 19.1 20.1 22.5 20.9 22.1 25.4 0.3 –22.8 –98.9% –18.9 0.0% NASA 63.5 83.4 72.2 116.1 123.0 126.8 113.0 124.8 123.3 118.2 54.8 86.3% 2.1 1.8% NSF 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% All Others 261.1 221.1 292.5 335.4 275.0 191.3 210.7 190.0 224.0 281.0 19.9 7.6% –54.4 –16.2% TOTAL 4,121.3 4,058.5 4,468.5 4,916.2 5,312.6 5,317.3 5,214.8 5,690.4 6,080.2 6,801.2 2,679.9 65.0% 1,885.0 38.3% All but NIH 626.4 692.5 809.7 811.3 782.2 661.3 597.6 613.0 721.8 709.8 83.4 13.3% –101.5 –12.5% SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. NOTE: Constant dollar conversions were made using the GDP deflators provided by OMB in January 2001: FY 1990=.8207, FY 1991=.8526, FY 1992=.8750, FY 1993=.8959, FY 1994=.9152, FY 1995=.9351, FY 1996=.9537, FY 1997=.9723, FY 1998=.9862, FY 1999=1.0000. aMedical sciences includes dentistry, internal medicine, neurology, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, pathology, pediatrics, pharmacology, pharmacy, preventive medicine, psychiatry, radiology, surgery, veterinary medicine, and other medical disciplines.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 5b Federal Obligations for Medical Sciences Research, by Agency, FY 1990– 1999 (in current dollars)a   1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 USDA 24.5 21.9 29.2 29.4 29.8 27.6 24.8 23.3 24.3 24.7 Commerce 1.4 2.6 1.7 4.3 4.8 19.3 16.8 21.6 11.3 8.2 DOD 166.1 179.6 220.9 222.6 227.8 205.6 154.5 171.4 255.0 224.4 DOE 36.9 115.6 124.1 48.9 70.8 47.4 45.2 52.3 53.7 53.0 DHHS 2,868.3 2,869.9 3,201.5 3,677.5 4,146.3 4,353.8 4,403.4 4,936.7 5,284.5 6,091.4 NIH 2,525.7 2,543.7 3,018.6 3,472.9 3,890.0 3,977.6 4,057.4 4,555.4 4,888.6 5,575.5 Interior 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 EPA 18.9 11.3 13.4 17.1 18.4 21.1 20.0 21.5 25.0 0.3 NASA 52.1 71.1 63.2 104.0 112.6 118.6 107.8 121.3 121.6 118.2 NSF 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 All Others 214.3 188.5 256.0 300.5 251.7 178.8 200.9 184.7 220.9 281.0 TOTAL 3,382.4 3,460.3 3,909.9 4,404.4 4,862.1 4,972.2 4,973.4 5,532.7 5,996.3 6,801.2   514 590 708 727 716 618 570   SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. aMedical sciences includes dentistry, internal medicine, neurology, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, pathology, pediatrics, pharmacology, pharmacy, preventive medicine, psychiatry, radiology, surgery, veterinary medicine, and other medical disciplines.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 6a Federal Obligations for Computer Sciences Research, by Agency, FY 1990–1999 (in millions of 1999 dollars)   Change, FY90–99 Change, FY93–99     1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Amount Percent Amount Percent USDA 1.7 1.7 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 –1.7 –100.0 –2.6 –100.0% Commerce 6.1 15.8 22.3 26.0 34.9 89.6 60.4 61.8 58.4 58.6 52.6 NA 32.6 125.3% DOD 432.8 338.4 488.8 528.0 518.6 636.4 506.8 538.5 569.5 538.0 105.2 24.3 10.0 1.9% DOE 27.8 102.4 132.9 115.4 97.9 103.9 210.8 327.6 401.3 506.3 478.5 1721.7 390.9 338.7% DHHS 1.6 1.1 1.8 23.6 14.5 37.3 56.3 60.2 67.3 75.1 73.5 4646.0 51.5 217.8% NIH 0.2 0.0 1.8 20.1 0.9 25.9 46.0 52.0 55.0 61.9 61.7 27213.9 41.8 208.5% Interior 12.4 14.4 11.8 12.1 15.2 14.7 14.8 15.8 6.1 4.5 –7.9 64.0 –7.6 –63.2% EPA 5.2 5.3 6.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.4 1.3 25.0 6.4 0.0% NASA 55.1 59.9 50.1 26.6 28.2 29.1 27.6 28.4 25.6 25.2 –29.9 –54.3 –1.5 –5.6% NSF 132.9 124.6 140.8 141.8 159.0 132.7 265.6 248.4 270.6 297.1 164.1 123.5 155.3 109.5% All Others 9.5 22.6 24.1 46.0 35.9 37.9 29.8 20.0 19.5 4.9 –4.6 –47.9 –41.0 –89.2% TOTAL 684.9 686.1 882.0 922.1 907.1 1,084.2 1,174.2 1,300.7 1,418.3 1,516.1 831.1 121.3 594.0 64.4% SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. NOTE: Constant dollar conversions were made using the GDP deflators provided by OMB in January 2001: FY 1990=.8207, FY 1991=.8526, FY 1992=.8750, FY 1993=.8959, FY 1994=.9152, FY 1995=.9351, FY 1996=.9537, FY 1997=.9723, FY 1998=.9862, FY 1999=1.0000.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 6b Federal Obligations for Computer Sciences Research, by Agency, FY 1990–1999 (in current dollars)   1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 USDA 1.4 1.4 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.5 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 Commerce 5.0 13.5 19.5 23.3 32.0 83.8 57.6 60.1 57.6 58.6 DOD 355.2 288.6 427.7 473.0 474.6 595.1 483.3 523.5 561.7 538.0 DOE 22.8 87.3 116.3 103.4 89.6 97.2 201.0 318.6 395.8 506.3 DHHS 1.3 0.9 1.6 21.2 13.3 34.8 53.7 58.5 66.3 75.1 NIH 0.2 0.0 1.6 18.0 0.9 24.2 43.8 50.6 54.3 61.9 Interior 10.1 12.2 10.3 10.8 13.9 13.8 14.1 15.4 6.0 4.5 EPA 4.2 4.5 5.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.4 NASA 45.2 51.1 43.8 23.9 25.8 27.2 26.3 27.6 25.3 25.2 NSF 109.1 106.2 123.2 127.0 145.5 124.1 253.3 241.5 266.8 297.1 All Others 7.8 19.2 21.1 41.2 32.9 35.4 28.5 19.5 19.3 4.9 TOTAL 562.1 584.9 771.8 826.1 830.2 1,013.9 1,119.8 1,264.7 1,398.7 1,516.1   SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 10a National Investment in Life Sciences-related R&D, 1981–1998 (in millions of 1999 dollars)   Total Company-funded R&D in drugs and medicines Company-funded R&D in food, kindred, & tobacco products Federal obligations for research in life sciences DSS obligations for development 1981 15,004 3,467 1,068 7,452 700 1982 15,603 3,911 1,229 7,504 501 1983 16,690 4,405 1,253 7,876 479 1984 18,050 4,854 1,585 8,265 515 1985 19,227 4,949 1,615 9,046 574 1986 19,848 5,088 1,781 8,993 584 1987 21,498 5,530 1,626 9,914 731 1988 22,719 6,400 1,532 10,090 802 1989 24,295 6,935 1,565 10,688 907 1990 24,784 7,166 1,511 10,694 1,028 1991 27,393 8,118 1,492 11,243 1,705 1992 28,090 9,051 1,581 11,305 1,164 1993 30,027 10,173 1,498 12,000 1,267 1994 31,084 10,503 1,611 12,313 1,385 1995 32,162 10,896 1,673 12,615 1,454 1996 31,649 10,235 1,639 12,639 1,469 1997 34,491 11,906 1,836 13,011 1,596 1998 36,680 12,755 1,737 13,762 1,903 1981–1998 144.5% 267.9% 62.6% 84.7% 171.7% 1990–1998 48.0% 78.0% 14.9% 28.7% 85.1% 1994–1998 18.0% 21.4% 7.8% 11.8% 37.4% SOURCES: National Science Foundation/SRS, Research and Development in Industry: 1998 (NSF 01–305). See http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf01305/htmstart.htm. National Science Foundation/SRS, Federal Funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001, Vol. 49. National Science Foundation/SRS, Academic Research and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 1999 [Early Release Tables]. See http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/srs01407/start.htm.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies VA obligations for development USDA obligations for development AcademicR&D (not federally funded) in life sciences & bioengineering/biomedical engineering As % of GDP As % of Total R&D 29 55 2,232 0.285% 12.36% 22 49 2,387 0.303% 12.20% 23 46 2,607 0.310% 12.18% 26 45 2,758 0.313% 12.03% 26 45 2,971 0.321% 11.78% 22 45 3,336 0.320% 11.86% 26 39 3,633 0.336% 12.60% 25 40 3,830 0.341% 12.99% 26 45 4,128 0.352% 13.61% 27 57 4,301 0.353% 13.46% 27 71 4,737 0.392% 14.57% 26 75 4,888 0.390% 14.89% 32 85 4,973 0.406% 16.27% 27 84 5,160 0.404% 16.83% 20 87 5,418 0.407% 16.40% 22 84 5,562 0.387% 15.31% 23 102 6,017 0.404% 15.80% 8 109 6,407 0.411% 15.93% –71.6% 95.9% 187.0%   –69.5% 90.8% 49.0%   –70.2% 29.3% 24.2%  

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 10b National Investment in Life Sciences-related R&D, 1981–1998 (in current dollars)   Total Company-funded R&D in drugs and medicines Company-funded R&D in food, kindred, & tobacco products Federal obligations for research in life sciences DSS obligations for development* 1981 8,932 2,064 636 4,436 417 1982 9,866 2,473 777 4,745 317 1983 10,972 2,896 824 5,178 315 1984 12,308 3,310 1,081 5,636 351 1985 13,524 3,481 1,136 6,363 404 1986 14,267 3,657 1,280 6,464 420 1987 15,919 4,095 1,204 7,341 541 1988 17,394 4,900 1,173 7,725 614 1989 19,310 5,512 1,244 8,495 721 1990 20,464 5,917 1,248 8,830 849 1991 23,443 6,947 1,277 9,622 1,459 1992 24,624 7,934 1,386 9,910 1,020 1993 26,955 9,132 1,345 10,772 1,137 1994 28,485 9,625 1,476 11,284 1,269 1995 30,113 10,202 1,566 11,811 1,361 1996 30,209 9,769 1,564 12,064 1,402 1997 33,563 11,586 1,787 12,661 1,553 1998 36,137 12,566 1,711 13,558 1,875 1999   15,422 2,184 2000 (est.)   17,422 2,494 2001 (est.)   2,660 SOURCE: Company-funded R&D=NSF/SRS, Research and Development in Industry: 1998. NSF 01–305. Academic R&D (not federally funded) For 1992–1999: NSF/SRS, Academic Research and Development Expenditures, Fiscal 1999 [Early Release Tables], Table B-5. For 1985–1991=Calculated from Appendix Tables 6–6 and 6–7 in NSB, Science and Engineering Indicators 2000. For 1981–1985=WebCASPAR. Federal obligations for computer science research and electrical engineering research=NSF/SRS, Federal funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001, Tables C-107 and C-107a. DHHS, USD A, and VA obligations for development: NSF/SRS, Federal funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001, Tables C-101 and C-101a. *DHHS obligations for development exclude the social services agencies (Administration on Aging and Administration on Children and Families and the Social Security Administration when it was part of DHHS). NTH accounts for most of the rest (86 percent in 1999).

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies VA obligations for development USDA obligations for development Academic R&D (not life sciences & bioengineering /biomedical engineering) GDP Total R&D 17 33 1,329 3,131,000 72,267 14 31 1,509 3,259,000 80,848 15 30 1,714 3,535,000 90,075 18 31 1,881 3,933,000 102,344 18 32 2,090 4,213,000 114,778 16 32 2,398 4,453,000 120,337 19 29 2,690 4,743,000 126,299 19 31 2,932 5,108,000 133,930 21 36 3,281 5,489,000 141,914 22 47 3,551 5,803,000 152,051 23 61 4,054 5,986,000 160,914 23 66 4,285 6,319,000 165,358 29 76 4,464 6,642,000 165,714 25 77 4,729 7,054,000 169,214 19 81 5,073 7,401,000 183,611 21 80 5,309 7,813,000 197,330 22 99 5,855 8,318,000 212,379 8 107 6,312 8,790,000 226,872 7 126 6,736 9,299,000 244,143 7 131   7 141  

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 11a National Investment in Life Sciences-Related R&D, 1981–1998 (in millions of 1999 dollars)   Total without software Total with software Company-funded R&D in office, computing, & accouting machines Company-funded R&D in electrical equipment Company-funded R&D in computer and data processing services Federal obligations for research in math & computer science 1981 18,811 18,811 6,462 10,766 0 469 1982 20,093 20,093 7,819 10,568 0 554 1983 22,775 22,775 8,570 12,409 0 637 1984 25,364 25,364 10,282 13,253 0 645 1985 27,176 27,176 11,968 13,180 0 817 1986 27,402 27,402 11,658 13,588 0 856 1987 27,533 27,533 11,064 14,111 0 866 1988 27,485 27,485 12,209 13,029 0 840 1989 28,048 28,048 13,494 12,047 0 925 1990 26,886 26,886 13,307 11,223 0 1,019 1991 25,011 25,011 12,175 10,359 0 1,056 1992 25,716 25,716 12,108 10,856 0 1,323 1993 21,387 21,387 5,477 13,013 0 1,365 1994 22,015 22,015 4,450 14,772 0 1,421 1995 26,318 35,445 5,019 18,221 9,126 1,686 1996 32,778 43,281 8,520 21,326 10,503 1,647 1997 39,504 51,135 13,140 23,376 11,631 1,718 1998 36,970 51,482 9,024 24,744 14,512 1,865 1981–1998 96.5% 173.7% 39.6% 129.8% NA 297.8% 1990–1998 37.5% 91.5% -32.2% 120.5% NA 83.1% 1994–1998 67.9% 133.8% 102.8% 67.5% NA 31.2% SOURCES: National Science Foundation/SRS, Research and Development in Industry: 1998 (NSF 01–305). See http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf01305/htmstart.htm. National Science Foundation/SRS, Federal Funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001, Vol. 49. National Science Foundation/SRS, Academic Research and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 1999 [Early Release Tables]. See http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/srs01407/start.htm.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Academic R&D in computer science & math (not federally funded) Federal obligations for electrical engineering Academic R&D in electrical engineering (not federally funded) Without software With software As % of Total R&D As % of GDP As % of Total R&D As % of GDP 99 936 79 0.358% 15.50% 0.358% 15.50% 106 968 79 0.390% 15.71% 0.390% 15.71% 117 936 105 0.424% 16.62% 0.424% 16.62% 135 924 126 0.440% 16.90% 0.440% 16.90% 165 891 155 0.454% 16.65% 0.454% 16.65% 175 938 187 0.442% 16.37% 0.442% 16.37% 216 1,061 214 0.430% 16.14% 0.430% 16.14% 220 955 233 0.412% 15.71% 0.412% 15.71% 260 1,061 262 0.406% 15.71% 0.406% 15.71% 282 775 280 0.383% 14.60% 0.383% 14.60% 284 853 284 0.358% 13.30% 0.358% 13.30% 274 866 290 0.357% 13.63% 0.357% 13.63% 282 983 267 0.289% 11.59% 0.289% 11.59% 285 810 278 0.286% 11.92% 0.286% 11.92% 292 807 294 0.333% 13.42% 0.448% 18.07% 281 702 303 0.400% 15.86% 0.529% 20.94% 298 639 332 0.462% 18.10% 0.598% 23.43% 334 649 355 0.414% 16.05% 0.577% 22.36% 236.9%   18.3%   17.3%  

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 11b National Investment in Information Technology-related R&D, 1981–1998 (in millions of current dollars)   Total without software Total with software Company-funded R&D in office, computing, & accouting machines Company-funded R&D in electrical equipment Company-funded R&D in computer and data processing services 1981 11,198 11,198 3,847 6,409   1982 12,705 12,705 4,944 6,682   1983 14,972 14,972 5,634 8,158   1984 17,296 17,296 7,011 9,037   1985 19,116 19,116 8,418 9,271   1986 19,697 19,697 8,380 9,767   1987 20,388 20,388 8,193 10,449   1988 21,043 21,043 9,347 9,975   1989 22,293 22,293 10,725 9,575   1990 22,200 22,200 10,988 9,267   1991 21,404 21,404 10,419 8,865   1992 22,543 22,543 10,614 9,516   1993 19,199 19,199 4,917 11,682   1994 20,175 20,175 4,078 13,537   1995 24,642 33,187 4,699 17,060 8,545 1996 31,287 41,312 8,132 20,356 10,025 1997 38,441 49,759 12,787 22,747 11,318 1998 36,423 50,720 8,890 24,378 14,297 1999   2000 (est.)   2001 (est.)   SOURCE: Company-funded R&D=NSF/SRS, Research and Development in Industry: 1998. NSF 01–305. Aacademic R&D (not federally funded). For 1992–1999: NSF/SRS, Academic Research and Development Expenditures, =Fiscal 1999 [Early Release Tables], Table B-5. For 1985–1991: Calculated from Appendix Tables 6–6 and 6–7 in NSB, Science and Engineering Indicators 2000. For 1981–1985: WebCASPAR. Federal obligations for computer science research and electrical engineering research=NSF/SRS, Federal Funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001, Tables C-107 and C-107a.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Federal obligations for research in math & computer science Academic R&D in computer science & math (not federally funded) Federal obligations for electrical engineering Academic R&D in electrical engineering (not federally funded) GDP Total R&D 279 59 557 47 3,131,000 72,267 350 67 612 50 3,259,000 80,848 419 77 615 69 3,535,000 90,075 440 92 630 86 3,933,000 102,344 575 116 627 109 4,213,000 114,778 615 126 674 135 4,453,000 120,337 641 160 786 159 4,743,000 126,299 643 168 731 179 5,108,000 133,930 735 206 843 208 5,489,000 141,914 841 233 640 231 5,803,000 152,051 904 243 730 243 5,986,000 160,914 1,160 240 759 254 6,319,000 165,358 1,225 253 882 240 6,642,000 165,714 1,302 261 742 255 7,054,000 169,214 1,579 273 756 275 7,401,000 183,611 1,572 268 670 289 7,813,000 197,330 1,672 290 622 323 8,318,000 212,379 1,837 329 639 350 8,790,000 226,872 1,837 382 699 368 9,299,000 244,143 2,008   9,963,000 264,622 2,131  

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 12 Real Changes in Federal Obligations for Research, by Field, FY 1993–1997 and FY 1993–1999 (in constant dollars)*   1993–1997 1993–1999 Computer science 41.1% 64.4% Medical sciences 15.7% 38.3% Oceanography 17.8% 25.9% Biological sciences 2.3% 21.2% Aeronautical engineering 4.5% 20.9% Civil engineering 0.8% 16.8% Environmental biology –3.5% 16.0% Social sciences –4.9% 13.5% Metallurgy/materials 14.0% 1.5% Astronautical engineering 11.2% 12.6% Atmospheric sciences 9.0% 7.1% Agricultural Sciences –17.1% 6.7% Mathematics –4.4% 6.4% Psychology –8.7% 2.9% Astronomy 4.0% –1.1% Chemistry –7.6% –13.4% Physics –27.8% –24.6% Chemical engineering –11.8% –25.9% Geological sciences –20.1% –25.9% Electrical engineering –35.0% –29.0% Mechanical engineering –49.8% –53.9% SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. *CAVEAT: Percentage changes in some fine fields should be used with caution because, due to changes in NSF reporting procedures in 1996, the amounts reported by NSF in 1999 for some fields are not comparable to those reported in 1993. Mechanical engineering is most affected by the change. NSF also changed its classification of funding among fields in the physical and environmental sciences.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies TABLE 13 Real Changes in Federal Obligations for Basic Research in Selected Fields, FY 1993–1997 and FY 1993–1999 (in constant dollars)*   1993–1997 1993–1999 Metallurgy/materials 76.6% 78.6% Civil engineering 8.2% 59.5% Medical sciences 17.5% 48.9% Computer science 26.2% 38.1% Aeronautical engineering 0.7% 20.7% Biological sciences –3.0% 17.8% Environmental biology –14.9% 12.5% Agricultural sciences –6.3% 11.1% Astronautical engineering 20.0% 10.6% Mathematics –1.0% 2.6% Astronomy 4.7% –3.0% Physics –10.1% –5.2% Chemistry –12.2% –8.6% Electrical engineering –21.6% –18.1% Chemical engineering –13.9% –32.1% Mechanical engineering –32.3% –37.4% SOURCE: National Science Foundation/SRS, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001. *CAVEAT: Percentage changes in some fine fields should be used with caution because, due to changes in NSF reporting procedures in 1996, the amounts reported by NSF in 1999 for some fields are not comparable to those reported in 1993. Mechanical engineering is most affected by the change. NSF also changed its classification of funding among fields in the physical and environmental sciences.

OCR for page 293
Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies This page in the original is blank.