careful to point out the importance of expanding analysis beyond the institutional form per se to include an examination of the relevant processes of institutional change. Finally, Berkes proposes to extend the direction of research on the commons through the use of the adaptive management approach (the management equivalent of “learning by doing”) and the concept of resilience (i.e., the ability of a system to absorb perturbations). These, he believes, provide a meaningful way to integrate social and natural systems and facilitate movement toward a theory of cross-scale institutional linkages.



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