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SOURCE: -Prepared by Waseda University -Focused on lower secondary and upper secondary school in lapan INTRODUCTION In Japan, in order to become a teacher, one must obtain a teacher's certificate by completing the subjects in a university course, in accordance with the provisions of the Education Personnel Certification Law. This paper describes the process by which undergraduate students get a first class certificate of mathematics as a way to be a lower secondary and upper sec- ondary school mathematics teacher. Types of Ordinary Teacher Certificate As Table ~ shows, there is a variety of certificates, according to the degree students wall get and the school level of certificate. In addition, there are also several kinds of certificates for lower or upper secondary school teachers by subject areas in which prospective teach- ers intend to specialize. SOURCE: Those who want to become a special school teacher (for handicapped students) also have to take units to be such a teacher as well as units for getting the ordinary teacher certificate. What You Neecl to Be a Mathematics Teacher Students who want to be a math teacher are suppose(1 to take the lessons (le- scribe(1 below (see Table 21. There are two kinds of lessons; the former consists of subjects about mathematics anti the latter of ones on kyoa~shok?~i, which are subjects that students are to have before they become a teacher. (~) Subjects about mathematics. Students have to take at least 20 units of lecture on mathematics. For example, in Wase(la University, they are to register and pass several areas in mathematics such as algebra, geometry, analysis, statistics, anti computer. ~ Kyoushoku generally means the whole things of working as a teacher in school as well as subjects in university that students are to register and pass before becoming a teacher.

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TABLE 1 Types of Ordinary Teacher Certificate Classification Completion of a Master's Course Completion of an Undergraduate Course Completion of a Junior College Course Elementary school teachers Lower secondary school teachers Upper secondary school teachers First-class certificate First-class certificate First-class certificate Kinclergarten First-class certificate teachers Nursery school First-class certificate teachers First-class certificate First-class certificate First-class certificate First-class certificate First-class certificate Seconcl-class certificate Seconcl-class certificate Seconcl-class certificate TABLE 2 The Condition of Getting a Certificate in Wasecia University Classification First Class Advanced First Class Advanced (lower) (lower) (upper) (upper) Qualification of certificate Number of units needed (at least) Constitution Physical education Oral communication by foreign language Operation of information technology Subjects to get advanced certificate Subjects on mathematics Subjects on kyoushoku Bachelor Master Bachelor Master 2 2 2 2 20 31 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2A 2A 20 20 20 31 25 25 25 There are also subjects on mathematics and kyoushoku. APPE N DIX

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(2) Subjects on kyoushoku. If we take Waseda University as an example, there are many subjects on kyoushoku as follows. kyoushoku-gairon: This subject deals with general things of kyoushok~, for example, the value of school education, the role of teacher, the essence of their work, and so on. kyouiku-genri: In this subject, students study the concept, history, and thought of education, including social, institu- tional, and managerial problems in education. kyouiku-sinrigaku: This literally means educational psychology. In this subject, the theme is primarily focused on developmental psychology and the process of learning. In other words, kyouiku-sinrigaku deals with the psy- chological development of children and how they learn a way of thinking as well as respective knowledge. kyouiku-rinshouron: The theme of this subject is the theory and method of kyouiku-soudan2, including basic elements of counseling. seitosidou-seikatusidouron: In this subject, students are supposed to learn the theory and method of matters about moral discipline and consultation with children about the selection of courses for their future. su~gak~ka-kyouikubou3: This subject is focused on the method of teaching mathematics. Itinclu(lesgeneralan(1 fun(lamental matters such as the aim of mathematics teaching, educational value of substance, evaluation, anti so 2 Kyouiku-soudan is the entire things of counsel- ing with children in school. 3 To be an upper secondary school mathematics teacher, students need to take four units at least, but those who want to be a lower secondary school math teacher are required to take six units in total. . on. Through their topics, students are expected to understand not only mathematics well. They also have to appreciate the tight"hierarchy" of mathematics and the importance of buil(ling (lesirable ability anti attitude through teaching mathematics. kyquiku-iia-shu~ kiso-enshuu: Those who want to get a teacher's certificate have to take this subject. It is composed of a preliminary lecture and a reflection about kyouiku-jisshuu. In the former, students are supposed to learn the value, substance, method, and general things of kyouiku-jisshuu. In the latter, they have to overview and evaluate their experience by themselves. kyouiku-jisshuu: During kyouiku-jisshu (usually for several weeks), they are to have classes in schools and teach mathematics practically as well as to join homeroom anti club activities. To prepare for the classes with the teacher who is in charge, they have to make a shidou-an (or kyou-an) with detailed information and flow chart of the class. They also nee(1 to write (town in a (1iary notes on what happened anti what they learne(1 or thought (luring kyouiku- jisshuu. Then after it is over, they are suppose(1 to han(1 in the notes to the university they attend. OVERVIEW What follows are some typical com- ments from students who took part in kyouiku-jisshuu. There is a big (lifference between knowing and understanding. I needed to prepare myself for the classes I had every day, so I was exhausted from such work at the end of kyouiku-jisshuu. Preparation is never perfect. APPE N AX

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bee ~ bee Dexlblll~ during class. Was need ~ do Ulnas Tom spiders polut of Hem I Wok Me most l~or~nt ~~g is bee ~ good rel~onshlp ~~ We student. For example ~ memodze shaders name was very good for daises ~ ~D ~ persona reloans. APPE ~ D1X ~ can summed Bar commend Muon: ~ ~ Sue ~~ Bang amber in school was very bade but ~ was also one of Be most exclaim e~ed- ences Hey bad, so ~~ Hey cannot Cruet Bout it.