portfolio. This is an important issue for Congress, Mr. McFadden emphasized, and one that Rep. Boehlert raised in his remarks.

To kick off the discussion on the funding R&D in the biotechnology and computing industries, Mr. McFadden said that the symposium was fortunate to have two men who have made landmark contributions in their respective industries. Both have been innovators and leaders of technology enterprises. Gordon Moore is co-founder of Intel Corporation and serves as its Chairman Emeritus, in addition to serving as Chairman of the Board of Trustees at the California Institute of Technology. His knowledge of semiconductor technology is so intimate that he has characterized the technology’s path in a few words, which have become known famously as Moore’s Law.1 Articulating simple but profound insights about technology has been the hallmark of Gordon Moore’s career.

Edward Penhoet is Dean of the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley. He is also the founder and was, for many years, the chief executive officer of Chiron Corporation, a leading biotechnology company. Dr. Penhoet combines insight into technology with achievement in technology development. He has a commitment to promoting multidisciplinary research in the biotechnology and computing industries, and, under his leadership, Berkeley’s Health Sciences Initiative represents a major initiative to promote such research.


Gordon Moore

Intel Corporation

Dr. Moore said his remarks would focus on his perceptions of how the semiconductor industry—a key input to computers—has developed over his 40-year career watching the industry evolve and contributing to its growth. The birth of the computing industry was driven by the Army’s need for ballistics tables during World War II. Calculating the trajectory of a projectile was extremely time consuming; it took a skilled person approximately 20 hours to calculate the one-minute path of a projectile.

Origins of the Computer and the Transistor

At the University of Pennsylvania, the Moore School of Engineering took on the task of trying to reduce the time needed for this calculation. The differential analyzer, invented by Vannevar Bush, had been invented by World War II and could reduce that to 15 minutes. At the Moore School, J.Presper Eckert and


See Gordon E.Moore, “Cramming More Components Onto Integrated Circuits,” Electronics: 38(8) April 19, 1965.

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