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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop Appendix B Biographies of Speakers* SIDNEY ABRAMS Sidney Abrams is currently a member of AT Kearney’s North American E-Services Practice Leadership team with direct client and service development responsibilities. Mr. Abrams has over sixteen years of North American, European, and Latin American consulting experience with Fortune 100 clients in areas such as corporate strategy development, revenue growth, post-acquisition integration, business restructuring, and e-business. Mr. Abrams has worked and led engagements in multiple industries including consumer products, chemicals, oil and gas, general manufacturing, and pharmaceuticals. His accomplishments include leadership of an engagement for a $75-billion organization focused on creating the need for an e-business security strategy and defining the security architecture required; leadership of an engagement for a $5-billion multi-national cosmetic and beauty care company focused on the development of comprehensive business solutions associated with their dot-com business launch; leadership of an engagement for a $12-billion food service company including the development of an e-business competitive strategy and technology architecture, resulting in the creation of a new company focused on net markets; leadership of an engagement for an Internet freight transportation procurement company, including the assessment of competitive market strategies and required e-business applications; working with client senior management to aggressively pursue significant revenue growth and customer expansion; leadership of global * As of October 2000.
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop supply chain restructuring program for a consumer-product company, focusing on North American, Latin American, and Asian markets; leadership of the first successful post-merger integration of a $1-billion chemical business into a Fortune 20 company; design and delivery of multiple complex restructuring programs on a Pan-European and global basis in the oil, gas, chemical, and consumer-product industries. ALFRED V. AHO Alfred V. Aho joined Lucent Technologies as Associate Research Vice President, Communications Sciences Research Division, in June 1997. He is currently Computing Sciences Research Vice President with responsibility for the Computing Sciences Research Center at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, and the Bell Labs Research Center in Beijing, China. The research work of these laboratories encompasses computer science, software, distributed systems, networking, network design and management, embedded systems, scientific computing, and quantum communication. The UNIX operating system and the C and C++ programming languages came from the Computing Sciences Research Center. Prior to these appointments Dr. Aho was Professor and Chair of the Computer Science Department at Columbia University and from 1991 to 1995 the General Manager of the Information Sciences and Technologies Research Laboratory at Bellcore in Morristown, New Jersey. The work of this laboratory was directed at advancing the national information-networking infrastructure. Dr. Aho received a B.A.Sc. in Engineering Physics from the University of Toronto and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering (Computer Science) from Princeton University. Upon graduating from Princeton Dr. Aho joined Bell Laboratories in 1967 as a member of the technical staff in the Computing Techniques Research Department, and in 1980 was appointed head of the Computing Principles Research Department. He has also been an adjunct professor of Computer Science at Stanford University and at the Stevens Institute of Technology. Dr. Aho’s personal research has focused on algorithms, compilers, database systems, and programming tools. He has written more than 60 research papers in these areas and has published 10 books that are widely used around the world in computer science research and education. He is a coinventor of the AWK programming language and several UNIX programming tools. Dr. Aho is a member of the United States National Academy of Engineering. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Bell Laboratories, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He has received honorary doctorates from the University of Helsinki and the University of Waterloo for his contributions to computer science research. He has been a distinguished lecturer at many of the world’s leading universities.
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop Dr. Aho is active on a number of national and international advisory boards and committees. He has served as Chairman of the Advisory Committee for the Computer and Information Sciences and Engineering Directorate of the National Science Foundation. He has also been Chairman of ACM’s Special Interest Group on Automata and Computability Theory and a member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. ROBERT R. BORCHERS Robert R. Borchers completed his Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in late 1961 under the supervision of Professor H. H. (Heinz) Barschall; he immediately started teaching the instrumentation electronics course and pursuing his research interests at that university. In the fall of 1963 he became an assistant professor and during the 1964-65 academic year took leave to do research at the Neils Bohr institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, on an Alfred P. Sloan fellowship. Returning to Madison in 1965, he resumed his research and teaching duties and in 1966 received a W. H. Kieckhofer teaching award for his efforts in improving and teaching undergraduate laboratories. Also in 1966 he designed and installed a computer system to acquire and analyze data in the nuclear physics accelerator laboratory. This interest in computing led to a long involvement in computing and computing policy issues at the University of Wisconsin. In 1970 the nuclear physics laboratories were badly damaged in a terrorist bombing. Borchers moved to the graduate school as Associate Dean for Physical sciences partly to aid in the reconstruction of the damaged labs. In 1972 he assumed the Directorship of the UW Physical Science Laboratory, a facility operated by the Graduate School to provide support to various research programs on campus. This included the design and construction of a variety of computer-based systems, including early use of microprocessors. In 1976 he was selected as the Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs at Madison, and in 1977 moved to the University of Colorado at Boulder as Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Professor of Physics. One of his responsibilities at Boulder was the academic computing center. In 1979 he moved to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to become the leader of the planning and technology office in the magnetic fusion energy program. Among the programs managed by this office were all the fusion technology research and development, with an annual budget of roughly $20 million. This task included extensive interaction with the Department of Energy and the university research community that was active in fusion energy research. In 1982 he was named the Deputy Director of the fusion program and in 1983 was selected as the first Associate Director of the laboratory for computation. The responsibilities of this position included management of the two large LLNL supercomputer centers, the computation department, and a variety of com-
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop puting-related research and development programs. Overall, his responsibilities involved nearly 800 people and an annual budget of over $100 million. He also had extensive involvement with overall laboratory management and numerous interactions with the industrial and academic communities and government agencies. He chaired, for example, the Technical Review Committee that evaluated the initial round of proposals for the National Science Foundation (NSF) supercomputer centers and maintained a long-term interest in the program. He was also one of the founders of the annual supercomputing conferences and chaired the meeting in 1993. In 1992 Dr. Borchers established and managed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory University Relations Office to foster greater interaction between the laboratory and the University of California and other academic institutions. In the summer of 1993 he was selected to be the Director of the Division of Advanced Scientific computing at NSF. This division manages the NSF supercomputer centers and several other programs. The Division Director also participates in the management of the CISE directorate. In 1995 he worked with the Hayes Task Force on the future of the supercomputer centers program and is currently managing the competition for the follow-on program, Partnerships in Advanced Computing Infrastructure. TIMOTHY F. BRESNAHAN Timothy F. Bresnahan is a professor in the Department of Economics at Stanford University. He holds a Ph.D. from Princeton University and a B.A. from Haverford College. His research interests include industrial organization, applied econometrics, and the economics of technology. His current research focuses on competition in high-technology industries; technical change by users of information technologies; and employment and growth in the new economy. He teaches courses in econometrics, industrial organization, and microeconomics. Recent Publications consist of (1) The Economics of New Goods, (edited with Robert J. Gordon), proceedings of a meeting of the Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, forthcoming, University of Chicago Press; (2) “The Competitive Crash in Large-Scale Commercial Computing,” (with Shane Greenstein) forthcoming in Growth & Development: The Economics of the 21st Century, edited by Ralph Landau, Nathan Rosenberg, and Timothy Taylor, Stanford University Press; (3) “Technical Progress in Computing and in the Uses of Computers,” (with Shane Greenstein) forthcoming in Brookings Papers on Economic Activity in Micro. Professional affiliations include AEA, Econometric Society (fellow), National Bureau of Economic Research.
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop ERIK BRYNJOLFSSON Erik Brynjolfsson is the codirector of the Center for eBusiness@MIT (http://ebusiness.mit.edu), professor at the MIT Sloan School, an award-winning researcher, and a Director or Advisor for numerous ecommerce firms. He lectures and consults worldwide on topics related to Internet strategy, pricing models, and intangible assets. Erik is an associate member of MIT’s Lab for Computer Science, a member of Time magazine’s Board of Economists and coeditor of Understanding the Digital Economy (MIT Press). He holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Harvard University and a Ph.D. from MIT. VINTON G. CERF Vinton G. Cerf is senior vice president of Internet Architecture and Technology for WorldCom. Cerf’s team of architects and engineers design advanced Internet frameworks for delivering a combination of data, information, voice, and video services for business and consumer use. Widely known as a “father of the Internet,” Cerf is the codesigner of the TCP/IP protocols and the architecture of the Internet. In December 1997 President Clinton presented the U.S. National Medal of Technology to Cerf and his partner, Robert E. Kahn, for founding and developing the Internet. Prior to rejoining MCI in 1994, Cerf was vice president of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI). As vice president of MCI Digital Information Services from 1982 to 1986, he led the engineering of MCI Mail, the first commercial e-mail service to be connected to the Internet. During his tenure from 1976 to 1982 with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Cerf played a key role leading the development of Internet and Internet-related data packet and security technologies. Cerf served as founding president of the Internet Society from 1992 to 1995 and recently completed his term as chairman of the board. He also is chairman of the newly created Internet Societal Task Force that will focus on making the Internet accessible to everyone and analysis of international, national, and local policies surrounding Internet use. In addition, Cerf is honorary chairman of the newly formed IPv6 Forum, dedicated to raising awareness and speeding introduction of the new Internet protocol. Cerf is a member of the U.S. Presidential Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC). He also sits on the Board of Directors for the Endowment for Excellence in Education, Gallaudet University, the MCI WorldCom Foundation, Nuance Corporation, Avanex Corporation, CoSine Corporation, 2BNatural Corporation, B2B Video Networks, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, the Internet Policy Institute and the Hynomics Corporation. Cerf is a fellow of the IEEE, ACM, and American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, International Engineering Consortium, and the National Academy of Engineering.
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop Cerf is a recipient of numerous awards and commendations in connection with his work on the Internet. These include the Marconi Fellowship, the Alexander Graham Bell Award presented by the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, the NEC Computer and Communications Prize, the Silver Medal of the International Telecommunications Union, the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, the IEEE Koji Kobayashi Award, the ACM Software and Systems Award, the ACM SIGCOMM Award, the Computer and Communications Industries Association Industry Legend Award, the Yuri Rubinsky Web Award, the Kilby Award , the Yankee Group/Interop/Network World Lifetime Achievement Award, the George R. Stibitz Award, the Werner Wolter Award and the Library of Congress Bicentennial Living Legend medal. In December 1994 People magazine identified Cerf as one of that year’s “25 most intriguing people.” In addition to his work on behalf of WorldCom and the Internet, Cerf serves as a technical advisor for the production of “Gene Roddenberry’s Earth: Final Conflict,” the number-one television show in first-run syndication. He also made a special guest appearance in May 1998. Cerf has appeared on the television programs NextWave with Leonard Nimoy and World Business Review with Alexander Haig. Cerf also holds an appointment as distinguished visiting scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where he is working on the design of an interplanetary Internet. Cerf holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics from Stanford University and Master of Science and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science from the University of California, Los Angeles. He also holds honorary Doctorate degrees from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich; Lulea University of Technology, Sweden; University of the Balearic Islands, Palma; Capitol College, Maryland; Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania; George Mason University, Virginia; and Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain. KENNETH FLAMM Kenneth Flamm joined the LBJ School at the University of Texas at Austin in the fall of 1998. He is a 1973 honors graduate of Stanford University and the recipient of a Ph.D. in economics from MIT in 1979. From 1993 to 1995 Flamm served as principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Economic Security and Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Dual Use Technology Policy. He was awarded the Defense Department’s Distinguished Public Service Medal in 1995. Prior to his service at the Defense Department he spent eleven years as a Senior Fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies program at the Brookings Institution. Flamm has been a professor of economics at the Instituto Tecnológico A. de México in Mexico City, the University of Massachusetts, and George Washington University. He has also been an adviser to the Director General of Income
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop Policy in the Mexican Ministry of Finance and a consultant to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Bank, the National Academy of Sciences, the Latin American Economic System, the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Department of Justice, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress. Among Dr. Flamm’s publications are Mismanaged Trade? Strategic Policy and the Semiconductor Industry (1996), Changing the Rules: Technological Change, International Competition, and Regulation in Communications (ed., with Robert Crandell, 1989), Creating the Computer (1988), and Targeting the Computer (1987). He is currently working on an analytical study of the post-Cold-War defense industrial base. Flamm, an expert on international trade and the high-technology industry, teaches classes in microeconomic theory, international trade, and defense economics. ALAN G. GANEK Alan Ganek is Vice President, Technical Strategy and Worldwide Operations, IBM Research, where he is responsible for the technical strategy of IBM’s Research Division, a worldwide organization focused on research leadership in areas related to information technology and exploratory work in science and mathematics. This entails strategic and technology outlook, research portfolio management, and Research Division processes. In addition, Mr. Ganek oversees operational services supporting the division, including finance, information and library services, technical journals, and site operations. Prior to joining IBM Research, Mr. Ganek was Director of Solutions Development, IBM Telecommunications and Media Industry Unit. In this capacity he was responsible for development activity supporting IBM’s telecommunications and media industry customers worldwide, including regional and interexchange carriers, cable and wireless providers, broadcasters, entertainment companies, sports industry, and publishers. Project areas included the Internet and intranets, broadband, network management, customer service and billing, directory assistance, enhanced telephony services, operations support systems, digital broadcast and distribution, digital libraries, sports applications, and video transmission services. Mr. Ganek joined IBM as a software engineer in 1978 in Poughkeepsie, New York, where he was involved in operating system design and development, computer addressing architecture, and parallel-systems architecture and design. He was the recipient of two Outstanding Innovation Awards for his work on Enterprise Systems Architecture/370 and System/390 Parallel Sysplex Design. In 1985 he was appointed manager of MVS Design and Performance Analysis, where he was responsible for the technical plan and content of the MVS control program.
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop Subsequently he was appointed VM/XA advanced-system manager, responsible for strategy, design, planning, customer support, system evaluation, and product delivery and control. Mr. Ganek was appointed Director of Worldwide Software Manufacturing Strategy in 1990 and became responsible for IBM’s strategy for manufacturing, distribution, and packaging of software, software service, and publications across all hardware platforms. In 1992 he was named Programming Systems Director, Quality and Development Operations, and led quality programs for the Programming Systems Division; he was also responsible for the software development process, including tools, technology, metrics, information development, and software service for IBM’s software community. He joined the Telecommunications and Media Industry Unit in 1994 and assumed his current responsibilities in January 1998. Mr. Ganek received his M.S. in Computer Science from Rutgers University in 1981. He holds 12 U.S. patents. RALPH E. GOMORY Ralph E. Gomory has been President of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation since June 1989. Dr. Gomory received his B.A. from Williams College in 1950, studied at Cambridge University, and received his Ph.D. in mathematics from Princeton University in 1954. He served in the U.S. Navy from 1954 to 1957. Dr. Gomory was Higgins lecturer and Assistant Professor at Princeton University, 1957-59. He joined the Research Division of IBM in 1959, was named an IBM fellow in 1964, and became Director of the Mathematical Sciences Department in 1965. He was made IBM Director of Research in 1970 with line responsibility for IBM’s Research Division. He held that position until 1986, becoming IBM Vice President in 1973 and Senior Vice President in 1985. In 1986 he became IBM Senior Vice President for Science and Technology. In 1989 he retired from IBM and became President of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. He has served in many capacities in academic, industrial, and government organizations, and is a member of both the National Academy of Science and the National Academy of Engineering. He has been awarded a number of honorary degrees and prizes, including the Lanchester Prize in 1963, the John von Neumann Theory Prize in 1984, the IEEE Engineering Leadership Recognition Award in 1988, the National Medal of Science awarded by the President in 1988, the Arthur M. Bueche Award of the National Academy of Engineering in 1993, the Heinz Award for Technology, the Economy and Employment in 1998, the Madison Medal award of Princeton University in 1999, and the Sheffield Fellowship Award of the Yale University Faculty of Engineering in 2000. He was named to the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology in 1990 and served until March 1993. Dr. Gomory is a director of the Washington Post Company, Lexmark International, and Polaroid Corporation.
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop Dr. Gomory’s research interests have included integer and linear programming, network flow theory, nonlinear differential equations, and computers. In recent years he has written on the nature of technology and product development, research in industry, industrial competitiveness, technological change, and on economic models involving both economies of scale and technological change. SHANE GREENSTEIN Shane Greenstein is Associate Professor in the Management and Strategy Department of the Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University. He teaches courses on strategy in technology-intensive industries and markets. He is also a Research Associate with the productivity group at the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is a regular columnist on the computer market for Micro, published by the Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers. He received his B.A. from University of California, Berkeley, in 1983 and his Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1989, both in economics. He held a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for Economic Policy Research at Stanford in 1989. From 1990 to 1997 he was Assistant and then Associate Professor with the Department of Economics and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign. There he taught courses in the economics of technology, regulation, and industry. For the 1994-95 academic year he was Visiting Scholar with the Computer Industry Project at Stanford University and a Research Associate with the Institute for Management, Innovation, and Organizations in the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley. His research interests cover a wide variety of topics in the economics of high technology. He has studied buyer benefits from advances in computing and communication technology, structural change in information technology markets, standardization in electronics markets, investment in digital infrastructure at private and public firms, the spread of the commercial Internet business, and government procurement of computing services. This research is written for academic, policy, and business audiences. DALE W. JORGENSON Dale W. Jorgenson is the Frederic Eaton Abbe Professor of Economics at Harvard University. He has been a Professor in the Department of Economics at Harvard since 1969 and Director of the Program on Technology and Economic Policy at the Kennedy School of Government since 1984. He served as Chairman of the Department of Economics from 1994 to 1997. Jorgenson received his Ph.D.
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop degree in economics from Harvard in 1959 and his B.A. in economics from Reed College in Portland, Oregon, in 1955. Jorgenson was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 1998, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1989, the National Academy of Sciences in 1978, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1969. He was elected to Fellowship in the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1982, the American Statistical Association in 1965, and the Econometric Society in 1964. Uppsala University and the University of Oslo awarded him honorary doctorates in 1991. Jorgenson is President of the American Economic Association. He has been a member of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy of the National Research Council since 1991 and was appointed to be Chairman of the Board in 1998. He is also Chairman of Section 54, Economic Sciences, of the National Academy of Sciences. He served as President of the Econometric Society in 1987. Jorgenson received the prestigious John Bates Clark Medal of the American Economic Association in 1971. This Medal is awarded every two years to an economist under forty for excellence in economic research. The citation for this award reads in part: Dale Jorgenson has left his mark with great distinction on pure economic theory (with, for example, his work on the growth of a dual economy); and equally on statistical method (with, for example, his development of estimation methods for rational distributed lags). But he is preeminently a master of the territory between economics and statistics, where both have to be applied to the study of concrete problems. His prolonged exploration of the determinants of investment spending, whatever its ultimate lessons, will certainly long stand as one of the finest examples in the marriage of theory and practice in economics. Jorgenson is the author of more than 200 articles and the author and editor of 20 books on economics. The MIT Press, beginning in 1995, has published his collected papers in nine volumes. The most recent volume, Econometrics and Producer Behavior, was published in 2000. Prior to Jorgenson’s appointment at Harvard he was a Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley, where he taught from 1959 to 1969. He has been Visiting Professor of Economics at Stanford University and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Visiting Professor of Statistics at Oxford University. He has also served as Ford Foundation Research Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago. Forty-two economists have collaborated with Jorgenson on published research. An important feature of Jorgenson’s research program has been collaboration with students in economics at Berkeley and Harvard, mainly through the supervision of doctoral research. This collaboration has often been the outgrowth of a student’s dissertation research and has led to subsequent joint publications. Many of his former students are professors at leading academic institutions in the United States and abroad and several occupy endowed chairs.
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop DANIEL T. LING Dr. Daniel T. Ling is currently vice president of Microsoft Research Redmond at Microsoft Corp. Microsoft Research is dedicated to basic and applied research in computer science. Its goal is to develop new technologies that will be key elements in the future of computing, including the creation of Microsoft’s .Net platform. Dan served as Director of the Redmond laboratory from 1995 until his promotion to vice president in April 2000. During this time the Redmond laboratory grew over threefold to include research in such new areas as networking, data mining, computer mediated collaboration, streaming media, devices, and new development tools. Dan joined Microsoft Research in March 1992 as senior researcher in the area of user interfaces and computer graphics and was one of the founders of the laboratory. Previously he was senior manager at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. He initially worked on special-purpose VLSI chips for displays and was a coinventor of the video-RAM dynamic memory. He subsequently managed departments that conducted research on advanced microsystems based on 370 and RISC architectures, and the associated systems and VLSI design tools. One of these departments initiated work on a novel machine architecture, organization, and design code-named “America” that led to the IBM RS/6000 work-stations. He subsequently managed the veridical user environments department that conducted research in virtual worlds technology, user interfaces, and data visualization. Dan received his bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University. Dr. Ling holds seven patents and is the author of a variety of publications. He was awarded an IBM Outstanding Innovation Award in 1986 for his coinvention of the video-RAM. He is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the American Physical Society, and the Association for Computing Machinery. He also serves on advisory committees for the University of Washington and the University of California, Berkeley. ELLIOT E. MAXWELL Elliot E. Maxwell is presently Special Advisor to the Secretary of Commerce for the Digital Economy. He advises the Secretary on and coordinates Commerce Department activities regarding electronic commerce and the Internet. These include establishing a legal framework for electronic commerce, privacy, consumer protection, increasing access to bandwidth, digital inclusion, and the impact of electronic commerce on other aspects of the economy. He has participated in the U.S. government’s Interagency Working Group on Electronic Commerce since its creation.
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop Prior to joining the administration he worked for a number of years as a consultant and as Assistant Vice President for Corporate Strategy of Pacific Telesis Group, where he combined business, technology, and public policy planning. Maxwell previously served at the Federal Communications Commission as Special Assistant to the Chairman, Deputy Chief of the Office of Plans and Policy, and Deputy Chief of the Office of Science and Technology, and as Director of International Technology Policy at the Department of Commerce. He was also senior counsel to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Activities. Maxwell graduated from Brown University and Yale University Law School. He has written and spoken widely on issues involving electronic commerce, telecommunications, and technology policy. DAVID MOWERY David Mowery is Milton W. Terrill Professor of Business at the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, and Director of the Haas School’s Ph.D. program. He received his undergraduate and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Stanford University and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard Business School. Dr. Mowery taught at Carnegie Mellon University, served as the Study Director for the Panel on Technology and Employment of the National Academy of Sciences, and served in the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative as a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow. He has been a member of a number of National Research Council panels, including those on the Competitive Status of the U.S. Civil Aviation Industry; Causes and Consequences of the Internationalization of U.S. Manufacturing; Federal Role in Civilian Technology Development; U.S. Strategies for the Children’s Vaccine zInitiative; and Applications of Biotechnology to Contraceptive Research and Development. His research deals with the economics of technological innovation and with the effects of public policies on innovation; he has testified before congressional committees and served as an adviser for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, various federal agencies and industrial firms. LEE PRICE Lee Price is the Deputy Under Secretary for Economic Affairs at the Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA). The Deputy Under Secretary has management responsibility for ESA, which includes the Bureau of the Census, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Office of the Chief Economist, and the Office of Policy Development. From 1996 until earlier this year Mr. Price was Chief Economist for the U.S. Department of Commerce, where he monitored and analyzed domestic and international economic developments as well as statistical policy issues. From June
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop 1997 to April 1998 he served as the Acting Under Secretary for Economic Affairs at the Department of Commerce. Mr. Price has overseen the production of the three annual “Digital Economy” reports since 1998. He authored the chapter “What is New in the New Economy?” for the “Digital Economy 2000” report. For the last year Mr. Price has been Vice Chair of the Working Party on the Information Economy at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Before his arrival at the Commerce Department Mr. Price worked at the Joint Economic Committee in Congress, where he held positions as staff director, deputy director, and chief economist. While at that committee Mr. Price worked on a variety of issues, including monetary and fiscal policy, labor and income distribution, and international trade and finance. After receiving a B.A. in economics from Stanford University he entered the Joint Program in Law Economics at the University of Michigan, where he obtained a J.D. in law and an M.A. in economics. He has published research on a variety of economic topics, including trends in work and income distribution, Japan’s trade imbalance, and the internationalization of the U.S. economy. WILLIAM J. RADUCHEL William J. Raduchel is Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer at AOL Time Warner. He joined AOL from Sun Microsystems, where he was chief strategy officer and a member of its executive committee. In his 11 years at Sun he was also chief information officer, chief financial officer, acting vice president of human resources, and vice president of corporate planning and development. Prior to Sun he had senior executive roles at Xerox Corporation and McGraw-Hill. After receiving his undergraduate degree in economics from Michigan State, he earned A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Harvard. He is a director of Myriad International Holdings and a trustee of the Community College Foundation and works with several startup companies. ROBERT J. SHAPIRO Robert J. Shapiro serves as the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs at the U.S. Commerce Department. From the time of his nomination in November 1997 to his confirmation by the Senate on April 2, 1998, he acted as senior adviser to Secretary of Commerce William Daley. As Under Secretary, Dr. Shapiro is the senior economic adviser at the Commerce Department and oversees the nation’s major statistical agencies, the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Immediately prior to joining the Clinton-Gore Administration, Dr. Shapiro was Vice President of the Progressive Policy Institute and Director of Economic
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop Studies of the Progressive Foundation. In those capacities he published widely on the U.S. economy and economic policy, while also playing an influential role in public debates on tax and budget policy, the global economy, trade policy, social security reform, and industry subsidies. While Dr. Shapiro was affiliated with the Progressive Policy Institute and the Progressive Foundation, he was an adviser to senior members of the Clinton-Gore Administration. He also served as President of the Committee on Free Trade and Economic Growth, as an adviser to members of Congress, and as a consultant to major U.S. corporations and financial institutions. In addition, he was a contributing editor to The New Republic, International Economy, and Intellectual Capital.com ; a trustee and advisory board member to educational and charitable organizations; and a lecturer at universities and research institutes. Dr. Shapiro was principal economic adviser to then Governor William J. Clinton in his 1991-92 presidential campaign and senior adviser during the Clinton-Gore transition. In 1988 he was Deputy National Issues Director and Chief of Economic Policy in the Dukakis-Bentsen presidential campaign. Previously, Dr. Shapiro was Associate Editor of U.S. News & World Report and Legislative Director to Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan of New York. Dr. Shapiro has been a Fellow of Harvard University and of the National Bureau for Economic Research. He holds a Ph.D. and M.A. from Harvard University, an M.Sc. from the London School of Economics and Political Science, and an A.B. from the University of Chicago. WILLIAM J. SPENCER Bill Spencer recently retired as Chairman of SEMATECH, a research and development consortium consisting of 14 international corporations involved in semiconductor manufacturing. From 1990 to 1997 he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of SEMATECH. Prior to 1990 he was Group Vice President and Senior Technical Officer at Xerox Corporation in Stamford, Connecticut, as well as Vice President and Manager of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). He was Director of Systems Development and also Director of Microelectronics at Sandia National Laboratories from 1973 to 1981, prior to joining Xerox. He began his career at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1959. He received his Ph.D. and M.S. from Kansas State University and an A.B. from William Jewell College in Missouri. Dr. Spencer is also a Research Professor of Medicine at the University of New Mexico, where the first implantable electronic drug-delivery systems were developed jointly with Sandia National Labs. For this work he received the Regents Meritorious Service Medal and later a D.Sc. from William Jewell College. Until recently he served as a Director of Adobe Systems and a member of the Board of Trustees of the Computer Museum and the Austin Symphony. Currently Dr. Spencer is a Director of the Investment Corporation of America
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop and SRI International. He is also a member of the Board of Trustees of William Jewell College. Dr. Spencer has served on several National Research Council studies in the areas of technology, trade, cooperation, and competition. In 1998 he cochaired, with former Attorney General Richard Thornburgh, an NRC workshop on “Harnessing Technology for America’s Future Economic Growth.” In 1998-99 he served as a visiting professor at the Walter A. Haas School of Business and the College of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. GARY STRONG Gary Strong is a career program manager at the National Science Foundation. He began work at the NSF in January 1995 as an “IPA” (otherwise known as “rotator”) and converted to a permanent position in November 1996. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1981 in both Anthropology and Computer and Communication Sciences. For the anthropology portion of his degree he did fieldwork in Japan. (The thesis won the AAAS Socio-psychological prize for 1981.) Before that he worked as an electrical engineer at Bell Labs during the years 17 B.D. (before divestiture) through 10 B.D. His master’s degree is from Columbia University and his bachelor’s degree is from Michigan, both in electrical engineering. This interdisciplinary background helps him greatly in managing the diverse program of interactive systems. SAMUEL L. VENNERI Samuel L. Venneri was appointed Associate Administrator for Aero-Space Technology in February 2000, while retaining his previous position as NASA’s Chief Technologist. In the combined position, Venneri is the administrator’s principal advisor on agency-wide technology issues. Under Venneri the Office of Aero-Space Technology is charged with developing integrated, long-term, innovative agency-level technology for aeronautics and space. Venneri will also be responsible for developing new commercial partnerships that exploit technology breakthroughs and for establishing and maintaining technology core competencies at the NASA centers. Venneri was appointed Chief Technologist at NASA headquarters, Washington, D.C., in November 1996. He will report directly to the NASA administrator. He will serve as the principal advisor and advocate on matters concerning agency-wide technology policy and programs. As Chief Technologist Mr. Venneri also chairs NASA’s Technology Leadership Council, whose members consist of the Enterprise Associate Administrators, the Chief Engineer and Chief Information Officer, the Comptroller and NASA Center Directors. Before being named Chief Technologist Mr. Venneri served as Director of the Spacecraft Systems Division in the former Office of Space Access and Tech-
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Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy: Report of a Workshop nology. In that position he was responsible for the planning, advocacy, and direction of all spacecraft and advanced instrument research and technology activities in that office. Mr. Venneri started his career at NASA in 1981 as a Program Manager in the Materials and Structures Division, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. He was responsible for the technical direction, management, and coordination of programs in spacecraft design technology, structural dynamics, computational analysis and design methodology, and aircraft and engine materials and structures technology. Mr. Venneri was named Director of that office in 1984. Prior to joining NASA Mr. Venneri was an aerospace consultant with Swales and Associates and principal engineer with Fairchild Space Electronics. In those positions he worked in a variety of areas relating to spacecraft structural design and analysis as well as launch vehicle systems. Mr. Venneri received his B.S. in aerospace engineering from Pennsylvania State University in 1969 and M.S. in engineering science from George Washington University in 1975. He is presently completing a doctoral program in engineering at George Washington University.
Representative terms from entire chapter: