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AEA Technology. 1996. Investigations into Landspills of Orimulsion. Report no. AEA/WMES/ RMAF/20206001. Oxfordshire, UK.1

Ahel, M., E. Moinar, S. Ibric, and W. Giger. 2000. Estrogenic metabolites of alkylphenol polyethoxylates in secondary sewage effluents and rivers. Water Science and Technology 42(7-8):15-22.

American Petroleum Institute. 1999. Beyond 2000, balancing perspectives. In: Proceedings of the 1999 International Oil Spill Conference, Seattle, Washington. Publication no. 4686B. Washington, D.C: American Petroleum Institute.

Anderson, J. W., J. M. Neff, B. A. Cox, H. E. Tatem, and G. M. Hightower. 1974a. Characteristics of dispersions and water-soluble extracts of crude and refined oils and their toxicity to estuarine crustaceans and fish. Marine Biology 27:75-88.

Anderson, J. W., J. M. Neff, B. A. Cox, H. E. Tatem, and G. M. Hightower. 1974b. The effects of oil on estuarine animals: Toxicity, uptake and depuration, respiration. In: Pollution and Physiology of Marine Organisms, F. J. and W. B. Vernberg, (eds.). New York: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 285-310.

Anderson, J. W., S. L. Kiesser, R. M. Bean, R. G. Riley, and B. L. Thomas. 1981. Toxicity of chemically dispersed oil to shrimp exposed to constant and decreasing concentrations in a flowing system. In: Proceedings of the 1981 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp. 69-75.

Anderson, J. W., S. L. Kiesser, D. L. McQuerry, R. G. Riley, and M. L. Fleischmann. 1984. Toxicity testing with constant or diluting concentrations of chemically dispersed oil. In: E. A. Thomas (ed.). Oil Spill Chemical Dispersant: Research, Experience, and Recommendations. STP 840. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 14-22.

1  

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response References AEA Technology. 1996. Investigations into Landspills of Orimulsion. Report no. AEA/WMES/ RMAF/20206001. Oxfordshire, UK.1 Ahel, M., E. Moinar, S. Ibric, and W. Giger. 2000. Estrogenic metabolites of alkylphenol polyethoxylates in secondary sewage effluents and rivers. Water Science and Technology 42(7-8):15-22. American Petroleum Institute. 1999. Beyond 2000, balancing perspectives. In: Proceedings of the 1999 International Oil Spill Conference, Seattle, Washington. Publication no. 4686B. Washington, D.C: American Petroleum Institute. Anderson, J. W., J. M. Neff, B. A. Cox, H. E. Tatem, and G. M. Hightower. 1974a. Characteristics of dispersions and water-soluble extracts of crude and refined oils and their toxicity to estuarine crustaceans and fish. Marine Biology 27:75-88. Anderson, J. W., J. M. Neff, B. A. Cox, H. E. Tatem, and G. M. Hightower. 1974b. The effects of oil on estuarine animals: Toxicity, uptake and depuration, respiration. In: Pollution and Physiology of Marine Organisms, F. J. and W. B. Vernberg, (eds.). New York: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 285-310. Anderson, J. W., S. L. Kiesser, R. M. Bean, R. G. Riley, and B. L. Thomas. 1981. Toxicity of chemically dispersed oil to shrimp exposed to constant and decreasing concentrations in a flowing system. In: Proceedings of the 1981 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp. 69-75. Anderson, J. W., S. L. Kiesser, D. L. McQuerry, R. G. Riley, and M. L. Fleischmann. 1984. Toxicity testing with constant or diluting concentrations of chemically dispersed oil. In: E. A. Thomas (ed.). Oil Spill Chemical Dispersant: Research, Experience, and Recommendations. STP 840. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 14-22. 1   Orimulsion® is a registered trademark belonging to Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor) and licensed to Bitor America Corporation.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Anderson, J. W., R. Riley, S. Kiesser, and J. Gurtisen. 1987. Toxicity of dispersed and undispersed Prudhoe Bay crude oil fractions to shrimp and fish. In: Proceedings of the 1987 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp. 235-240. Ankley, G. T., R. J. Erickson, G. L. Phipps, V. R. Mattson, P. A. Kosian, B. R. Sheedy, and J.S.Cox. 1995. Effects of light-intensity on the phototoxicity of fluoranthene to a benthic macroinvertebrate. Environmental Science and Technology 29 (11):2828-2833. Armsworthy, S. L., P. J. Canford, G. H. Tremblay, and K. Lee. 1999. Effects of Orimulsion on Food Acquisition and Growth of Sea Scallops. Nova Scotia, Canada: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Marine Environmental Science Division, Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Ault, J. S., M. A. Harwell, and V. Myers, (eds.) 1995. Comparative Ecological Risk Assessment. Technical Support Document for the Comparison of the Ecological Risks to the Tampa Bay Ecosystem from Spills of Fuel Oil #6 and Orimulsion. Final Report, Volume II. Miami, Florida: University of Miami, Center for Marine and Environmental Analyses, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Bitor America Corporation. 1997. Orimulsion Containment and Recovery Test Carried Out in Puerto La Cruz, Anzoategui State, Venezuela. Final Report, Version 1.1., Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitor America Corporation. 1999. Orimulsion Spill Response Manual. Volume II: Protection and Cleanup of Marine Shorelines. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor) a. Physical and Chemical Properties of Orimulsion-400. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor) b. Orimulsion—Behavior of Orimulsion-400 in Water. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bjornestad, E., A. R. Pedersen, and S. Bowadt. 1998. Ecotoxicological characterization of Orimulsion 400: Summary Report. VKI Project Number 11020. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI. Boesch, D. F., and N. Rabalais, (eds.). 1987. Long-term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development. New York: Elsevier Applied Science. Bowadt, S., B. Jensen, and K. Lund. 1998. Development of an Electrospray Determination of Alcohol Ethoxylates in Water Samples down to Trace Levels. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI. Brown, J., H. Fuentes, R. Jaffé, and V. Tsihrintzis. 1995. Comparative evaluation of physical and chemical fate processes of Orimulsion and fuel oil No. 6 in the Tampa Bay marine environment . In: Comparative Ecological Risk Assessment-Technical Support Document for the Comparison of the Ecological Risks to the Tampa Bay Ecosystem from Spills of Fuel Oil #6 and Orimulsion-Final Report, Ault, J. S., M. A. Harwell, and V. Myers, (eds.). Miami, Florida: University of Miami, Center for Marine and Environmental Analyses, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Calabrese, E., P. Kostecki, and L. Baldwin. 1995. Toxicological assessment of Fuel Oil Number 6 and Orimulsion: recommendations for future testing. In: Comparative Ecological Risk Assessment-Technical Support Document for the Comparison of the Ecological Risks to the Tampa Bay Ecosystem from Spills of Fuel Oil #6 and Orimulsion—Final Report, Volume II, Ault, J. S., M. A. Harwell, and V. Myers, (eds.). Miami, Florida: University of Miami, Center for Marine and Environmental Analyses, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Chemical Transportation Advisory Committee. 1996-1997. Subcommittee for Hazardous Substance Response Planning. Findings of the working group for evaluating existing response capability. Clement, F., P. Gunter, and D. Oland. 1997. Trials of recovery and clean-up techniques on bitumen derived from Orimulsion. In: Proceedings of the 1997 International Oil Spill Conference, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp. 89-93. Conover, R. J. 1971. Some relations between zooplankton and bunker C oil in Chedabucto Bay following the wreck of the tanker Arrow. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 28(9):1327-1330.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Corner, E. D. S., R. P. Harris, C. C. Kilvington, and S. C. M. O’Hara. 1976a. Petroleum compounds in marine food web: short-term experiments on the fate of naphthalene in Calanus . Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 56(1):121-133. Corner, E. D. S., R. P. Harris, K. J. Whittle, and P. R. Mackie. 1976b. Hydrocarbons in marine zooplankton and fish. In: Effects of Pollutants on Aquatic Organisms, A. P. M. Lockwood (ed.). London: Cambridge University Press, pp. 71-105. Crosbie, A., and A. Lewis. 1998a. Laboratory Studies on the Spill Behavior of Orimulsion-100 and Orimulsion-400. Report No. AEAT-3381. Oxfordshire, UK: National Environmental Technology Centre. Crosbie, A., and A. Lewis.1998b. Studies on the Spill Behavior of Orimulsion-100 and Orimulsion-400 Using Standard WSL and IFP Tests. Report No. AEAT-3481. Oxfordshire, U.K.: National Environmental Technology Centre. Davis, J.W., and C. L. Carpenter. 1997. Environmental assessment of the alkanolamines. In: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 49. New York: Springer Verlag. Di Corcia, A., C. Crescenzi, A. Marcomini, and R. Samperi. 1998. Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry as a valuable tool for characterizing biodegradation intermediates of branched alcohol ethoxylate surfactants. Environmental Science & Technology 32(5):711-718. Deis, D. R., N. Garcia Tavel, C. Villoria, G. Febres Ortega, P. Masciangioli, M. A. Jones, and G. R. Lee. 1997. Orimulsion: Research and testing and open water containment and recovery trials. In: Proceedings of the 1997 International Oil Spill Conference, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Washington D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp. 459-467. Dorn, P. B., J. P. Salanitro, S. H. Evens, and L. Kravetz. 1993. Assessing the aquatic hazard of some branch and linear nonionic surfactants by biodegradation and toxicity. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12(10):1751-1762. Dorn, P. B., J. H. Rodgers Jr., W. B. Gillespie Jr., R. E. Lizotte Jr., and A. W. Dunn. 1997. The effects of a C12-13 linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactant on periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrates and fish in stream mesocosms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16(8):1634-1645. Duffy, L. K., R. T. Bowyer, J. W. Testa, and J. B. Faro. 1994. Chronic effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on blood and enzyme chemistry of river otters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13(4):643-647. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2000. Annual electric generator report. Annual Energy Review 1999. DOE/EIA-0384(99). Energy Information Administration. 2001. Annual energy outlook 2001: With projections to 2020. Environment Canada. 2001. PAH Concentrations in Crude Oils and Refined Products. Unpub. Environment Canada, Ottawa. European Commission. In press. Draft European union risk assessment report: Nonylphenol and phenol, 4-nonyl-, branched. Febres, G. A., J. A. Gonçalvez, and J. Vilas. 1995. Fate and Behavior of Orimulsion Spilt in Sea Water. Intevep, S.A. French, D. P., and D. Mendelsohn. 1995. Development and application of an Orimulsion spill fate and effects model. In: Proceedings of the 18th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program, Technical Seminar, June 14-16, 1995, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Environment Canada, Volume 2, pp. 769-792. French, D., M. Reed, K. Jayko, S. Feng, H. M. Rines, S. Pavignano, T. Isaji, S. Puckett, A. Keller, F. W. French III, D. Gifford, J. McCue, G. Brown, E. MacDonald, J. Quirk, S. Natzke, R. Bishop, M. Welsh, M. Phillips, and B. S. Ingram. 1996. The CERCLA type A natural resource damage assessment model for coastal and marine environments (NRDAM/CME), technical documentation, Vol. I-V, final report, Contract number 14-0001-91-C-11. Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance, U.S. Department of the Interior: Washington, D.C.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response French, D. P., H. Rines, and P. Masciangioli. 1997. Validation of an Orimulsion spill fates model using observations from field test spills. In: Proceedings of the 20th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar. Environment Canada, pp. 933-961. French, D. 2000. Final Report: Update of the SIMAP Model for Orimulaion-400. Bitor Europe Limited, pp 66.* French McCay, D., and C. Galagan. 2001. Modeling of Orimulsion and Heavy Fuel Oil Spills in Delaware River and Bay. Report No. 00-050. Narragansett, Rhode Island: Applied Science Associates. Fry, D. M., and L. J. Lowenstine. 1985. Pathology of common murres and Cassin’s auklets exposed to oil. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 14:725-737. Garcia Tavel, N., C. Villoria, G. Febres Ortega, P. Mansciangioli, M. Jones, and G. Lee, 1997. Orimulsion research and testing and open water containment and recovery trials. In: Proceedings of the 1997 International Oil Spill Conference, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, April 7-10. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp. 459-467. Gauvry, G. A., and E. A. Miller. 1995. Florida Power and Light Research Program on Orimulsion Contamination of Avian Species and Feasibility of Cleaning. Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research, Inc.* Golder and Associates, Inc., 2001. Golder—Surfactant Fact Sheet: Orimulsion-400 Surfactant Package, 013 7572, September 26, 2001. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Golder Associates Geoanalysis S.r.l. 1999. Orimulsion-400 and Fuel Oil No.6: A Comparative Study of Aquatic Ecotoxicology . Report No. 992210/3683. Rome, Italy: Bitor Italia S.r.l.* Guénette, C., G. Sergy, and B. Fieldhouse. 1998. Removal of stranded bitumen from intertidal sediments using chemical agents. Phase I: Screening of chemical agents. Report no. EE-162. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada. Harper, J. R., and M. Kory. 1997. Orimulsion Shoreline Studies Program Sediment Interaction Experiments. Manuscript Report Environmental Protection Directorate, Ottawa, Ontario. Harwell, M. A., and I. C. Johnson. 2000. Appendix H: Comparative ecological risk assessment of Orimulsion spills in Tampa Bay: Supplemental information. Golder Associates, Inc., Gainesville, Florida. Hemond, H. F., and E. J. Fechner. 1994. Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc. Hvidbak, F., and P. Masciangioli. 2000. The development and test of equipment for rapid refloatation of spilled Orimulsion. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, Environment Canada 1:469-480. Johnson, I., P. Jokuty, K. Doe, and S. Blenkinsopp. 1998. A review of methods used in the preparation and analysis of Orimulsion related samples (Part 2-Aquatic toxicology). In: Proceedings of the 23rd Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP), Technical Seminar. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada, pp. 261-279. Johnson, I. C. 1998. Summary of the environmental fate and effects of Orimulsion-400. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Jokuty, P., S. Whiticar, M. Fingas, Z. Wang, K. Doe, D. Kyle, P. Lambert, and B. Fieldhouse. 1995. Orimulsion: Physical properties, chemical composition, dispersibility and toxicity. Report no. EE-154. Ottawa, Ontario: Environment Canada. Jokuty, P., S. Whiticar, Z. Wang, K. Doe, B. Fieldhouse, and M. Fingas. 1999. Orimulsion-400: A Comparative Study, Manuscript Report no. EE-160, Ottawa, Ontario: Environmental Protection Service, Environment Canada. Karsa, D. R. (ed.). 1998. New Products and Applications in Surfactant Technology. Sheffield, U.K.: Academic Press Ltd. Kravetz, L., J. P. Salanitro, P. B. Dorn, and K. F. Guin. 1991. Influence of hydrophobe type and extent of branching on environmental response factors of nonionic surfactants. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 68:610-618.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Lapham, L., L. Proctor, and J. Chanton. 1999. Using respiration rates and stable carbon isotopes to monitor the biodegradation of Orimulsion by marine benthic bacteria. Environmental Science & Technology 33(12):2035-2039. Lee, R. 1975. Fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine zooplankton. In: Proceedings of the 1975 Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Pollution. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp. 549-553. Leighton, F. A., D. B. Peakall, and R. G. Butler. 1983. Heinz-body hemolytic-anemia from ingestion of crude oil: A primary toxic effect in marine birds. Science 220:871-873. Li, M., and C. Garrett. 1998. The relationship between oil droplet size and upper ocean turbulence. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36(12):961-970. Lunel, T. 1993. Dispersion: Oil droplet size measurements at sea. In: Proceedings of the 16th Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada, pp. 1023-1056. M3 Incorporated. 1996. Orimulsion: Applicability of Sorbents and Polymers for Spill Recovery in Freshwater Environments. Orimulsion Sorbent Evaluation Phase I, Vol. FW002.* Marcomini, A., M. Zanette, G. Pojana, and M. J. F. Suter. 2000a. Behavior of aliphatic alcohol polyethoxylates and their metabolites under standardized aerobic biodegradation conditions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19(3):549-554. Marcomini, A., G. Pojana, C. Carrer, L. Cavalli, G. Cassani, and M. Lazzarin. 2000b. Aerobic biodegradation of monobranched aliphatic alcohol polyethoxylates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19(3):555-560. Markarian, R. K., K. W. Pontasch, D. R. Peterson, and A. I. Hughes. 1989. Comparative toxicities of selected surfactants to aquatic organisms. In: Review and Analysis of Environmental Data on Exxon Surfactants and Related Compounds, Technical Report. East Milestone, N.J.: Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc. Meador, J. P., J. E. Stein, W. L. Reichert, and U. Varanasi. 1995. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by marine organisms. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 143:79-165. Michel, J., D. Scholz, C. B. Henry, and B. L. Benggio. 1995. Group V fuel oils: Source, behavior, and response issues. In: Proceedings from the 1995 International Oil Spill Conference, Long Beach, California. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute. Middleton, C., R. Brown, and J. Lucarelli. 1995. Report on Orimulsion Pollution Control Testing, Cape Canaveral Marine Services, Inc., Cape Canaveral, Florida.* Miller, C. A., and R. K. Srivastava. 2000. The combustion of Orimulsion and its generation of air pollutants. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 26(2):131-160. Miller, C. A., K. Dreher, R. Wentsell, and R. J. Nadeau. 2001. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Orimulsion® Technology Assessment Program. Volume 1. Excecutive Summary, Basic Report, Appendix Q. EPA-600/R-01-056a. Morgan, D. C., and W. A. Fernie. 1995. Report on the Orimulsion Pollution Control Testing Carried Out. OSSC. Southhampton, UK: Frank Ayles & Associates Limited. National Energy Policy Development Group (NEPDG). 2001. Reliable, Affordable, and Environmentally Sound Energy for America’s Future. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available at: http://www.energy.gov/HQPress/releases01/maypr/energy_policy.htm. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ADIOS Model Database. National Research Council (NRC). 1985. Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1999. Spills of Nonfloating Oils Risk and Response. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Naylor, C. G., J. P. Mieure, W. J. Adams, J. A. Weeks, F. J. Castaldi, L. D. Ogle, and R. R. Romano. 1992. Alkylphenol ethoxylates in the environment. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 69:695-703.

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response VKI. 1997b. Biodegradability of 75090 Monoethalomine - Marine Closed Bottle Test (Test Period October 10, 1997 - November 11, 1997), GLP Study # 81047-2/064. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI. VKI. 1999. Orimulsion-400 and Heavy Fuel Oil: Assessment of Risks for Marine Accidents and the Environment During Transport to Asnæs Power Plant. Project No. 11896. Wang, Z., and M. Fingas. 1996. Separation and characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Surfactant in Orimulsion Dispersion Samples. Environmental Science and Technology 30:3351-3361. Wells, P., J. N. Butler, and J. Staveley Hughes, (eds.). 1995. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Fate and Effects in Alaskan Waters. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing Materials. Witham, R. 1983. A review of some petroleum impacts on sea turtles. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Cetaceans and Sea Turtles in the Gulf of Mexico: Study Planning for Effects of Outer Continental Shelf Development. Report no. USFWS/OBS. C. E. Kellis and J. K. Adams (eds.). Wolfe, M., J. White, G. Gauvry, and S. Patton. 2001. Orimulsion/No. 6 fuel oil toxicity in mallards: Phase I. Gainesville, Florida: Golder Associates Inc.* Wood, P. 1996. Investigations into Land Spills of Orimulsion. Oxfordshire, U.K.: AEA Technology, pp. 1-18. *   Contact Bitor America Corporation at the address below to obtain technical reports. Bitor America Corporation 5100 Town Center Circle, Suite 301 Boca Raton, Florida 33486 (561) 392-0026 (561) 392-0490 http://www.bitoramerica.com/

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