Attachment E Derivation of Fuel Consumption Improvement Values

Engine Friction Reduction

FC Improvement

From Base

From Ref.1

Technology Description

Vehicle fuel consumption reduction resulting from reduced engine friction

 

 

Primary Benefits

Higher brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) for the same indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP)

 

 

Secondary Benefits

Higher BMEP allows engine downsizing.

 

 

FC Improvement

Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 2V baseline engine

1 ~ 5%

1 ~ 5%

Example of Application

General technology to improve engine efficiency

 

 

Reference

FEV, M.Schwaderlapp, F.Koch, J.Dohmen

Fisita 2000–3, Seoul Congress

Conclusions: In the next 10 years it will be possible to reduce SI engine fuel consumption by 8–13% through friction reduction

 

8–13%

Low Friction Lubricants

FC Improvement

From Base

From Ref.

Technology Description

Low friction lubricant to reduce engine friction and driveline parasitic losses.

 

 

Primary Benefits

Low engine friction to reduce vehicle fuel consumption

 

 

Secondary Benefits

Low friction to reduce driveline parasitic losses and vehicle fuel consumption

 

 

FC Improvement

Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 2V baseline engine

1.0%

1.0%

Example of Application

 

 

 

Reference

Toyota/Nippon Oil: K.Aklyama, T.Ashida; K.Inoue, E.Tominaga

SAE-Paper 951037

Conclusion: Using additive in the lubricant oil reduces the fuel consumption by 2.7% for a 4.0L-V8–4V engine

 

2.7 %

1  

“Reference” refers to a vehicle with prior technologies already implemented. Thus it is the incremental improvement in a series of steps. It is lower than the base improvement (except for the first step in each category) to account for double-counting and other diminishing returns.



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Attachment E Derivation of Fuel Consumption Improvement Values Engine Friction Reduction FC Improvement From Base From Ref.1 Technology Description Vehicle fuel consumption reduction resulting from reduced engine friction     Primary Benefits Higher brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) for the same indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP)     Secondary Benefits Higher BMEP allows engine downsizing.     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 2V baseline engine 1 ~ 5% 1 ~ 5% Example of Application General technology to improve engine efficiency     Reference FEV, M.Schwaderlapp, F.Koch, J.Dohmen Fisita 2000–3, Seoul Congress Conclusions: In the next 10 years it will be possible to reduce SI engine fuel consumption by 8–13% through friction reduction   8–13% Low Friction Lubricants FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Low friction lubricant to reduce engine friction and driveline parasitic losses.     Primary Benefits Low engine friction to reduce vehicle fuel consumption     Secondary Benefits Low friction to reduce driveline parasitic losses and vehicle fuel consumption     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 2V baseline engine 1.0% 1.0% Example of Application       Reference Toyota/Nippon Oil: K.Aklyama, T.Ashida; K.Inoue, E.Tominaga SAE-Paper 951037 Conclusion: Using additive in the lubricant oil reduces the fuel consumption by 2.7% for a 4.0L-V8–4V engine   2.7 % 1   “Reference” refers to a vehicle with prior technologies already implemented. Thus it is the incremental improvement in a series of steps. It is lower than the base improvement (except for the first step in each category) to account for double-counting and other diminishing returns.

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Multivalve, Overhead Camshaft (2V vs. 4V) FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Improvement from 2 valve engine into a multiintake valve engine (including total of 3, 4, and 5 valves per cylinder)     Primary Benefits Lower pumping losses: larger gas exchange flow area Less friction: higher mechanic efficiency due to higher engine IMEP     Secondary Benefits Less pumping losses: engine down size with higher power density Higher thermal efficiency: higher compression ratio due to less knocking tendency and faster combustion process with central spark plug position     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 2V baseline engine 2 ~ 5% 2 ~ 5% Example of Application Advanced engines from Ford, GM, and DC     Reference Volkswagen: R.Szengel, H.Endres 6. Aachener Kolloquium (1997) Conclusion: A1.4L-I4–4V engine improves the fuel consumption by 11% (MVEG) in comparison to a 1.6L-I4–2V engine   11% FC in MVEG   Ford: D.Graham, S.Gerlach, J.Meurer. SAE-Paper 962234 Conclusion: new valve train design (from OHV to SOHC) with 2 valves per cylinder plus additional changes (higher CR, less valve train moving mass) result in a 28% increase in power, 11% increase in torque and 4.5% reduction in fuel consumption (11.2 to 10.7 L/100km, M-H) for a 4.0L-V6–2V engine.   4.5% FC (OHV, 2V to SOHC, 2V) +28% power +11% torque   Sloan Automotive Laboratory/MIT: Dale Chon, John Heywood SAE-Paper 2000–01–0565 Conclusion: The changing preference from 2-valve to 4-valve per-cylinder is a major factor of current engine power and efficiency improvement; the emergence of variable valve timing engines suggests a possible new trend will emerge.    

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Variable Valve Timing (VVT) FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Variable valve timing in the limited range through cam phase control     Primary Benefits Less pumping losses: later IVC to reduce intake throttle restriction for the same load     Secondary Benefits Less pumping losses: down size due to better torque compatibility at high and low engine speed for the same vehicle performance     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 4V OHC engine 4 ~ 8% 2 ~ 3% Example of Application Toyota VVT-i; BMW Vanos     Reference Ford: R.A.Stein, K.M.Galietti, T.G.Leone SAE-Paper 950975 Conclusion: for a 4.6L-V8–2V engine in a 4,000 Ib vehicle benefit in M-H fuel consumption of 3.2% with unconstrained cam retard and 2.8% (M-H) with constrained cam retard (10% EGR)   2.8 ~ 3.2% V8, 2V engine Ford: T.G.Leone, E.J.Christenson, R.A.Stein SAE-Paper 960584 Conclusion: for a 2.0L-I4–4V engine in a 3,125 Ib vehicle benefit in M-H fuel consumption of 0.5–2.0% (10–15% EGR)   0.5–2.0% 14, 4V engine   Toyota: Y.Moriya, A.Watanabe, H Uda, H.Kawamura, M.Yoshioka, M. Adachi. SAE-Paper 960579 Conclusion: for a 3.0L-I6–4V engine the VVT-i technology (phasing of intake valves) improved the fuel consumption by 6% on the 10–15 official Japanese mode.   6% Japanese mode 16, 4V engine   Ford: D.L.Boggs, H.S.Hilbert, M.M.Schechter. SAE-Paper 950089 Conclusion: for a 1.6L-I4 engine the later intake valve closing improved the BSFC by 15% (10% EGR).   15% (BSFC) 14, Late IVC   MAZDA/Kanesaka TI: T.Goto, K.Hatamura, S.Takizawa, N.Hayama, H. Abe, H.Kanesaka. SAE-Paper 940198 Conclusion: A 2.3L-V6–4V boosted engine with a Miller cycle (late intake valve closing) has a 10–15% higher fuel efficiency compared to natural aspiration (NA) engine with same maximum torque. 25% reduction in friction loss because of lower displacement. Expected 13% increase in fuel consumption of 2.3L Miller engine compared to 3.3L NA engine.   10–15% Fuel Efficiency, Miller cycle   Mitsubishi: K.Hatano, K.lida, H.Higashi, S.Murata. SAE-Paper 930878 Conclusion: A 1.6L-I4–4V engine reached an increase in fuel efficiency up to 16% (Japanese Test Driving Cycle) and an power increase of 20%.   Up to 16% in FC 20% Power   Honda/Nissan/…: S.Shiga; S.Yagi; M.Morita; T.Matsumoto; H.Nakamura; T.Karasawa SAE-Paper 960585 Conclusion: For a 0.25L-I1–4V test engine an early closing of the intake valve results in up to 7% improvement in thermal efficiency   Up to 7% Fuel Efficiency   Ricardo: C.Gray SAE-Pager 880386 Conclusion: Variable intake valve closing and cam timing duration improves part load fuel consumption by 3–5 %   3–5% at part load

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Variable Valve Timing and Variable Valve Lift (VVLT) FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Valve lift and valve timing controlled according to engine load and speed, with step controlled mechanism     Primary Benefits Less pumping losses: partially use intake valve timing and lift control for intake throttle control Higher thermal efficiency: for better mixture formation with intake valve throttling     Secondary Benefits Less pumping losses: engine down size with higher power density     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: VVT engine 5 ~ 10% 1 ~ 2% Example of Application Honda i-VTEC; Porsche Variocam Plus; Toyota VVLT-i     Reference Honda: M.Matsuki, K.Nakano, T.Amemiya, Y.Tanabe, D.Shimizu, I. Ohmura SAE-Paper 960583 Conclusion: for a 1.5L-I4–4V engine the 3-stages VTEC technology (three different cams) improved the power output by 40% with the same fuel consumption 40% more power with same fuel consumption     Porsche: C.Brüstle, D.Schwarzenthal. SAE-PAPER 980766 Conclusion: for a B6–4V engine the fuel consumption could be reduced by 3–9% with variable valve lift   3–9%   Meta: P.Kreuter, P.Heuser, J.Reinicke-Murmann, R.Erz, U.Peter. SAE-Paper 1999–01–0329 Conclusion: For a 2.0L-I4–4V engine the VVLT system improved the fuel efficiency by 11% to 15% in idle speed 11% to 15% at idle     Cylinder Deactivation FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Deactivate number of cylinders so that the active cylinders work on higher BMEP level, normally valve deactivation is necessary     Primary Benefits The active cylinders have less pumping loss with higher BMEP level     Secondary Benefits       FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: VVTL engine 8–16% 3–6% Example of Application Mercedes 5.0 L V8 and 6.0 L V12     Reference Meta: P.Kreuter, P.Heuser, J.Reinicke-Murmann, R.Erz, P.Stein, U. Peter. SAE-Paper 2001–01–0240 Conclusion: A 14 engine with cylinder valve deactivation (CVD) showed 20% improvement in fuel consumption at low engine speed. A V8 engine showed 6–8% improvement in fuel consumption for the New European Driving Cycle   6–8% FC in NEDC   Daimler-Chrysler: M.Fortnagel, G.Doll, K.Kollmann, H.-K.Weining. MTZ 98 Sonderheft Conclusion: A 5.0L-V8-V3 engine has an improvement of 6.5% fuel consumption (New European Driving Cycle) and 10.3% in the FTP+HW cycle with the cylinder deactivation   6.5% FC in NEDC 10.3% FC in FTP+HW

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Engine Accessory Improvement FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Improving the efficiency of accessory components or their power transmission to reduce the engine energy losses     Primary Benefits Direct reduction of vehicle fuel consumption     Secondary Benefits Higher net output allows engine downsizing     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 4V OHC engine 3 ~ 7% 1 ~ 2% Example of Application Less coolant flow rate, less oil flow rate     Reference “Technology and Cost of Future Fuel Economy Improvements for Light-Duty Vehicles—Draft Final Report”; Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc.— NAS Report—June 4, 2001 Conclusions: Between 0.5 and 1% reduction in fuel economy is possible   0.5–1% reduction in fuel economy   Supercharging and Downsizing FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Reduce the engine displacement and supercharge it for the required power     Primary Benefits Less pumping loss at low load conditions; less friction power loss at the same FMEP; less Idle losses     Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 4V OHC engine 7 ~ 12% 5 ~ 7% Example of Application       Reference FEV, Peter Walzer, 00ELE028 Future Engines For Cars Conclusions: Engine down size from 3L to 1.5L with supercharging and VCR, part load specific fuel consumption improves by 25% 25% at part load, with VCR  

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5-Speed Automatic Transmission FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Added ratio places engine in better average speed/load operating point. Improvements in torque converter lockup via Slip Controlled Converter Clutch. Improved internal oil pump losses by reducing pressure. Closed-loop shift strategy. Reduction of gear drag losses. General weight reduction.     Primary Benefits Less pumping loss at low load conditions; less friction power loss at the same FMEP; lower Idle losses     Secondary Benefits Improved transmission efficiencies     FC Improvement Baseline: 4-speed; Reference: 4-speed 2 ~ 3% 2 ~ 3% Example of Application       Reference SAE- 970689, “ZF 5-Speed Transmissions for Passenger Cars”; Heribert Scherer, Georg Gierer Auto 2000, “ZF 5-Speed Automatic Transmission”; Heribert Scherer Conclusions: A 5% reduction can be attributed to the new 5-speed transmission   5% on combined M-H FTP-75   Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Added ratio places engine in better average speed/load operating point. Elimination of torque converter with an optimized starting clutch procedure. Reduced work loss in the drive train and accessories due to the gear ratio characteristics unique to the CVT     Primary Benefits Less pumping loss at low load conditions; less friction power loss at the same FMEP; lower Idle losses     Secondary Benefits Improved drive train and accessory losses     FC Improvement Baseline: 4-speed, Reference: 5-speed 6 ~ 11% 4 ~ 8% Example of Application Audi A4—Multitronic     Reference ATZ 8&9/2000, “Multitronic—The New Automatic Transmission from Audi— Parts 1 & 2”       SAE 970685, “ECOTRONIC—Continuously Variable ZF Transmission (CVT);” Manfred Boos and Herbert Mozer       SAE 1999–01–0754, “Development of an Engine-CVT Integrated Control System;” S.Sakaguchi, E.Kimura, K.Yamamoto Conclusions: A 9.3% reduction can be attributed to the CVT transmission   9.3% on MVEG

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Aggressive Shift Logic FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Descriptions Improvements in torque converter lockup. Closed-loop shift control strategy     Primary Benefits Reduced transmission losses     Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Baseline: 4-speed, Reference: 5-speed 3 ~ 6% 1 ~ 3% Example of Application       Reference “Technology and Cost of Future Fuel Economy Improvements for Light-Duty Vehicles—Draft Final Report”; Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc.— NAS Report—June 4, 2001 Conclusions: A 9%-9.3% reduction can be attributed to aggressive shift logic with a 5-speed transmission   9.0–9.3 % improvement in Fuel Economy   6-Speed Automatic Transmission FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Added ratio places engine in better average speed/load operating point. Improved gearbox efficiency with outstanding direct drive efficiency and reduced gear drag losses. Improved internal oil pump losses by internally geared wheel-pump and improved volumetric efficiency and reduced leakage losses. Optimized oil supply with reduced leakage in the hydraulic controls and gearbox.     Primary Benefits Less pumping loss at low load conditions; less friction power loss at the same FMEP; less idle losses     Secondary Benefits Improved transmission efficiencies     FC Improvement Baseline: 4-speed, Reference: 5-speed 3 ~ 5% 1 ~ 2 % Example of Application BMW 7-Series     Reference ATZ 9/2000, “6-Speed Automatic Transmission for the New BMW 7-Series;” Wolfgang Hall, Christian Bock Conclusions: A 5% reduction can be attributed to the new 5-speed transmission   5% on combined M-H FTP-75

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Aerodynamic Drag Reduction FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Aerodynamic drag reduction via vehicle shape changes or reduced frontal area     Primary Benefits Reduced higher speed engine load required     Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Baseline: conventional vehicles; Reference: conventional vehicles 1 ~ 2% 1 ~ 2% Example of Application       Reference “Technology and Cost of Future Fuel Economy Improvements for Light-Duty Vehicles—Draft Final Report”; Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc.— NAS Report—June 4, 2001 Conclusions: A 10% drag reduction is possible with a result in 1.6–2.2 % FE reduction.   1.6 to 2.2% fuel economy reduction   Improve Rolling Resistance FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Reduced bearing, brake and driveline rotating forces. Improvements in tire rolling resistances through new tread designs and tire carcass improvements     Primary Benefits Reduced engine load required over entire speed range   Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Baseline: conventional vehicles; Reference: conventional vehicles 1 ~ 1.5% 1 ~ 1.5% Example of Application       Reference “Technology and Cost of Future Fuel Economy Improvements for Light-Duty Vehicles—Draft Final Report”; Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc.— NAS Report—June 4, 2001 Conclusions: A 10% rolling resistance reduction is possible with a result in 1.5–2.0% FE reduction   1.6 to 2.2% fuel economy reduction   Safety Weight Increase FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Added weight to account for anticipated future safety structure, equipment or other features     Primary Benefits Increased engine load required     Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Baseline: conventional vehicles, Reference: conventional vehicles –3 ~ –4% –3 ~ –4% Example of Application       Reference “Technology and Cost of Future Fuel Economy Improvements for Light-Duty Vehicles—Draft Final Report”; Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc.— NAS Report—June 4, 2001 Conclusions: 10% weight reduction results in 6.6 to 8% reduction in FE. With a safety weight increase of 5% the committee used 3 to 4% FE reduction to account for this.   3 to 4% increase

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Intake Valve Throttling FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Electronic or hydraulically controlled, mechanically actuated continuous variable valve timing and lift     Primary Benefits Less pumping losses: much less, or no, intake throttling for load control. Higher thermal efficiency: better mixture formation with intake valve throttling. Less friction: higher mechanical efficiency due to higher engine IMEP.     Secondary Benefits Less pumping losses: engine down size with higher power density     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: VVT engine 8 ~ 16% 3 ~ 6% Example of Application BMW Valvetronic     Reference MTZ 10 2001, pp. 826–835 Conclusion: Valvetronic creates a fuel consumption reduction of 12% part load; 20% in idle; 14% reduction of fuel consumption for MVEG III compared to its predecessor. 20% idle 12% part load 14% MVEG III     Delphi: R.J Pierik, J.F.Burkhard SAE Paper 2000–01–1221 Conclusion: demonstrated brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 12% at idle, 7–10% at low middle load, and 0–3% at middle to high load.   Idle: 12% low: 7% mid: 10% high: 0–3% (BSFC)   Hyundai/Siemens: J.Lee, Ch. Lee, J.A.Nitkiewicz SAE-Paper 950816 Conclusion: For a 2.0L DOHC engine the fuel efficiency could be increased by 30% in idle; 3–4% in low speed; 5% in part load with “lost motion” technology. It uses conventional cam and create lost motion with hydraulic mechanism.   Idle: 30% low: 3–4% part load: 5% high: 0% torque: 9.8%   BMW: R.Fierl, M.Klüting SAE-Paper 2000–01–1227 Conclusion: The electromechanical valve train offers a reduction in fuel consumption by about 10% plus 5% higher peak torque.   10%   Nissan: S.Takemura, S.Aoyama, T.Sugiyama, T.Nohara, K.Moteki, M. Nakamura, S.Hara SAE-Paper 2001–01–0243 Conclusion: A variable actuation system showed fuel consumption of nearly 10%   10%   University of Bucharest: N.Negurescu, C.Pana, M.G.Popa, A.Racovitza SAE-Paper 2001–01–0671 Conclusion: For a one-cylinder test engine VVT increases the efficiency by 10 to 29%   10–29% efficiency

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Camless Valve Actuation FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Completely variable valve timing controlled and actuated by electromagnetic or high-pressure hydraulic means     Primary Benefits Less pumping losses: completely eliminate intake throttling valve for load control Higher thermal efficiency: higher compression ratio with less knocking tendency; better mixture formation with intake valve throttling Less friction: less valve train friction; higher mechanical efficiency due to higher engine IMEP     Secondary Benefits Less pumping losses: engine down size with higher power density     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: VVT engine 10 ~ 20% 5 ~ 10% Example of Application FEV EMV; Siemens EVT     Reference FEV: M.Pischinger, W.Salber, F.van der Staay, H.Baumgarten, H. Kemper FISITA—Seoul 2000 Conclusion: a reduction of 16% fuel consumption can be achieved by using the EMV-technology in a 1.6L-I4–4V engine 16% with EMV     Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Using higher compression ratio at low load condition for high thermal efficiency and low compression ratio at high load conditions to avoid knocking. Normally applies to supercharged-down size engines.     Primary Benefits Higher thermal efficiency at part load conditions     Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 4V OHC engine and supercharge down sizing 9 ~ 18% 2 ~ 6% Example of Application SAAB VCR engine     Reference Saab: H.Drangel, L.Bergsten Aachen Kolloquium 2000 Conclusion: With the combination VCR/high charging and downsizing of the engine, it was possible to get the same power out of an 1.6L-I5–4V engine as a 3.0L-V6 engine. The resulting fuel consumption reduction is 30%   30%   Daimler-Benz: F.G.Wirbeleit, K.Binder, D.Gwinner SAE-Paper 900229 Conclusion: In a V8 a VCR between 8 to 13.9:1 depending on the engine speed, the fuel consumption improves by 4% to 8%   4%-8%   Ford/University of Dar es Salaam: T.H.Ma, H.Rajbu SAE-Paper 884053 Conclusion: At 1,500 rpm and 2 bar BMEP condition, VVT alone achieves 8% BSFC; VVT+VCR achieves 19%   11% BSFC (1,500 rpm and 2 bar BMEP)

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Automated Shift Manual Transmission FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Descriptions Improved gearbox efficiency with improved efficiency and reduced gear drag losses. Elimination or significant reductions of internal oil pump losses.     Primary Benefits Improved transmission efficiency     Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Baseline: 4-speed, Reference: 6-speed 6 ~ 10% 3 ~ 5% Example of Application       Reference SAE Toptec—Modern Advances in Automatic Transmission Technology, “EMAT—Electro-Mechanical Automatic Transmission”; D.Carriere, J. Cherry, R.Reed, Jr. Conclusions: An estimated 10% improvement in fuel efficiency with improved performance   Estimated 10% Improvement in fuel efficiency   Advanced CVT’s (Allows Higher Torque) FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Improved transmission efficiency using toroidal-shape and roller elements and special traction fluids. Permits use in higher torque applications.     Primary Benefits Improved transmission efficiency. Brings CVT to higher torque applications. Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Baseline 4-speed; Reference: CVT 6 ~ 13% 0 ~ 2% Example of Application       Reference Mazda’s Future—Cars and Technology for Tomorrow Conclusions: A 20% improvement in fuel economy in the Japanese 10–15 mode compared with a current 4-speed automatic transmission 20% Improvement in fuel economy  

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Integrated Starter Generator with Idle Off FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Integrated starter generator (ISG) cuts off fuel supply at idle and when the brakes are applied. Greater starter power enables the engine to be started immediately at higher speed.     Primary Benefits Less fuel loss when engine power is not necessary     Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 4V OHC engine 6 ~ 12% 4 ~ 7% Example of Application       Reference “Technology and Cost of Future Fuel Economy Improvements for Light-Duty Vehicles—Draft Final Report”; Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc.— NAS Report—June 4, 2001 Conclusions: Technology will provide for idle off, launch assist, improved power generation with a 9%—11% FE improvement.   9to11%FE improvement   42 V Electrical System FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Descriptions Changing the vehicle operation voltage from 12V into 42V permitting electronically controlled thermal management (water pump). Enabling technology for 42V ISG.     Primary Benefits Less electrical power losses with less current flow through wires; higher efficiency of the electrical components     Secondary Benefits Enables higher efficiency ISG systems     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 4V OHC engine 3 ~ 7% 1 ~ 2% Example of Application       Reference “Wards Engine and Vehicle Technology Update,” June 15, 2001, p. 7 Conclusions: Potential for electronic thermal management is 5% FE   5% FE improvement   Electric Power Steering FC Improvement From Base From Ref. Technology Description Using electric motor to drive power steering     Primary Benefits Reduced parasitic losses due to optimized operation (only when needed)     Secondary Benefits None     FC Improvement Base: 2V baseline engine; Reference: 4V OHC engine 3.5–7.5% 1.5 ~ 2.5% Example of Application       Reference ZF Lenksysteme: D.Peter, R.Gerhard SAE-Paper 199–01–0401 Conclusion: Reduction of fuel consumption by 2–3% by using electrical power steering instead of hydraulic power steering for a medium-sized vehicle.   2–3%