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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning C Workshop Agenda and Speaker Biographical Information
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning AGENDA Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy Board on Life Sciences Panel on Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Cloning August 7, 2001 The National Academies Auditorium 2101 Constitution Avenue; 2100 C Street, NW Washington, DC 8:30 a.m. Welcome Bruce Alberts, President, The National Academy of Sciences, Chair, The National Research Council Irving Weissman, Chair, National Academies Panel on Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Cloning and Karel and Avice Beekhuis Professor of Cancer Biology, Stanford University 8:35 a.m. Overview of Embryology Moderator: Irving Weissman Speaker: Virginia Papaioannou, Professor of Genetics and Development, Columbia University 8:50 a.m. Discussion 9:00 am Scientific Issues Underlying Cloning Moderator: David Galas, Vice President, Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences and Panel Member Speakers: Rudolf Jaenisch, Professor of Biology, MIT Whitehead Institute Eric Schon, Professor of Genetics and Development, Columbia University 9:45 a.m. Discussion 10:00 am Break 10:15 am Reproductive Cloning in Animals Moderator: Brigid Hogan, Hortense B. Ingram Professor, Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Panel Member
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning Speakers: Alan Colman, Research Director, PPL-Therapeutics Jonathan Hill, Assistant Professor of Theriogenology, Cornell Peter Farin, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Farm Animal Health and Resource Management, North Carolina State University Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Professor of Anatomy and Reproductive Biology, University of Hawaii 11:15 a.m. Discussion 11:30 am Cloning for Stem Cells Moderator: Anne McLaren, Principal Research Associate, The Wellcome Trust and Research Campaign, Institute of Cancer and Developmental Biology, University of Cambridge and Panel Member Speakers: Jose Cibelli, Vice-President of Research, Advanced Cell Technologies Peter Mombaerts, Head of Laboratory of Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics, Rockefeller University Alan Trounson, Deputy Director, Institute of Reproduction and Development, Monash Institute, Australia 12:00 p.m. Discussion 12:15 p.m. Lunch 1:00 p.m. Reproductive Cloning in Humans Moderator: Irving Weissman Speakers: Severino Antinori, Director, International Associated Research Institute Brigitte Boisselier, Director, Clonaid Panayiotis Michael Zavos, Director and Chief Andrologist, The Andrology Institute 1:45 p.m. Discussion 2:15 p.m. Break
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning 2:30 p.m. Applicability of Animal Cloning Data to Human Cloning Moderator: Irving Weissman Speaker: Ian Wilmut, Director, Roslin Institute 2:45 p.m. Discussion 3:00 p.m. Assisted Reproductive Technologies Moderator: Arthur Beaudet, Chair, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine and Panel Member Speakers: André Van Steirteghem, Professor of Embryology and Reproductive Biology, Brussels Free University, Brussels, Belgium Alan Trounson, Deputy Director, Institute of Reproduction and Development, Monash Institute, Australia Jay Cross, Associate Professor, Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Calgary Eugene Pergament, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University Medical School 4:00 p.m. Discussion 4:30 p.m. Break 4:45 p.m. Human Cloning: Some Public Policy Issues Moderator: Mark Siegler, Lindy Bergman Professor and Director of the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics, University of Chicago and Panel Member Speakers: John Robertson, Vinson and Wilkins Chair, University of Texas School of Law, Austin R. Alta Charo, Professor of Law and Bioethics, University of Wisconsin-Madison 5:30 p.m. Discussion 5:45 p.m. Final Thoughts 6:00 p.m. Adjourn
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning SPEAKER BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Severino Antinori is professor of reproductive physiopathology at the Medical Faculty of the Tor Vergata University in Rome. He is also scientific director of the International Research Association for Human Reproduction. He was formerly professor of physiopathology of reproduction at the University of Pisa. He is president of the Italian Society for Reproductive Medicine and vice-president of the International Association of Assisted Reproductive Medicine Centers and Laboratories. He has published more than 180 papers, mainly on male sterility, menopausal pregnancies, and human reproduction. He has published in The Lancet and The Journal of Assisted Genetics. Brigitte Boisselier is the director of Clonaid, the first human-cloning company. She received a PhD in physical chemistry from the University of Dijon, France, in 1982 and another in analytic chemistry from the University of Houston in 1985. She has published extensively in Inorganic Chemistry and Analytic Chemistry, and she holds three patents for chemical processes. Dr. Boisselier’s primary focus has been on the analysis of porphyrins with various metal-carbon and metal-metal bonds. She continues to carry on research stemming from her dissertation, which focused on porphyrins and the influence of axial and equatorial ligands on reduction-oxidation characteristics. A strong advocate of undergraduate research and scholarship, Dr. Boisselier wrote Science et Conscience, a book for the general public on advances in science. R. Alta Charo is professor of law and bioethics at the University of Wisconsin (UW) Law and Medical Schools, where she teaches bioethics and biotechnology law, food and drug law, reproductive rights, torts, and legislative drafting. In addition, she has served on the UW Hospital clinical ethics committee, the UW Institutional Review Board for the protection of human subjects in medical research, and the UW Bioethics Advisory Committee. Before her arrival at UW in 1989, Professor Charo served as associate director of the Legislative Drafting Research Fund of Columbia University, Fulbright Junior Lecturer in American Law at the Sorbonne in Paris, legal analyst for the Biological Applications Program of the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Diplomacy Fellow for the Policy Development Division of the Office of Population at the US Agency for International Development. She was a member of the 1993 National Institutes of Health Human Embryo Research Panel and since 1996 has been a member of the presidential National Bioethics Advisory Commission.
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning Jose B. Cibelli is vice president of research at Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. He received a DVM from at the University of La Plata, Argentina, in 1989 and a PhD from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst in 1998. From 1989 to 1993, he was a veterinarian at the Cooperative of Artificial Insemination of Venado Tureto, Argentina, and has several years of research experience at the Department of Veterinary and Animal Science at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, where he did his doctoral dissertation (in the laboratory of James Robl) on the production of transgenic cattle. Dr. Cibelli is one of the pioneers in cloning with transgenic somatic cells in bovine cows for the production of animals and embryonic stem cell-like cells. His work focused on the production of transgenic cattle. In January 1998, Dr. Cibelli’s efforts led to the announcement of the generation of the world’s first transgenic calves by cloning. That was followed by publications in Science, Nature Biotechnology, and Nature Medicine. Alan Colman is research director of PPL Therapeutics, a biotechnology firm based in Edinburgh, Scotland (PPL Ltd.), Blacksburg, Virginia (PPL Inc.), and New Zealand (PPL NZ). He obtained a BA in biochemistry from Oxford University (1971) and a PhD under John Gurdon, a pioneer in nuclear transfer, from the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England (1974). After a series of academic appointments in Oxford and Warwick Universities, he became professor of biochemistry in the University of Birmingham. With Ron James (managing director of PPL), he has been involved with PPL since its inception in 1987, first as part-time research director, becoming full-time (and leaving Birmingham) in 1993. PPL has recently attracted considerable media attention because of its participation in the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer. That work led to Dolly, the world’s first sheep cloned from an adult somatic cell; Polly and Molly, the first cloned transgenic livestock; Diana and Cupid, the first livestock with targeted genetic changes; and Millie and others, the first cloned pigs. Jay Cross is an associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of Calgary, an investigator of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and a senior scholar of the Alberta Heritage Foundation of Medical Research. He received a PhD from the University of Missouri and a DVM from the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. He is an expert in the molecular genetics of early embryonic development, focusing on the placenta and cardiovascular system and using transgenic and gene knockout mice. He has written extensively about the development and biology of the placenta in different mammalian species.
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning Peter Farin is an assistant professor in the Department of Farm Animal Health and Resource Management at North Carolina State University. He received his MS in animal science in 1980 from the Colorado State University, where he also got his DVM. He received his PhD in veterinary medical sciences in 1995 from North Carolina State University. He has published over 30 journal articles and 25 abstracts. He received a specialty-board certification from the American College of Theriogenologists in 1991. Dr. Farin has been a clinical instructor in the Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery at the University of Missouri. Jonathan Hill is an assistant professor in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences at Cornell University. He is a board-certified veterinary animal reproduction specialist and received his PhD in reproductive physiology from Texas A&M University in 1999. His studies at Texas A&M included observations on the clinical and pathological features of the world’s first somatic cell-cloned calves, production of a calf cloned from a 21-year-old Brahma bull, and observations on the causes of failure in first-trimester cloned pregnancies. He has extensive clinical and research experience with the in vitro production of embryos via cloning and in vitro fertilization, in vivo embryo collection, embryo transfer, pregnancy monitoring, and neonatal care. Rudolf Jaenisch is one of the founders of transgenic science (gene transfer to create mouse models of human disease). His laboratory has produced mouse models leading to new understanding of cancers and various neurological diseases. He also has made important contributions to cloning technology. Studies of cloned mice will help to decipher how the genome from an adult cell is reprogrammed to create a new organism. A founding member of the Whitehead Institute and professor of biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he received his doctorate in medicine from the University of Munich in 1967. He came to the Whitehead from the University of Hamburg, Germany, where he was head of the Department of Tumor Virology at the Heinrich Pette Institute. In 1996, he was awarded the Boehringer Mannheim Molecular Bioanalytics Prize. Peter Mombaerts is associate professor and head of the Laboratory of Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics at The Rockefeller University in New York. He received his MD in 1987 from the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, and his PhD in biology in 1992 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interest is developmental neurobiology. The approach he takes is genetic manipulation of mice, including transgenesis, targeted mutagenesis, and cloning by nuclear transfer. He has a long-standing collaboration with Teruhiko Wakayama and Anthony
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning Perry, who developed mouse-cloning technology. Dr. Mombaerts has won numerous awards, including an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, a Guggenheim Fellowship, and the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, which he received in 1997. Virginia E. Papaioannou is professor of genetics and development at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. She received her BSc in biological sciences in 1967 from the University of California, Davis and her PhD in genetics in 1972 from the University of Cambridge, England. Dr. Papaioannou is the senior editor of Differentiation and associate editor of Molecular Reproduction and Development. Previously, she was the director of the course on molecular embryology of the mouse at Cold Spring Harbor, NY, and was a professor at Tufts University School of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. She is the author or coauthor of more than 90 articles and reviews. Eugene Pergament is a medical geneticist and professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Northwestern University Medical School. He received a BS from Yale University, a PhD in genetics from Purdue University, and an MD from the University of Chicago. Dr. Pergament is certified in clinical genetics and cytogenetics by the American Board of Medical Genetics and is a founding member of the American College of Medical Genetics. He serves on numerous local, regional, and national committees and was a member of the Executive Board of the Organization for Teratogen Information Services. John A. Robertson holds the Vinson and Wilkins Chair at the University of Texas School of Law at Austin. He received his BA from Dartmouth in 1964 and his JD from Harvard University in 1968. He has written and lectured widely on law and bioethical issues. He is the author of two books in bioethics—The Rights of the Critically Ill (1983) and Children of Choice: Freedom and the New Reproductive Technologies (1994)—and numerous articles on reproductive rights, genetics, organ transplantation, and human experimentation. He has served on or been a consultant to many national bioethics advisory bodies, and he is cochair of the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Eric A. Schon is professor of genetics and development in neurobiology at Columbia University. He received his BS in chemical engineering from Columbia University in 1968 and his PhD in biological chemistry from the University of Cincinnati in 1982. He did his postdoctoral research in biochemistry in 1982-1983 at Harvard University. Dr. Schon’s research has included mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in neuromuscular disease
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning and cellular and animal models of mitochondrial disease. He has over 150 publications, many of them on mitochondrial genetics. He is a member of the New York Academy of Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and he was a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Muscular Dystrophy Association in 1995-1998. Alan Trounson is deputy director of the Institute of Reproduction and Development at Monash Institute, in Australia. He pioneered in vitro fertilization technology with Karl Wood. He received his BSc from the School of Wool and Pastoral Sciences of the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, and his PhD in agriculture from Sydney University in 1974. He has received numerous awards, including the Ford Foundation Senior Research Fellowship. He is the author or coauthor of numerous reviews and book chapters and over 200 journal articles. André Van Steirteghem is dean and professor of embryology and reproductive biology at the Medical School of the Dutch-speaking Brussels Free University (VUB). He is chairman of the Department of Radioimmunology and Reproductive Biology at the VUB Hospital and the laboratory and scientific director of the Centre for Reproductive Medicine. In the last 2 decades, the VUB Centre for Reproductive Medicine has developed into one of the world’s largest centers of assisted reproductive technology. Major developments at the Centre included the first clinical application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the largest prospective followup study of children born after assisted-reproduction technology, and one of the largest programs of preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Ian Wilmut is the director of the Roslin Institute in Scotland. He was the first to clone a mammal (in 1996), a Finn Dorset lamb named Dolly, from fully differentiated adult mammary cells. Dr. Wilmut’s work, published in 1997, pushed the concept of cloning into the news and public debate. Dr. Wilmut attended the University of Nottingham for his undergraduate work. In 1971, he received a PhD in animal genetic engineering from Darwin College of the University of Cambridge. In 1974, he joined the Animal Research Breeding Station in Scotland, which is now known as the Roslin Institute, and he has conducted research there ever since. Ryuzo Yanagimachi is professor of anatomy and reproductive biology at the University of Hawaii Medical School. His research focuses on assisted reproduction in mammals. He cloned the first male mammal from adult cells (tail tip). He also developed the Honolulu technique of injecting donor nuclei from cumulus cells (a differentiated population of ovarian granulosa cells that undergo terminal differentiation and arrest in G0 in
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning response to the midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone thus introducing a delay that seems to make blastocyst formation more likely). He also made clones of a clone in mice. Panayiotis Michael Zavos is a professor emeritus of reproductive physiology-andrology at the University of Kentucky; founder, director, and chief andrologist of the Andrology Institute of America; cofounder and codirector of the Kentucky Center for Reproductive Medicine and IVF; and president and CEO of ZDL, Inc., a private corporation that markets infertility products and technologies worldwide. He received a BS in biology and chemistry in 1970, an MS in biology and physiology in 1972, and an EdS in 1976 from Emporia State University, in Kansas. Dr. Zavos received his PhD in reproductive physiology and statistics in 1978 from the University of Minnesota in Twin Cities.
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