For an early, but still helpful treatment of property systems as social institutions, see Hallowell (1943).


In cases where preexisting subsistence practices have given way to mixed economies, local peoples may experience a growing need to exploit natural resources to generate a flow of cash.


For evidence of similar interactions occurring in other parts of the world, see Gibson et al. (2000).


For an extended account of the role of rules in use and the relationship between such rules and formal rules see, Ostrom (1990).


The doughnut hole constitutes a pocket of high seas wholly surrounded by the EEZs of Russia and the United States.


Some recent arrangements (e.g., the ozone and climate regimes) distinguish among classes of members on the basis of what has become known as the principle of common but differentiated responsibility.


A concrete case in point involves the harvesting of whales. Under the Canadian Constitution, the formal authority to set harvest quotas for any harvests of whales resides with the provinces.


In some countries—the United States is a good example—there is a long history of tension regarding the allocation of authority between the national government and various subnational governments.


Updates on the work of CAFF appear regularly in the Arctic Bulletin, published four times a year under the auspices of the World Wildlife Fund Arctic Program.


The Straddling Fish Stocks Agreement also deals with other issues, such as the management of consumptive uses of highly migratory species (e.g., tunas).


Note, however, that it would be wrong to equate bargaining strength with structural power or power in the purely material sense (Young, 1994).


Acheson, J.M. 1987 The lobster fiefs revisited: Economic and ecological effects of territoriality in Maine lobster fishing. Pp. 37-65 in The Question of the Commons: The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources, B.J. McCay and J.M. Acheson, eds. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Anand, R.P. 1983 Origin and Development of the Law of the Sea: History of International Law Revisited. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Balton, D.A. 2001 The Bering Sea Doughnut Hole Convention: Regional solution, global implications. Pp. 143-177 in Governing High Seas Fisheries: The Interplay of Global and Regional Regimes, O.S. Stokke, ed., London: Oxford University Press.

Berkes, F., ed. 1989 Common Property Resources: Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development. London: Belhaven.

Biermann, F. 2000 The case for a world environment organization. Environment 42(9):22-31.

Bromley, D.W., ed. 1992 Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy. San Francisco: ICS Press.

Brubaker, S., ed. 1994 Rethinking the Federal Lands. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Chayes, A., and A.H. Chayes 1995 The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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