FIGURE 9-1 Cross-scale linkages in co-management arrangements: (a) Beverly-Qamanirjuaq Caribou Co-Management Board, and (b) James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, Canada.

Figure 9-1 shows the outline of vertical arrangements but hides the details of the actual interactions involved in the cases, from the signing of the agreement to its implementation. A co-management agreement goes only part of the way to produce a viable arrangement. Simply put, there is little incentive for government agencies to share the power they hold (Lele, 2000). There are good reasons to be skeptical of all claims of successful co-management—at least, of easy successes.

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