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ANNEX



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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies VI ANNEX

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Annex A: Biographies of Contributors* GRANT BLACK Grant Black is a Research Associate at the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, where he is involved in research related to the economics of science. He has contributed to research funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Andrew W.Mellon Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the United States Agency for International Development. He has also participated in national and international conferences on science and technology policy issues. Black’s research interests center on the economics of science, particularly the role of knowledge and its movement in the economy and the careers of scientists. Recent research has examined the importance of the local knowledge infrastructure on small-firm innovation, patterns of research collaboration, and individual patenting behavior. Other research has focused on the impact of immigration on scientific labor markets; women and minorities in the sciences; and educational training and labor market outcomes in the emerging field of bioinformatics. Black also has interests in the Small Business Innovation Research Program, the largest federal R&D program targeting small high-tech businesses. Black received a B.S. and an M.A. in economics from the University of Missouri, St. Louis. He has taught economics at the University of Missouri, St. *   As of July 2001.

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Louis, and Georgia State University since 1994. He will serve as a visiting scholar in the economics department at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, in 2002. WESLEY COHEN Wesley Cohen (Ph.D., Economics, Yale University, 1981) is Professor of Economics and Social Science in the Department of Social and Decision Science at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and is a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He also holds faculty appointments in CMU’s Department of Engineering and Public Policy and its Heinz School of Policy and Management. Focusing on the economics of technological change, Cohen’s research examines the links between firm size, market structure and innovation, firms’ abilities to exploit outside knowledge, the determinants of innovative activity across industries and firms, the knowledge flows affecting innovation, the means that firms use to protect their intellectual property, and the links between university research and industrial R&D, among other related subjects. Recently, he coordinated a major comparative survey research study in the U.S. and Japan on the nature and determinants of industrial R&D, and is currently engaged in a multi-year, NSF-funded research project on patenting and its impact on innovation. He has published in numerous scholarly journals, including the American Economic Review, the Economic Journal, Review of Economics and Statistics, the Journal of Industrial Economics, the Administrative Science Quarterly, Management Science and the Strategic Management Journal, and served for five years as a Main Editor for Research Policy. He is also currently serving on the National Academies’ Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in the Knowledge-Based Economy. He has taught courses on the economics of technological change, the economics of entrepreneurship, industrial organization economics, policy analysis and organizational behavior. KENNETH FLAMM Kenneth Flamm is Dean Rusk Chair in International Affairs at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin. From 1993 to 1995, Flamm served as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Economic Security and Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Dual Use Technology Policy. He was awarded the Department’s Distinguished Public Service Medal in 1995 by Defense Secretary William J.Perry. Prior to his service at the Defense Department, he spent eleven years as a Senior Fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies Program at The Brookings Institution.

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Flamm has been a professor of economics at the Institute Tecnológico Autónomo de México in Mexico City, the University of Massachusetts, and George Washington University. He has also been an adviser to the Director General of Income Policy in the Mexican Ministry of Finance and a consultant to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Bank, the National Academy of Sciences, the Latin American Economic System, the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Department of Justice, the U.S Agency for International Development, and the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress. Among Dr. Flamm’s publications are Mismanaged Trade? Strategic Policy and the Semiconductor Industry (1996), Changing the Rules: Technological Change, International Competition, and Regulation in Communications (ed., with Robert Crandell, 1989), Creating the Computer (1988), and Targeting the Computer (1987). He is currently completing an analytical study of the post-Cold War defense industrial base. Kenneth Flamm, an expert on international trade and the high technology industry and member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Government-Industry Partnerships for the Development of New Technologies, teaches classes in micro-economic theory, international trade, and defense economics. He received a bachelor’s degree from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MICHAEL MCGEARY Michael McGeary is a political scientist specializing in science, health, and technology policy analysis and writing. He works as an independent consultant to government agencies, foundations, and nonprofit organizations on issues related to science and technology. His areas of expertise include funding of research and development; research priority setting, funding, and management of biomedical research at NIH; graduate education, training, and employment of scientists and engineers; merit review systems at NSF and NIH; and the role of research in industrial innovation. McGeary was on the staff of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) from 1981 until 1995, where he was staff director for more than a dozen major reports. Since leaving the NAS, as a consultant, he has helped draft several NAS reports, including Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology, trends in the Federal Science and Technology (FS&T) budget (1996–1998), and Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education. He has also worked on health research issues. As a consultant, he helped draft the Institute of Medicine report Scientific Opportunities and Public Needs: Improving Priority Setting and Public Input at the National Institutes of Health (1998) and analyzed the implementation of the War on Cancer for the President’s Cancer Panel (1999).

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Between graduate study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1972– 1976) and coming to the NAS, Mr. McGeary taught political science and urban studies at Wellesley College (1976–78) and worked on studies of presidential management at the National Academy of Public Administration (1978–1980). His undergraduate degree is from Harvard College. PAULA STEPHAN Paula Stephan is a Professor of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, and served as the founding associate dean of the school from 1996–2001. Her research interests focus on the careers of scientists and engineers and the process by which knowledge moves across institutional boundaries in the economy. Stephan’s research has been supported by the Alfred P.Sloan Foundation, the Andrew Mellon Foundation, the Exxon Education Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the U.S. Department of Labor. She has served on several National Research Council committees including the Committee on Dimensions, Causes, and Implications of Recent Trends in the Careers of Life Scientists, Committee on Methods of Forecasting Demand and Supply of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers, and the Committee to Assess the Portfolio of the Science Resources Studies Division of NSF. She is a regular participant in the National Bureau of Economic Research’s meetings in Higher Education and has testified before the U.S. House Subcommittee on Basic Science. She currently is serving a three year term as a member of CEOSE, the National Science Foundation’s Committee on Equal Opportunity in Science and Engineering. Dr. Stephan graduated from Grinnell College (Phi Beta Kappa) with a B.A. in Economics and earned both her M.A. and Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Michigan. She has published numerous articles in journals such as The American Economic Review, Science, The Journal of Economic Literature, Economic Inquiry and Social Studies of Science. Stephan coauthored with Sharon Levin Striking the Mother Lode in Science, published by Oxford University Press, 1992. The book was reviewed in Science, Chemical and Engineering News, Journal of Economic Literature, The Southern Economic Journal and The Journal of Higher Education. Her research on the careers of scientists has been the focus of articles in The Economist, Science and The Scientist. Stephan is a frequent presenter at meetings such as the American Economic Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Society for the Social Studies of Science. Stephan reviews regularly for the National Science Foundation and a number of academic journals including The American Economic Review, The American Sociological Review, Economic Inquiry, The Journal of Political Economy, and The Journal of Human Resources. Dr. Stephan has lectured extensively in Europe. She was a visiting scholar at

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, Berlin, Germany, intermittently during the period 1992–1995. JOHN WALSH John Walsh is an Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Dr. Walsh’s current research focuses on industrial R&D in the U.S. and Japan, including the impact of patents and patent policy on innovation, and the relations between universities and industrial research. He has been published in numerous journals, including the Journal of the American Society for Information Sciences, Public Opinion Quarterly, Work and Occupations, Social Studies of Science and Communications of the ACM. Dr. Walsh authored Supermarkets Transformed: Understanding Organizational and Technological Innovation and coauthored Mapping Crime in its Community Setting. Dr. Walsh has contributed book reviews for publications such as the American Journal of Sociology, Contemporary Sociology, and Management Learning. Dr. Walsh received his Ph.D. in Sociology from Northwestern University.

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Annex B: Participants List* 25 April 2000 Conference Stanley Abramowitz National Institute of Science & Technology Zoltan Acs University of Baltimore Ted Agres Washington Times Jane Alexander* Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency J.M.Alliare Pablo Amor Delegation of the European Commission Kiyoshi Ando Nikkei Robert Archibald The College of William and Mary David Audretsch Indiana University Gary Bachula U.S. Department of Commerce Wendy Baldwin National Institutes of Health Michael Baum NIST Ed Behrens Procter and Gamble Arpad Bergh Optoelectronics Industry Development Association Grant Black Georgia State University *   Speakers

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Robert Blackburn* Chiron David Blumenthal Harvard Medical School/ Massachusetts General Hospital Congressman Sherwood Boehlert* U.S. House of Representatives Mark Boguski* National Center for Biotechnology Information John K.Boidock Texas Instruments Incorporated Jeff Bond BMDO/Department of Defense Shannon Bond Government Accounting Office William Bonvillian* Office of Senator Lieberman Michael Borrus* Petkevich & Partners Robert Boyd Knight Ridder Richard Bradshaw Department of Enegry Jeffrey Brancato Office of the Executive Vice Provost Massachusetts Institute of Technology Karen Brown National Institute of Standards and Technology John Burgess The Washington Post William Camp Sandia National Laboratories Peter Cahill BRTRC, Inc. Elias Carayannis ISTP Kelly Carnes U.S. Department of Commerce Marvin Cassman* National Institutes of Health Mike Champness Business-Higher Education Forum Y.T.Chien National Science Foundation McAlister Clabaugh National Research Council Mel Ciment National Science Foundation Iain Cockburn Boston University Timothy Coffey* Naval Research Laboratory Wes Cohen* Carnegie Mellon University Sara Comley International Observer, Press

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Rita Colwell National Science Foundation Ereceline Companyo Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development B.Anne Craib Dewey Ballantine Jack Crowley Michael Czinkota Georgetown University Stephen Dahms* San Diego State University K.C.Das Office of the Secretary of Technology, Commonwealth of Virginia Mike Davey Congressional Research Service Lance Davis National Academy of Engineering Will Davis OECD Washington Center Adriaan M. de Graaf National Science Foundation Brian Delroy Embassy of Australia Pierre Desrochers Johns Hopkins University Gerald Dinneen National Research Council Robert Eagan Sandia National Laboratories Chris Edwards Joint Economic Committee Mitch Eggers Genometrix, Inc. Rebecca Eisenberg University of Michigan Law School Stephan Esquires Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Stephen Eule House Science Committee Fouad Ezra Procter & Gamble Maryann Feldman* Johns Hopkins University Frank Fernandez Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency David Festa U.S. Department of Commerce Kevin Finneran Issues in Science and Technology Eric A.Fischer The Library of Congress Kenneth Flamm* Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Alexander Flax National Academy of Engineering Sam Fuller Analog Devices Cita Furlani Advanced Technology Program R.Michael Gadbaw International Law and Policy Paul G.Gaffney Office of Naval Research Lori Garver National Aeronautics and Space Administration James F.Gibbons Paul G. Allen Center for Integrated Learning Dan Goldin* National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jorge A.Goldstein Sterne, Kessler, Goldstein & Fox David Goldston* Office of Congressman Boehlert Jo Anne Goodnight National Institutes of Health Jeffrey L.Gren Medical Equipment and Instrumentation Margaret Grucza Industrial Research Institute Victoria D.Hadfield Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International Serge Hagege Embassy of France Lee Halcomb National Aeronautics and Space Administration Bronwyn Hall National Bureau of Economic Research Rebecca Henderson Massachusetts Institute of Technology Derek Hill National Science Foundation Alice Hogan National Security and International Affairs Paul M.Horn* IBM Corporation John B.Horrigan National Research Council Thomas Howell, Esq. Dewey Ballantine Kent Hughes The Woodrow Wilson Center William James Research & Development John Jankowski National Science Foundation

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Kenan Patrick Jarboe Dale Jorgenson* Harvard University Tom Kalil* National Economic Council Christine Kelley National Institutes of Health Maryellen Kelley National Institute of Standards and Technology Kathleen Kingscott International Business Machines Karen Koppeschaar Embassy of the Netherlands Jeffrey D.Kueter National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing Scott Kulicke Kulicke and Soffa Industries, Inc. Patrice Laget Delegation of the European Commission Ralph Landau Stanford University Jean Francois Large Embassy of France Roif Lehming National Science Foundation Richard Levin Yale University Rachel E.Levinson Office of Science and Technology Policy Harris Liebergot National Institute of Science and Technology Michael Lieberman National Aeronautics and Space Administration William Long Business Performance Research Associates Janet Lynch General Electric Tom Mays Morrison and Foerster, LLP Anne-Marie Mazza National Research Council Clark McFadden* Dewey Ballantine Robert McGuckin Economic Research Steve Merrill National Research Council Ernest Moniz Department of Energy Youhyoun Moon Korean Embassy

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Duncan Moore White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Gordon Moore* Intel Corp. William Morin R. Wayne Sayer and Associates Mark Myers Xerox Corporation Kesh S.Narayanan National Science Foundation Karah Nazor National Research Council Richard Nelson Columbia University Robert Norwood National Aeronautics and Space Administration Richard Nunno Congressional Research Service John Oldfield Conference Board Scott Pace RAND Erik Pages NCDE Edward Penhoet* University of California, Berkeley Barry Press Washington CORE Susan Pucie National Institutes of Health Samuel M.Rankin III American Mathematical Society Alan Rapoport National Science Foundation Diane Raynes Government Accounting Office Lawrence M.Rausch National Science Foundation Proctor Reid National Academy of Engineering Greg Reyes* Schering-Plough Josephine Robinson Joint Economic Committee Philippa Rogers British Embassy Alton D.Romig* Science, Technology, and Components Sally Rood Federal Laboratory Consortium Peter Rooney Council on Competitiveness Leon Rosenberg* Princeton University Richard Rosenbloom Harvard Business School

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Deborah Rudolph Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Richard Russell House Committee on Science R.Wayne Sayer R. Wayne Sayer & Associates Jeffrey Schloss National Human Genome Research Institute Craig Schultz National Research Council Alan Sears Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Arun Seraphin Office of Senator Joseph Lieberman Jerry Sheehan National Research Council Richard Sheehan Claudine Simson Nortel Networks Larry Smarr National Center for Supercomputing Applications William Spencer* SEMATECH Todd Spener Charter Financial Richard Spivack National Institute of Standards and Technology Kathryn E.Stein Office of Therapeutics Research and Review Paula E.Stephan* Georgia State University Gary W.Strong Information Technology Office Michael Steurewalt National Science Foundation Debbie Stine National Research Council Richard Swaja National Institutes of Health Gregory Tassey National Institute of Standards and Technology David Tennenhouse Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Richard Thayer Telecommunications and Technologies International Roland Tibbetts Phillipe Tondeur National Science Foundation Alan Tonelson U.S. Business and Industrial Council Educational Foundation

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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies Charles Trimble* Trimble Navigation Eric Truett National Research Council Robert Tuch German-American Academic Council James Turner House Committee on Science Paul Uhlir National Academy of Sciences Debra Van Opstal Council on Competitiveness Samuel Venneri National Aeronautics and Space Administration Nicholas Vonortas George Washington University Caroline Wagner RAND John P.Walker Axys Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Andrew Wang National Institute of Standards and Technology Kevin Wheeler Committee on Small Business Charles W.Wessner Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy James Wilson House Science Commitee Sandra Wilson OECD Washington Center Patrick Windham* Windham Associates Raymond Wolf National Science Foundation Isabel Wolte Embassy of Austria Benjamin Wu House Subcommittee on Technology William A.Wulf National Academy of Engineering Ed Zadjura General Accounting Office

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