SPILLS OF EMULSIFIED FUELS

Risks and Response

Ocean Studies Board

Division of Earth and Life Studies

Marine Board

Transportation Research Board

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC



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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response SPILLS OF EMULSIFIED FUELS Risks and Response Ocean Studies Board Division of Earth and Life Studies Marine Board Transportation Research Board National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the committee were supported by a grant from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Department of Transportation-Coast Guard. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08301-X Additional copies of this report are available from: Ocean Studies Board, HA470 The National Academies 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 202-334-2714 http://www.nas.edu/osb Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response COMMITTEE ON SPILLS OF EMULSIFIED FUELS: RISKS AND RESPONSE JACQUELINE MICHEL (Chair), Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, South Carolina JACK W. ANDERSON, Columbia Analytical Services, Vista, California CHARLES F. BRYAN, U.S. Geological Survey and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana WILLIAM LEHR, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington MALCOLM MACKINNON III, MSCL, Alexandria, Virginia JAMES R. PAYNE, Payne Environmental Consultants, Inc., Encinitas, California GARY A. REITER, Westcliffe Environmental Consultants, Inc., Westcliffe, Colorado JOHN N. SACCO, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, New Jersey Staff DAN WALKER, Ocean Studies Board, Study Director JOANNE C. BINTZ, Ocean Studies Board, Program Officer KRIS HOELLEN, Transportation Research Board, Senior Program Officer NANCY CAPUTO, Ocean Studies Board, Senior Project Assistant DENISE GREENE, Ocean Studies Board, Senior Project Assistant The work of this committee was overseen by the Ocean Studies Board and the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK (Chair), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, San Ramon, California LARRY CROWDER, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina G. BRENT DALRYMPLE, Oregon State University, Corvallis EARL H. DOYLE, Shell Oil (ret.), Sugar Land, Texas ROBERT DUCE, Texas A&M University, College Station D. JAY GRIMES, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle MIRIAM KASTNER, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa BONNIE MCCAY, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey RAM MOHAN, Blasland, Bouck & Lee, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett NANCY RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee JON G. SUTINEN, University of Rhode Island, Kingston NANCY TARGETT, University of Delaware, Lewes PAUL TOBIN, Xtria, Chantilly, Virginia JAMES YODER, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director SUSAN ROBERTS, Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer JOANNE C. BINTZ, Program Officer JENNIFER MERRILL, Program Officer TERRY SCHAEFER, Program Officer JOHN DANDELSKI, Research Associate ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Officer SHIREL SMITH, Office Manager JODI BACHIM, Senior Project Assistant NANCY CAPUTO, Senior Project Assistant DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant DARLA KOENIG, Senior Project Assistant JULIE PULLEY, Project Assistant

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response MARINE BOARD RADOJE (ROD) VULOVIC (Chair), U.S. Ship Management, Inc., Charlotte, North Carolina R. KEITH MICHEL (Vice-Chair), Herbert Engineering Corporation Alameda, California PETER F. BONTADELLI, JR., PFB and Associates, Sacramento, California BILIANA CICIN-SAIN, University of Delaware, Newark BILLY L. EDGEPETER J. FINNERTY, Amercian Ocean Enterprises, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland MARTHA R. GRABOWSKI, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Cazenovia, New York RODNEY GREGORY, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Arlington, Virginia I. BERNARD JACOBSON, Consultant, Long Island, New York GERALDINE KNATZ, Port of Long Beach, Long Beach, California SALLY ANN LENTZ, Ocean Advocates, Clarksville, Maryland PHILIP LI-FAN LIU, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York MALCOLM MACKINNON III, MSCL, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia REGINALD E. MCKAMIE, Attorney, Houston, Texas SPYROS P. PAVLOU, Environmental Risk Economics, URS Corporation, Seattle, Washington CRAIG E. PHILIP, Ingram Barge Company, Nashville, Tennesee EDWIN J. ROLAND, Elmer-Roland Maritime Consultants, Houston, Texas E. G. WARD, Texas A & M University, College Station DAVID J. WISCH, Texaco, Bellaire, Texas Staff JOEDY CAMBRIDGE, Marine Specialist SUSAN GARBINI, Senior Program Officer

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Peter Bontadelli (PFB and Associates), Michel Boufadel (Temple University), David Fritz (BP/AMOCO), Stephen Monosmith (Stanford University), Jeffrey Short (National Marine Fisheries Service), Christopher Reddy (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Sylvia Talmage (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Andrew Solow, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Preface Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response is part of an evolving body of work conducted by the National Research Council (NRC) to help inform debate and decision-making regarding the ecological consequences of releases associated with the widespread use of fossil fuels. Like earlier NRC reports, it attempts to understand the chemical, physical, and biological behavior of a complex mix of compounds that make up various petroleum hydrocarbon-based fuels. The specific risk factors presented by emulsified fuels are difficult to characterize, mainly because there have been no spills of emulsified fuels to date, and thus there is little practical experience with these products. The Committee on Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response faced some special challenges in the conduct of this study. First, it had to evaluate a new product with very little real-world data for validation of the assumptions used in models and risk assessments. In addition, the committee had to evaluate a new formulation as of 1998, when much of the early research results were for the previous formulation. It became necessary to decide which results could be applied to the new formulation and which results had to be set aside. Second, Orimulsion® is a complex, multicomponent fuel that, when spilled, behaves very differently than other known types of oil. One of the first activities of the committee was to create its own conceptual models of how this fuel would behave when spilled in different combinations of water salinity, rates of diffusion and dilution, and current speeds. During this process, committee members developed a better understanding of how this product behaves when spilled and the potential for impacts on sensitive resources. These conceptual models became the basis for discussions in each of the chapters on fate and behavior, effects, and response.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Another challenge was how to evaluate the impacts of a spill on top of background levels of widely used chemicals (namely, a specific group of surfactants) that are beginning to be considered as chronic contaminants of concern. Spills by their nature are unpredictable and episodic. How does one evaluate the potential impacts of such events in light of the background of other sources of environmental stressors? There has been a growing recognition of the potential for impacts from surfactants that are widely used in household products as well as industrial applications. The committee had to evaluate potential impacts from spills within the framework of this growing, yet undefined, level of concern for the chronic environmental impacts of this group of surfactants. Despite these hurdles and the tight time frame, what follows is, in my opinion, a very credible review of the work completed to date and an evenhanded discussion of the remaining questions. As with all such efforts, only the hard work of the committee members and the NRC staff made the report possible. I would like to take this opportunity to recognize their contributions. Jacqueline Michel Chair, Committee on Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW   7 2   BEHAVIOR AND FATES: SUMMARY AND EVALUATION OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION   14 3   ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: SUMMARY AND EVALUATION OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION   44 4   EFFICACY OF RESPONSE: SUMMARY AND EVALUATION OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION   66     REFERENCES   81     APPENDIXES         A COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES   89     B LITERATURE REVIEWED BY THE COMMITTEE   92     C ACRONYMS   104

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