Appendix B
Literature Reviewed by the Committee

AEA Technology. 1999. Landspills of Orimulsion 100 and Orimulsion 400. National Environmental Technology Centre, Oxfordshire, U.K: AEA Technology.

AEA Technology. 1998. Studies on the Spill Behavior of Orimulsion-100 and Orimulsion-400 Using Standard WSL and IFP Tests. AEAT-3481. Oxfordshire, UK: AEA Technology.

AEA Technology. The Use of Pumping and Flotation to Recover Sub-Surface Dispersed Orimulsion-400: Tests at OSRL. Oxfordshire, UK: AEA Technology.

Ahel, M., J. McEvoy, and W. Giger. 1993. Bioaccumulation of the lipophilic metabolites of nonionic surfactants in fresh water organisms. Environmental Pollution 79(3):243-248.

Anderson, J. W. 1986. Predicting the effects of complex mixtures on marine invertebrates by use of a toxicity index. In: Environmental Hazard Assessment of Effluents. Special Publication of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. C. H. Ward and B. T. Walton (eds.), New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 115-122.

Anderson, J. W. 1977. Responses to sublethal levels of petroleum hydrocarbons: Are they sensitive indicators and do they correlate with tissue contamination. In: Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Organisms and Ecosystems. D. A. Wolf (ed.), New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 95-114.

Ault, J. S., M. A. Harwell, and V. Myers, (eds.). Comparative Ecological Risk Assessment. Technical Support Document for the Comparison of the Ecological Risks to the Tampa Bay Ecosystem From Spills of Fuel Oil #6 and Orimulsion. Volume I- II. Miami, Florida: University of Miami, Center for Marine and Environmental Analyses, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science.


Banat, I. M., R. S. Makkar, and S. S. Cameotra. 2000. Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 53(5):495-508.

Barber, L. B. II, J. A. Leenheer, W. E. Pereira, T. L. Noyes, G. A. Brown, C. F. Tabor, and J. H. Writegr. 1995. Organic contamination of the Mississippi River. In: Contaminants in the Mississippi River. R. H. Meade, (ed.), U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1133. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office , pp. 115-135.

Bartnik, F., and K. Kunstler. 1987. Biological effects, toxicology and human safety. In: Surfactants in Consumer Products. New York: Springer Verlag, pp. 475-503.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Appendix B Literature Reviewed by the Committee AEA Technology. 1999. Landspills of Orimulsion 100 and Orimulsion 400. National Environmental Technology Centre, Oxfordshire, U.K: AEA Technology. AEA Technology. 1998. Studies on the Spill Behavior of Orimulsion-100 and Orimulsion-400 Using Standard WSL and IFP Tests. AEAT-3481. Oxfordshire, UK: AEA Technology. AEA Technology. The Use of Pumping and Flotation to Recover Sub-Surface Dispersed Orimulsion-400: Tests at OSRL. Oxfordshire, UK: AEA Technology. Ahel, M., J. McEvoy, and W. Giger. 1993. Bioaccumulation of the lipophilic metabolites of nonionic surfactants in fresh water organisms. Environmental Pollution 79(3):243-248. Anderson, J. W. 1986. Predicting the effects of complex mixtures on marine invertebrates by use of a toxicity index. In: Environmental Hazard Assessment of Effluents. Special Publication of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. C. H. Ward and B. T. Walton (eds.), New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 115-122. Anderson, J. W. 1977. Responses to sublethal levels of petroleum hydrocarbons: Are they sensitive indicators and do they correlate with tissue contamination. In: Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Organisms and Ecosystems. D. A. Wolf (ed.), New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 95-114. Ault, J. S., M. A. Harwell, and V. Myers, (eds.). Comparative Ecological Risk Assessment. Technical Support Document for the Comparison of the Ecological Risks to the Tampa Bay Ecosystem From Spills of Fuel Oil #6 and Orimulsion. Volume I- II. Miami, Florida: University of Miami, Center for Marine and Environmental Analyses, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Banat, I. M., R. S. Makkar, and S. S. Cameotra. 2000. Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 53(5):495-508. Barber, L. B. II, J. A. Leenheer, W. E. Pereira, T. L. Noyes, G. A. Brown, C. F. Tabor, and J. H. Writegr. 1995. Organic contamination of the Mississippi River. In: Contaminants in the Mississippi River. R. H. Meade, (ed.), U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1133. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office , pp. 115-135. Bartnik, F., and K. Kunstler. 1987. Biological effects, toxicology and human safety. In: Surfactants in Consumer Products. New York: Springer Verlag, pp. 475-503.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Benggio, B. 1994. An Evaluation of Options for Removing Submerged Oil Offshore Treasure Island, HMRAD 94-5. Benke, A. C. 2001. Importance of flood regime to invertebrate habitat in an unregulated riverfloodplain ecosystem. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20(2): 225-240. Benke, A. C., R. L. Henry, D. M. Gillespie, and R. J. Hunter. 1985. Importance of snag habitat for animal production in Southeastern streams. Fisheries 10(5): 8-13. Benoit, S. 1994. Orimulsion Trials: July 12-14, 1994, Emergency Services Center, Mulgrave, Nova Scotia, Canada.* Bishop, W. E., and R. L. Perry. 1981. Development and evaluation of a flow-through growth inhibition test with duckweed (Lemna minor L.). In: Toxicology and Hazard Assessment, D. R. Branson and K. L. Dickson, (eds). Aquatic Fourth Conference ASTM STP 737. Bitor America Corporation. Orimulsion: Clean Power for the Future. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitor America Corporation. 1994. Bitor America Corporation Corporate Response Plan, Volume II, Appendix II. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitor America Corporation. 1994. Summary Report: Orimulsion.* Bitor America Corporation. 1995. Environmental Review of Orimulsion Production and Transport in Venezuela. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitor America Corporation. 1996. Summary of Studies Conducted on the Environment, Fate, and Effects of Orimulsion. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitor America Corporation. 1997. Orimulsion Containment and Recovery Test Carried Out in Puerto La Cruz, Anzoategui State, Venezuela. Final Report. Version 1.1. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitor America Corporation. 1998. Laboratory Testing on the Dispersibility of 2 Orimulsion Formulations, R.98.14.C. Cedre/Bitor.* Bitor America Corporation. 1999. Orimulsion Fact Sheet, Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor)* Bitor America Corporation. 1999. Orimulsion Fact Sheet—Air Pollutant Emissions of Trace Elements and Compounds, Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor)* Bitor America Corporation. 1999. Orimulsion Fact Sheet—Ecological Risk Assessment, Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor) * Bitor America Corporation. 1999. Orimulsion Spill Response Manual Volume II: Protection and Cleanup of Marine Shorelines. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitor America Corporation. 1999. Underwater Remote Detection (URD) of Orimulsion Using Sonar, Phase 1 Report. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitor America Corporation.1999. Safety Plan for the Transportation of Orimulsion from New Orleans to Henderson, Kentucky. Orimulsion Barge Safety Plan. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitor Europe Limited. Containment/Recovery/Clean-Up Technology for Orimulsion Spills.* Bitor Europe Limited. 1994. Orimulsion: A Natural Bitumen-in-Water Emulsion. Health Safety and Environment Manual - Version 4.0.: Bitor Europe Limited.* Bitor Europe Limited. 1994. Orimulsion Emergency Manual. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor). 1996. Final Report of Orimulsion Containment and Recovery Test Carried Out in Puerto La Cruz, Anzoatequi State, Venezuela. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporaton.* Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor). 1999. Orimulsion Fact Sheet: Ecological Risk Assessment. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor). 1999. Orimulsion Fact Sheet—Fine Particulate Matter Emissions. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor) 1999. Environmental Aspects Associated with the Life Cycle of Orimulsion, Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor).

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor). 2001. Orimulsion Fact Sheet - Physical and Chemical Properties of Orimulsion-400. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Boggis, C. J., M. S. Hamilton, and M. J. Herz. 1999. Threading the Needle: Analysis of the Julie N Oil Spill and Its Aftermath, Portland, Maine: University of Southern Maine. Bowadt, S., B. Jensen, and K. Lund. 1998. Development of an Electrospray and Determination of Alcohol Ethoxylates in Water Samples Down to Trace Levels, Hørsholm, Denmark, VKI. Brey, L., J. Rodríguez Grau, and W. Feragotto. 1995. Toxicity Evaluation of Orimulsion, Bitumen Cerro Negro, Intan 100, and Fuel Oil No. 6 on the Fertility of the Sea Urchin Species Echinometra lucenter, and on Survival of the Coral Species Tubastrea aurea. Caracas, Venezuela: Intevep, S.A., Center for Research and Technological Support of Petróleos de Venezuela. Brown, D., H. de Henau, J. T. Garrigan, P. Gerike, M. Holt, E. Keck, E. Kunke, E. Matthjis, J. Waters, and R. J. Watkinson. 1986. Removal of nonionics in a sewage treatment plant. Removal of domestic detergent nonionic surfactants in an activated sludge sewage treatment plant. Tenside 23:190-195. Bruno, M. S. 1995. Laboratory Study of the Dispersion Characteristics of Orimulsion. Proprietary Technical Report No. SIT-DL-95-9-2734. Hoboken, New Jersey: Stevens Institute of Technology, Davidson Laboratory. Bryan, C. F., D. A. Rutherford, and B. Walker-Bryan. 1992. Acidification of the lower Mississippi River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121(3):369-377. Burns, G. H. III, C. A. Benson, T. Eason, J. Michel, S. Kelly, B. Benggio, and M. Ploen. 1995. Recovery of Submerged Oil at San Juan, Puerto Rico 1994. In: Proceedings of the14th International Oil Spill Conference, Long Beach, CA. pp 551-557 Cardellini, P., and L. Ometto. 2001. Teratogenic and toxic effects of alcohol ethoxylate and alcohol ethoxy sulfate surfactants on Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 48(2):170-177. Castle, R. W., F. Wehrenberg, J. Bartlett, and J. Nuckols. 1995. Heavy Oil Spills: Out of Sight, Out of Mind. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Oil Spill Conference, Long Beach, California, pp. 565-571. Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA). 1991. Early life stage toxicity of nonylphenol to the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. Unpublished report. Washington, D.C.: CMA. Cooper, D., and F. Hvidbak. 2000. Evaluation of mechanical recovery devices for spills of Orimulsion. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program, Technical Seminar, 2000. Environment Canada, 1:337-351. Dolan, J. M. III, C. B. Gregg, J. Cairs Jr., K. L. Dickson, and A. C. Hendricks. 1974. The acute toxicity of three new surfactant mixtures to a mayfly larvae. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 74(1):123-132. Dorn, P. B., J. H. Rodgers, S. T. Dubey, W. B. Gillespie, and R. E. Lizotte. 1997. An assessment of the ecological effects of a C9-11 linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactant in stream mesocosm experiments. Ecotoxicology 6(5):275-292. Dorn, P. B., J. H. Rodgers, Jr., S. T. Dubey, W. B. Gillespie, Jr., and A. R. Figueroa. 1996. Assessing the effects of a C14-15 linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactant in stream mesocosms. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 34(2):196-204. Dunphy, J. C., D. G. Pessler, S. W. Morral, K. A. Evans, D. A. Robaugh, G. Fujimoto, and A. Negahban. 2001. Derivatization LC/MS for the simultaneous determination of fatty alcohol and alcohol ethoxylate surfactants in water and wastewater samples Environmental Science and Technology 35(6):1223-1230. Energy Information Administration. 1998. International Petroleum Statistics Report, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Environment Canada, Emergencies Science Division. 1994. Physical Properties, Chemical Composition, Dispersibility, and Toxicity of Orimulsion. Final Draft. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada, Emergencies Science Division.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response EPACH Corporation, and KBN Engineering and Applied Sciences. 1995. Acute Toxicity Tests of Orimulsion and Fuel Oil No. 6 Using Standard Test Species, COSAP Technical Document for Licensing Support. Center for Marine and Environmental Analyses, University of Miami, Unpubl.* Etkin, D. S. 2001. Tanker and Barge Oil Spills in US Waterways 1973-2000. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, Ocean Studies Board. Febres, G. A., J. A. Gonçalvez, and J. Vilas. 1995. Fate and Behavior of Orimulsion Spilt in Sea Water, Intevep, S.A. Federle, T. W., R. M. Ventullo, and D. C. White. 1990. Spatial distribution of microbial biomass, activity, community structure, and the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) in the subsurface. Microbial Ecology 20:297-313. Feijtel, T. C. J., J. Struijs, and E. Matthijs. 1999. Exposure modeling of detergent surfactants—Prediction of 90th-percentile concentrations in the Netherlands. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(11):2645-2652. Field Studies Council, and Oil Pollution Research Unit (OPRU). 1991. Orimulsion Spillage Emergency Plan—Mersey Estuary. Field Studies Council. 1992. Orimulsion Spillage Emergency Plan, Milford Haven, Oil Pollution Research Unit. Fingas, M. Heavy Oil Behaviour in the Ocean, Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada. Frank Ayles and Associates, Ltd. 1995. Report on the Orimulsion Pollution Control Testing Carried Out at OSSC, Southampton, U.K., Ref: FAA/SP102A. London, U.K.: Frank Ayles and Associates, Ltd. Fremling, C. R., J. L. Rasmussen, S. P. Cobb, C. F. Bryan, R. E. Sparks, R. O. Caflin, and D. O. Editor Dodge. 1989. Mississippi River Fisheries. An International Large River Symposium, Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Special Publication, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Fujii, T. 1998. Biodetergents. In: New Products and Applications in Surfactant Technology, D. R. Karsa (ed.). Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press, pp. 88-108. Fujita, M., M. Ike, K. Mori, H. Kaku, Y. Sakaguchi, M. Asano, H. Maki, and T. Nishihara. 2000. Behaviour of nonylphenol ethoxylates in sewage treatment plants in Japan—Biotransformation and ecotoxicity. Water Science and Technology 42(7-8):23-30. Garcia Tavel, N. 2001. Presentation given at National Research Council Meeting, May 3, 2001, Boca Raton, Florida. In: Orimulsion: Clean Power for the Future, Bitor America Corporation * Garcia Tavel, N., and I. C. Johnson. 1999. Orimulsion-400, the Next Generation: Environmental Fate, Effects and Recovery. In: Proceedings of the 1999 International Oil Spill Conference: March 8-11, 1999, Seattle, Washington, pp. 1233-1238. Gillespie, W. B. Jr., J. H. Rodgers Jr., and P. B. Dorn. 1997. Responses of aquatic invertebrates to a C9-11 non-ionic surfactant in outdoor stream mesocosms. Aquatic Toxicology 37(2-3):221-236. Gledhill, W. E., R. L. Huddleston, L. Kravetz, A. M. Nielsen, R. I. Sedlak, and R. D. Vashon. 1989. Treatability of surfactants at a wastewater plant. Tenside 26:276-281. Golder and Associates, Inc. 1999. Orimulsion-400 and Fuel Oil No. 6: A comparative study of aquatic ecotoxicology (in the Mediterranean Sea), no. 992210/3683. Torino, Italy: Golder Associates.* Grammo, A., R. Eklund, M. Berggren, and K. Magnusson. 1991. Toxicity of 4-nonyl phenol to aquatic organisms and potential for bioaccumulation. In: Swedish EPA Seminar on Nonylphenol Ethoxylates/Nonylphenol, Saltsjobaden, Sweden, pp. 53-75. Guenette, C. 1991. Data Report on Behaviour of Orimulsion Spills On Water for Intevep, S.A. Ottawa, Ontario: O.S.L. Ross Environmental Research Limited. Guénette, C., and G. Sergy. 1999. Disposal Options for Recovered Bitumen, Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada, Emergencies Science Division. Guénette, C., and G. Sergy. 1999. Orimulsion Spill Response Manual Volume III: Disposal Options for Recovered Bitumen, Ottawa, Canada: Emergencies Science Division, Environment Canada.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Gunter, P. A. 1990. An assessment of the dispersity of Orimulsion during an Orimulsion spill test in the North Sea. Branch/Project CSB/191. BP Research, Sunbury Research Centre.* Gunter, P. A. 1991. A laboratory study to investigate the destabilization of Orimulsion observed during spill tests. Branch Report No. 191 075. BP Research, Sunbury Research Centre.* Hager, C. -D. 1998. Alkylphenol ethoxylates: biodegradability, aquatic toxicity and environmental fate. In: New Products and Applications in Surfactant Technology, D. R. Karsa (ed.). Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd., pp. 1-29. Harper, J., G. Sergy, and M. Kory. 1997. Orimulsion Sediment Interaction Scoping Experiments. In: Proceedings of the 20th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar -Volume II. Ottawa, Canada, Environment Canada. Harrelson, R. A., J. H. Rodgers, R. E. Lizotte, and P. B. Dorn. 1997. Responses of fish exposed to a C9-11 linear alcohol ethoxylate nonionic surfactant in stream mesocosms. Ecotoxicology 6(6):321-333. Harwell, M. A., J. S. Ault, and J. H. Gentile. 1995. Comparative Ecological Risk Assessment: Comparison of the Ecological Risks to the Tampa Bay Ecosystem from Spills of Fuel Oil #6 and Orimulsion. In: Orimulsion: Clean Power for the Future, Bitor America Corporation * Hennepin Power Station. 1997. Facility Response Plan. Hennepin Power Station, Hennepin, Illinois. Holt, W. 2001. Marine Transportation & Spill Control. Presentation given at National Research Council Meeting on May 3, 2001 as part of overall presentation by Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor) entitled Natural Energy for a Brighter World. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Huber, M., U. Meyer, and P. Rys. 2000. Biodegradation mechanisms of linear alcohol ethoxylates under anaerobic conditions. Environmental Science and Technology 34:1737-1741. Hvidbak, F., S. M. Jacobsen, and P. Masciangioli. 2000. Underwater Remote Detection and Monitoring of Spilled Orimulsion Using Sonar. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program Technical Seminar, Ottawa, Canada, Environment Canada, 1:507-18. HydroQual-Golder Laboratories Ltd. 2000. Toxicity of Orimulsion to the Freshwater Macrophyte, Lemna minor (duckweed). Calgary, Alberta, Canada: HydroQual-Golder Laboratories Ltd. Intevep S.A. 1994. Comparative Oil/Orimulsion Spill Assessment Program (COSAP): Compilation of Environmental Field and Laboratory Studies on Orimulsion, Its Constituents and Fuel Oil No.6, Final Report. Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). Johnson, I. C. 2001. Environmental Toxicology. Presentation given at National Research Council Meeting on May 3, 2001 in Washington D.C. as part of overall presentation by Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor) entitled Natural Energy for a Brighter World. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Johnson, I. C. 1998. Summary of the Environmental Fate and Effects of Orimulsion- 400. Gainesville, Florida: Golder Associates, Inc. Johnson I. C., and D. French McCay. 2001. Freshwater and Estuarine Comparative Impact Assessment. Presentation given at National Research Council Meeting on May 3, 2001 in Washington D.C. as part of overall presentation by Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor) entitled Natural Energy for a Brighter World. Bitor American Corporation: Boca Raton, Florida.* Johnson, I. C., C. Metcalfe, Y. Kiparissis, G. Balch, S. Ward, J. Wheat, J. Liu, and T. Potter. 1997. Partial Life-Cycle Studies Using the Estuarine Fish Sheepshead Minnow to Evaluate the Potential Reproductive and Estrogenic Effects of Intan-100, Golder Associates, Inc. Jokuty, P., M. Fingas, B. Fieldhouse, S. Whitcar, and J. Latour. 1998. Bitumen adhesion as a function of time. In: Proceedings of the 21st Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program, Technical Seminar, 1998. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada 1:27-33. Jokuty, P., B. Fieldhouse, M. Fingas, S. Whitcar, and J. Latour. 1998. Characterizing the dynamics of Orimulsion spills in salt, fresh and brackish waters. In: Proceedings of the 21st Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program Technical Seminar, 1998. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada, 1:33-50.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Jokuty, P., S. Whiticar, B. Fieldhouse, Z. Wang, P. Lambert, and M. Fingas. 2000. A Review of Methods Used in the Preparation and Analysis of Orimulsion Related Samples. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP), Technical Seminar, 261-79Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada, Emergencies Science Division. Jonas, K. 1996. Marbach III Power Plant Trial Operation with Orimulsion Report on Analysis and Evaluation of the Emission Measurements.* Junk, W. J., and G. E. Weber. 1996. Amazonian Floodplains: a Limnological Perspective. Verein. Limnology 26: 149-57. Kaperick, J. A. 1997. Oil Beneath the Water Surface and Review of Currently Available Literature on Group V Oils: An Annotated Bibliography, Report No. HMRAD 95-8. Seattle, Washington: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Karsa, D. R., (ed.) 1998. New Products and Applications in Surfactant Technology. Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd. Kent, R.A., D. Andersen, P.Y. Caux, and S. Teed. 1999. Canadian water quality guidelines for glycols—An ecotoxicological review of glycols and associated aircraft anti-icing and deicing fluids. Environmental Toxicology 14(5):481-522. Khan, Skander. 1996. Orimulsion- Viability as a Repowering Fuel. The 21st International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, 9 Clearwater, Florida. Kutt, E. C., and D. F. Martin. 1974. Effect of selected surfactants on the growth characteristics of Gymnodinium breve Marine Biology 28:253-259. La Schiazza, J. A., J. Rodríguez Grau, and F. Losada. 1995. Effects and Recovery of Biofouling Communities Impacted by a Controlled Orimulsion Spill, Intevep, Center for Research and Technological Support of Petróleos de Venezuela. Lapham, L., L. Proctor, and J. Chanton. 1999. Using respiration rates and stable carbon isotopes to monitor the biodegradation of Orimulsion by marine benthic bacteria. Environmental Science and Technology 2035-39 Lee, S. C., D. Mackay, F. Bonville, E. Joner, and W. Y. Shiu. 1989. A Study of the Long-Term Weathering of Submerged and Overwashed Oil, Report no. EE-119. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada. Lee, S. C., W. Y. Shiu, and D. Mackay. 1992. A Study of the Long Term Fate and Behaviour of Heavy Oils, Report no. EE-128. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada. Leitman, P., and L. Proctor. 2000. Biodegradation of Weathered Orimulsion and Fuel Oil #6 by Marine Sediment Bacteria. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State University. Lewis, M. A., and B. G. Hamm. 1986. Environmental modification of the photosynthetic response of lake plankton to surfactants and significance to a laboratory-field comparison. Water Research 20:1575-1582. Lewis, M. A., and D. Suprenant. 1983. Comparative acute toxicities of surfactants to aquatic invertebrates. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 7:313-322. Idelfonso Liñero A., M. M. Jimenez, V. J. Andrade, M. J. La Schiazza, and J. Rodriguez Grau. 1994. Evaluation of the Impact of Controlled Spills of Orimulsion. In: Sandy Beach Communities within the Area of Jose, Anzoategui State. Technical Report no. INT-02876, 94. Los Teques, Venezuela: Ecological and Environmental Investigations. Lizotte, R. E. Jr., D. C. L. Wong, P. B. Dorn, and J. H. Rodgers, Jr. 1999. Effects of a homologous series of linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants on fathead minnow early life stages. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 37(4):536-541. Lorenzo, T. 1996. Orimulsion Containment and Recovery Tests: Trip Report, Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela, Report no. 4808-1. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada. Madai, J., and H. An der Lan. 1964. Zur wirkung einiger detergentien and subwasser-organismen. Wasser Abwasser 4:168-183.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Maki, A. W. 1979. Correlations between Daphnia magna and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) chronic toxicity values for several classes of test substances. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36:411-421. Maki, A. W., and W. E. Bishop. 1979. Acute toxicity studies of surfactants to Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 8:599-612. Maki, A. W., A. J. Rubin, R. M. Sykes, and R. L. Shank. 1979. Reduction of nonionic surfactant toxicity following secondary treatment. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 51:2301-2313. Maki, H., N. Masuda, Y. Fujiwara, M. Ike, and M. Fujita. 1994. Degradation of alkyphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60(7):2265-2271. Maki, H., H. Okamura, I. Aoyama, and M. Fujita. 1998. Halogenation and toxicity of the biodegradation products of a nonionic surfactant, nonylphenol ethoxylate. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:650-654. Mann, R.M., and J. R. Bidwell. 2001. The acute toxicity of agricultural surfactants to the tadpoles of four Australian and two exotic frogs. Environmental Pollution 114:195-205. Mann. A.H., and V.W. Reid. 1971. Biodegradation of synthetic detergents evaluation by community trials. Part 2. Alcohol and alkylphenol ethoxylates. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 48:794-797. Marine Spill Response Corporation. 1993. MSRC Workshop Report: Research on the Ecological Effects of Dispersants and Dispersed Oil, 93-104. Washington, D.C.: Marine Spill Response Corporation. Masciangioli, P., M. Romero, and M. Farias. 1995. Orimulsion Spill Tests in Low Temperature Environments, Report no. INT-EAG-0001, 95. Caracas, Venezuela: Intevep, S.A. Matthijs, E., M. S. Holt, A. Kiewiet, and G. B. J. Rijs. 1999. Environmental monitoring for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, alcohol ethoxylate, alcohol ethoxy sulfate, alcohol sulfate, and soap. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(11):2634-2644. Mayer, L., Z. Chen, R. Findlay, J. Fang, S. Sampson, L. Self, P. Jumars, C. Quetél, and O. Donard. 1996. Bioavailability of sedimentary contaminants subject to deposit-feeder digestion. Environmental Science and Technology 30:2641-2645. Mayer, L. M., L. L. Schick, R. F. L. Self, P. A. Jumars, R. H. Findlay, Z. Chen, and S. Sampson. 1997. Digestive environments of benthic macroinvertebrate guts: Enzymes, surfactants, and dissolved organic matter. Journal of Marine Research 55:785-812. McAvoy, D. C., S. D. Dyer, N. J. Fendinger, W. S. Eckhoff, D. L. Lawrence, and W. M. Begley. 1998. Removal of alcohol ethoxylates, alkyl ethoxylate sulfates, and linear alkybenzene sulfonates in wastewater treatment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17(9):1705-1711. McDonald, J. L. 1995. The Morris J. Berman Spill - MSRC’s offshore operations. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Oil Spill Conference, Long Beach, California. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp. 701-706. Michel, J., and J. A. Galt. 1995. Conditions Under Which Floating Slicks Can Sink in Marine Settings. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Oil Spill Conference, Long Beach, California. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp 574-576. Michel, J., D. Scholz, C. B. Henry, and B. L. Benggio. 1994. Group V Fuel Oils: Source, Behavior, and Response Issues. Seattle, Washington: Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Mitsubishi Corporation. 1990. Final Report on MHI’s Study on the Behavior of Orimulsion in Sea Water. Bitor, S. A.* Mitsubishi Corporation. 1993. Orimulsion Underwater Behavior Test: Test Report. Ship & Ocean Financial Group, Tsukuba Laboratory.*

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Møller, L., C. Helweg, F. Pedersen, and E. Bjørnestad. 1999. Environmental hazard profiles of Orimulsion 400 and Heavy Fuel Oil, VKI Project No. 11896. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI, Institute for the Water Environment. Moore, S. B., R. A. Diehl, J. M. Barnhardt, and G. B. Avery. 1987. Aquatic toxicities of textile surfactants. Textile Chemist and Colorist 19:29-32. Morgan, D. C., and W. A. Fernie. 1995. Report on the Orimulsion Pollution Control Testing Carried Out. OSSC, Southhampton, U.K.: Frank Ayles & Associates Limited. Muller, M. T., A. J. B. Zehnder, and B. I. Escher. 1999. Membrane toxicity of linear alcohol ethoxylates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(12): 2767-2774. National Orimulsion Spill Plan for Lithuania Manual.* Neff, J. M., B. A. Cox, D. Dixit, and J. W. Anderson. 1976. Accumulation and release of petroleum-derived aromatic hydrocarbons by four species of marine animals. Marine Biology 38:279-289. New Brunswick Power Dalhousie Generating Station. 1995. Orimulsion Spill Contingency Plan, New Brunswick, Canada. Oil Spill Response Limited, AEA Technology, Steptech Instruments, and Bitor Europe Limited. 1995. Orimulsion Spill Trials; Recovery and Cleanup of Bitumen, Detention of Sub Surface Plume. Bitor Europe, Ltd.* Oil Spill Response Limited. 1989. A Report on a Study to Determine Treatment Options Following Spillage of Orimulsion into Marine and Freshwater Environments, South Hampton, U.K.: Oil Spill Service Center. Ostazeski, S. A., S. P. Daling, S. C. Macomber, D. W. Fredriksson, G. S. Durrell, A. D. Uhler, M. Jones, and K. Bitting. Weathering Properties and The Predicted Behavoir at Sea of Lapio Oil (Weathered No. 6 Fuel Oil). Duxbury, MA: Battelle, Ocean Sciences. Pang, S. N. J. 1993. Final report on the safety assessment of Polyethylene Glycols (PEGs) -6, -8, -32, -75, -150, -14M, -20M. Journal of the American College of Toxicology 12(5):429-457. Patoczka, J., and G. W. Pulliam. 1990. Biodegradation and secondary effluent toxicity of ethoxylated surfactants. Water Research 24:965-972. Payne, A. G., and R. H. Hall. 1979. A method for measuring algal toxicity and its applications to the safety assessment of new chemicals. In: Aquatic Toxicology, L. L. Marking and R. A. Kimerle, (eds). ASTM STP 667. Pp. 171-180. Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., (Bitor). 2000. Guidelines for Orimulsion Marine Terminals Spill Response Equipment Package.* Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (Bitor). 1999. Orimulsion Spill Response Manual, Volume III, Disposal Options for Recovered Bitumen.* Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (Bitor). 1999. Orimulsion Spill Response Manual. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Pedersen, F., J. Larsen Torp, P. Dørge, M. B. Andersen, M. J. Lintrup, L. Møller, and D. Rasmussen. 1999. Environmental Spill Modeling and Risk Assessment of Orimulsion-400 and Heavy Fuel Oil, 11896. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI, Institute for the Water Environment. Potter, T., E. Calabrese, P. Kostecki, K. Simmons, and J. Wu. 1997. Chemical Characteristics of the Water Soluble Fraction of Orimulsion-in-Water Dispersions. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts, Department of Food Science and School of Public Health, Potter, T. L., and B. Duval. 2001. Cerro Negro bitumen degradation by a consortium of marine benthic microorganisms. Environmental Science & Technology 35(1):76-83. Quilici, A., P. Vásquez, C. Infante, J. Rodríguez-Grau, J. La Schiazza, H. Briceno, and N. Pareira. 1995. Comparative Effects of Spilt Orimulsion, Fuel Oil No.6 and Lago Medio Crude Oil Over Some Functional Variables of an Estuarine Mangrove Ecosystem. Caracas, Venezuela: Intevep, S.A. Rand, G. M., (ed.). 1995. Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology Effects, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment, 2nd ed. Bristol, Pennsylvania: Taylor & Francis.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Reilly, T. J., N. C. Kraus, W. R. Wise, and R. Jamail. 1994. Coastal Oilspill Simulation System Prototype Testing Program, 94-005. Washington, D.C.: Marine Spill Response Corporation. Rosen, M. J., F. Li, S. W. Morrall, and D. J. Versteeg. 2001. The relationship between the interfacial properties of surfactants and their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Environmental Science and Technology 35: 954-959. Routledge, E. J., and J. P. Sumpter. 1996. Estrogenic activity of surfactants and some of their degradation products assessed using a recombinant yeast screen. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15:241-248. Rowland, S., P. Donkin, E. Smith, and E. Wraige. 2001. Aromatic hydrocarbon “humps” in the marine environment: Unrecognized toxins? Environmental Science and Technology 35: 2640-2644. S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd. 1998. Identification of Oils that Produce Non-buoyant In Situ Burning Residues and Methods for Their Recovery, Ottawa, Canada. Salanitro, J. P., and L. A. Diaz. 1995. Anaerobic biodegradability testing of surfactants. Chemosphere 30(5):813-830. Salanitro, J. P., G. C. Langston, P. B. Dorn, and L. Kravetz. 1988. Activated-sludge treatment of ethoxylate surfactants at high industrial use concentrations. Water Science and Technology 20(11-12):125-130. Salloum, M. J., M. J. Dudas, W. B. McGill, and S. M. Murphy. 2000. Surfactant sorption to soil and geologic samples with varying mineralogical and chemical properties. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19(10):2436-2442. Scholz, D. K., J. Michel, C. B. Henry, and B. Benggio. 1994. Assessment of Risks Associated With the Shipment and Transfer of Group V Fuel Oil, 94-8. Seattle, Washington: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Scorpio Ship Management. 1996. Scorpio Ship Management Shipboard Oil/Orimulsion Pollution. Boca Raton, Florida: Bitor America Corporation.* Scott, G. I., T. G. Ballou, and J. A. Dahlin. 1984. Summary and Evaluation of the Toxicological and Physiological Effects of Pollutants on Shellfish-Part 2: Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Report No. 84-31. Columbia, South Carolina: Research Planning, Inc. Scott, D. 1993. Technical Evaluation of the Coastal Oilspill Simulation System Prototype. 93-029. Washington, D.C.: Marine Spill Response Corporation. Scott, W. G., and J. Lui Hui. Acute Toxicity of Orimulsion and Orimulsion 400 to Saltwater Organisms. Jupiter, Florida: Toxicon Environmental Sciences. Seakem Oceanography Ltd. 1986. Oceanographic Conditions Suitable for the Sinking of Oil, EPS 3/ SP/2. Sidney, British Columbia: Seakem Oceanography Ltd. Sharer, D. H., L. Kravetz, and J. B. Carr. 1979. Biodegradation of nonionic surfactants. Tappi 62(10):75-78. Shell Chemical Company. 1988. (Unpubl.) Aquatic Toxicity of Neodol* 1-5 to Algae, Daphniids and Fish. Technical Progress Report WRC 225-87. Houston, Texas: Shell Development Company. Shell Oil Company. 1983. Chemical Economics Handbook. Menlo Park, Califorinia: Shell Oil Company. Simececk-Beatty, D. A., W. J. Lehr, and R. A. Jones. 1998. Modeling the Release, Behavior, and Fate of Bitumen—Water Emulsions. In: Proceedings of the 21st Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP), Technical Seminar, Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada, Environmental Services Division. Pp. 439-447 SK Energy Asnaes Power Plant. 1999. Spills Contingency Plans for Orimulsion at Asnaevaerket, Bitor Europe.* S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario. 1987. The Transient Submergence of Oil Spills: Tank Tests and Modeling, Environment Canada EE-96.* Sommerville, M. 1996. Investigations into Freshwater Spills of Orimulsion, AEA/WMES/RMAF/ @0206001/R/02. Oxfordshire, U.K.: AEA Technology.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Sommerville, M. 1990. (Unpubl.) Observations of the Behavior of Orimulsion Released into the Sea. CR 3361 (MPBM). Hertfordshire, U.K.: Warren Spring Laboratory. Sommerville, M., T. Lunel, N. Bailey, D. Oland, C. Miles, P. A. Gunter, and T. Waldhoff. 1987. Orimulsion. In: Proceedings of the 1987 Oil Spill Conference (prevention, behavior, control, cleanup) April 6-9, 1987, Baltimore, Maryland. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, pp. 7479-7483. Soto, A. M., H. Justicia, J. W. Wray, and C. Sonnenschein. 1991. Para-nonyl-phenol: An estrogenic xenobiotic released from modified polystyrene. Environmental Health Perspectives 92:167-173. Stanton, E. M. Operational Considerations—Tank Barge Morris J. Berman Spill. Old San Juan, Puerto Rico: Marine Safety Office. Steber, J., and P. Wierich. 1987. The anaerobic degradation of detergent range fatty alcohol ethoxylates. Studies with 14C-labeled model surfactants. Water Research 21(6):661-667. Stout, S. A., P. J. Barrett, and L. G. Roberts. Predicting the Spill Behavior of Orimulsion Using Design of Experiment Principles. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP), Technical Seminar. Ottawa, Canada: Environment Canada. Suter, G. W. II. 1995. Introduction to ecological risk assessment for aquatic toxic effects. In Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology Effects, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment, 2nd Ed., Rand, G. M., (ed.) Bristol, Pennsylvania: Taylor & Francis, pp. 803-816 Roseth, S., T. Edvardsson, T. M. Botten, J. Fuglestad, F. Fonnum, and J. Stenersen. 1996. Comparison of acute toxicity of process chemicals used in the oil refinery industry, tested with the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis, the flagellate Isochrysis galbana, and the zebra fish, Brachydanio rerio. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15(7):1211-1217. Swedmark, M., B. Braaten, E. Emanuelsson, and A. Granmo. 1971. Biological effects of surface active agents on marine animals. Marine Biology 9:183-210. Swim, D. Esq., and K. Kennedy, Esq. Florida Power and Light Company vs. State of Florida, Siting Board; Manatee County. District Court of Appeal First District, State of Florida. Sykes, R. M., A. J. Rubin, S. A. Rath, and M. C. Chang. 1979. Treatability of a nonionic surfactant by activated-sludge. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 51:71-77. T.A. Herbert and Associates. 1990. An Analysis of the Environmental Risks from Potential Spills Associated with the Shipment of Orimulsion to Sanford, Florida on the St. Johns River, Final Report. Florida Power & Light Company. Tanaka, T., K. Yamada, T. Tonosaki, T. Konishi, H. Goto, and M. Taniguchi. 2000. Enzymatic degradation of alkylphenols, bisphenol A, synthetic estrogen and phthalic ester. Water Science and Technology 42(7-8):89-95. Turner, A. H., F. S. Abram, V. M. Brown, and H. A. Painter. 1985. The biodegradability of two primary alcohol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants under practical conditions, and the toxicity of the biodegradation products to rainbow trout. Water Research 19:45-51. Thomas, A. M. 1994. MSRC Workshop Report: Research on Waterbird Deterrents for Marine Oil Spills, 94-006. Denver, Colorado: Marine Spill Response Corporation. Tolls, J., M. Haller, E. Labee, M.Verweij, and D. T. H. M. Sijm. 2000. Experimental determination of bioconcentration of the nonionic surfactant alcohol ethoxylate. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19(3):646-653. United States Coast Guard. 1996. Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1996—Conference Report. United States Coast Guard, Seventh District. 1995. Group V Petroleum Oils, USCG Seventh District Work Group Report. van Emden, H. M., C. C. M. Droon, E. N. Schoeman, and H. A. Van Seventer. 1974. The toxicity of some detergents tested on Aedes aegypti L., Lebistes reticulates Peters, and Biomphalaria glabrata Say. Environmental Pollution 6:297-308. van Ginkel, C. G. 1996. Complete degradation of xenobiotic surfactants by consortia of aerobic microorganisms. Biodegradation 7(2):151-164.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Van Vleet, E. 1997. Review of Literature Related to Research Conducted on Orimulsion: Final Report, Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). Vashon, R. D., and B. S. Schwab. 1982. Mineralization of linear alcohol ethoxylates and linear alcohol ethoxy sulfates at trace concentrations in estuarine water. Environmental Science and Technology 16:433-436. VKI. 1999. Orimulsion 400 and Heavy Fuel Oil, Study #11896. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI. VKI. 1998. Acute Toxicity Test of Orimulsion 400 with the Crustacean Acartia Tonsa (Test Period February 2, 1998–February 20, 1998), GLP Study # 81084-02/067. Hørsholm, Denmark:VKI. VKI. 1998. Acute Toxicity Test of Orimulsion 400 with Crustacean Acartia Tonsa (Test Period March 16, 1998–March 18, 1998), GLP Study # 81044-01/067. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI. VKI. 1998. Acute Toxicity Test of Orimulsion 400 with Crustacean Acartia Tonsa. Test Period March 17, 1998 - May 8, 1998, 81078/067. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI, Department of Ecotoxicology. VKI. 1998. Chronic Toxicity Test of Orimulsion 400 with the Crustacean Acartia Tonsa, GLP Study No. 81078/067. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI. VKI. 1998. Development of an Electrospray LC-MS Method for the Characterization and Determination of Alcoholethoxylates in Water Samples Down to Trace Levels, 11020. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI, Institute of the Water Environment. VKI. 1998. Ecotoxicological characterization of Orimulsion 400, 11020. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI. VKI. 1997. Biodegradability of 75090 Monoethalomine - Marine Closed Bottle Test (Test Period October 10, 1997 - November 11, 1997), GLP Study 81047-2/064. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI. VKI. 1997. Biodegradability of GENAPOL X159-Marine Closed Bottle Test (Test Period September 30, 1997 - October 28, 1997), GLP Study 81047-02/065. Hørsholm, Denmark: VKI. Wagner, R. 1978. Behavior of MBAS and BIAS in a municipal sewage treatment plant. GasWasserfach Wasser Abwasser 119:235-242. Walker, A. H., J. Michel, G. Canevari, J. Kucklick, D. Scholz, C. A. Benson, E. Overton, and B. Shane. Chemical Oil Spill Treating Agents: Herding Agents, Emulsion Treating Agents, Solidifiers, Elasticity Modifiers, Shoreline Cleaning Agents, Shoreline Pre-treatment Agents, and Oxidation Agents, 93-015. Washington, D.C. Wilson, D., Y. C. Poon, and D. Mackay. 1986. An Exploratory Study of the Buoyancy Behavior of Weathered Oils in Water, EE-85. Toronto, Ontario: Environment Canada. Wolf, D. A., (ed.) 1977. Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Organisms and Ecosystems. New York: Pergamon Press. Wong, D. C. L., P. B. Dorn, and E. Y. Chai. 1997. Acute toxicity and structure-activity relationships of nine alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16(9):1970-1976. Wood, P. 1996. Investigations into Landspills of Orimulsion, AEA/20206001. Oxfordshire, U.K.: AEA Technology. Yamane, A., M. Okada, and R. Sudo. 1984. The growth-inhibition of planktonic algae due to surfactants used in washing agents. Water Research 18:1101-1105. Yeh, D. H., K. D. Pennell, and S. G. Pavlostathis. 1998. Toxicity and biodegradability screening of nonionic surfactants using sediment-derived methanogenic consortia. Water Science and Technology 38(7):55-62.

OCR for page 92
Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response Zeeman, M. G. 1995. Ecotoxicity testing and estimation methods developed under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). In: Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology Effects, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment, 2nd Ed., Rand, G. M, (ed.) Bristol, Pennsylvania: Taylor & Francis. Pp. 703-715. 1   Orimulsion® is a registered trademark belonging to Bitúmenes Orinoco, S.A (PDVSA-Bitor) and licensed to Bitor America Corporation. *   Contact Bitor America Corporation at the address below to obtain technical reports. Bitor America Corporation 5100 Town Center Circle, Suite 301 Boca Raton, Florida 33486 (561) 392-0026 (561) 392-0490 http://www.bitoramerica.com/