Chile, water resources in, 203

Chimpanzees, conditionally cooperative enforcers among, 181n

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 264

Choice

building on existing institutions, 370–372

determining effects in, 367–369

and the emergence of institutions for the commons, 363–375

horizontal and vertical linkages, 372–374

muddling through, 374–375

situated rational, 363–375

step-wise model of, 365–370

Circumpolar Protected Areas Network (CPAN), 279–281

Citizen science, cross-scale linkages in, 307

Clean Air Act, 205, 217

Climate change, 3, 24

global, 23

Closed-form solutions, 38

Co-management arrangements, 260–261, 284

between communities and governments, 301–304

cross-scale linkages in, 304–307

of environmental resources, 222

Coalition formation, 130

Coastal states, jurisdiction claimed by, 272– 273

Coercive dominance, 416–418

Coherence, social, 108n

Collaborative research, that enables cross-scale linkages, 308–310

Collaborative research centers, 16, 76n

Collective action, 73n

by small groups, 59–60

Collective efficacy, 132–133

Collective learning

in complex adaptive systems, 340–351

organizational question, 341–347

organizations, rights, and incentives, 347–351

Colonization, 295–296

Comedy of the commons model, 4

Commerce in resources, 247–250

Commitments, motives for follow-up on, 135

Common management, of irrigation systems, 47–49

Common-pool resource game, equilibria with sanctioning possibilities, 169–172, 190–191

Common-pool resource studies, 16, 26, 28n

actor-focused ecology and the economics of flexibility, 375–378

being specific and critical about community, 384–387

bibliography of, 6

deliberation and discourse, 383–384

embeddedness, 381–384

old and new directions in, 375–387

political ecology, 378–381

problems with, 45

Common-pool resources (CPRs), 3, 15, 17–18, 87–112.

See also Common resources, Commons

causal paths describing hypothesized effects of wealth or wealth inequality on maintenance of, 448

as collective goods, 93

cost of measurement, 24

governance of, 26

need for extending insights to a broader array of, 472–474

renewable or nonrenewable, 22–23

scale of, 23–24

sustainable management of, 46–54

Common-Pool Resources database, 5, 28n

Common-pool sinks, 19

Common property regimes, 15, 17–18, 27, 41– 85.

See also Community-based management regimes

designations given to, 253n

in Ethopia, 13

in the Swiss Alps, 13

in Upper Burma, 13

vs. open access conditions, 51

Common Property Resource Digest, The, 17– 18

Common resources, 17–18, 233–257.

See also Common-pool resources, Commons

addressing problems of method, 63–70

analyses of sustainable management of common-pool resources, 46–54

and CBMR and TEA regimes as management institutions, 237–253

critical enabling conditions for sustainability on the commons, 62– 63

facilitating conditions identified by Wade, 48



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