Appendix L
Forum Member, Speaker, and Staff Biographies

FORUM MEMBERS

ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, M.D., Ph.D., (chair), is President of Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland as Chairman of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief from 1987 to 1998. Prior to that, Dr. Mahmoud held several positions, spanning 25 years, at the same institutions. Dr. Mahmoud and his colleagues conducted pioneering investigations on the biology and function of eosinophils. He prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud also established clinical and laboratory investigations in several developing countries including Kenya, Egypt, and The Philippines to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis and other infectious agents. This work led to the development of innovative strategies to control those infections, which has been adopted by the World Health Organization as selective population chemotherapy. In recent years, Dr. Mahmoud turned his attention to developing a comprehensive set of responses to the problems associated with emerging infections in the developing world. He was elected to membership of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association of American Physicians in 1980 and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. He received the Bailey K. Ashford Award of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1983, and the Squibb Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 1984. Dr. Mahmoud currently serves as Chair of the Forum on Emerging Infections and is a member



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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary Appendix L Forum Member, Speaker, and Staff Biographies FORUM MEMBERS ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, M.D., Ph.D., (chair), is President of Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland as Chairman of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief from 1987 to 1998. Prior to that, Dr. Mahmoud held several positions, spanning 25 years, at the same institutions. Dr. Mahmoud and his colleagues conducted pioneering investigations on the biology and function of eosinophils. He prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud also established clinical and laboratory investigations in several developing countries including Kenya, Egypt, and The Philippines to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis and other infectious agents. This work led to the development of innovative strategies to control those infections, which has been adopted by the World Health Organization as selective population chemotherapy. In recent years, Dr. Mahmoud turned his attention to developing a comprehensive set of responses to the problems associated with emerging infections in the developing world. He was elected to membership of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association of American Physicians in 1980 and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. He received the Bailey K. Ashford Award of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1983, and the Squibb Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 1984. Dr. Mahmoud currently serves as Chair of the Forum on Emerging Infections and is a member

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary of the Board on Global Health, both of the Institute of Medicine. He also chairs the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program. STANLEY M. LEMON, M.D., (vice-chair), is Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. He received his undergraduate degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude, and his M.D. with honor from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983, he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, directing the Hepatitis Laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in 1983, serving first as Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases, and then Vice Chair for Research of the Department of Medicine. In 1997, Dr. Lemon moved to the University of Texas Medical Branch as Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology & Immunology. He was subsequently appointed Dean pro tem of the School of Medicine in 1999, and permanent Dean of Medicine in 2000. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of the positive-stranded RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis C and hepatitis A. He is particularly interested in the molecular mechanisms controlling cap-independent viral translation, and the replication of these RNA genomes. He has published over 180 papers, and numerous textbook chapters related to hepatitis and other viral infections, and has a longstanding interest in vaccine development. He has served previously as chair of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and is past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of the World Health Organization’s Programme on Vaccine Development. He presently serves as Chairman of the U.S. Hepatitis Panel of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, and chairs an Institute of Medicine study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats. STEVEN J. BRICKNER, Ph.D., is Research Advisor, Antibacterials Chemistry, at Pfizer Global Research and Development. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and was a NIH Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Brickner is a medicinal chemist with nearly 20 years of research experience in the pharmaceutical industry, all focused on the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. He is an inventor/co-inventor on 21 U.S. patents, and has published numerous scientific papers, primarily within the area of the oxazolidinones. Prior to joining Pfizer in 1996, he led a team at Pharmacia and Upjohn that discovered

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary and developed linezolid, the first member of a new class of antibiotics to be approved in the last 35 years. GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is Vice President, Infectious Diseases Research, Drug Discovery Research, and Clinical Investigation at Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and (since 1987) Chair, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and is serving her third three-year term as chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of ASM. She is a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director’s Advisory Committee and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served eight years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its chair for three years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored over 275 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases. GORDON DEFRIESE, Ph.D., is Professor of Social Medicine and Professor of Medicine (in the Division of General Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology) at the UNC-CH School of Medicine. In addition, he holds appointments as Professor of Epidemiology and Health Policy and Administration in the UNC-CH School of Public Health and as Professor of Dental Ecology in the UNC-CH School of Dentistry. From 1986–2000, he served as Co-Director of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, co-sponsored by the UNC-CH School of Medicine and the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. Some of his research interests are in the areas of health promotion and disease prevention, medical sociology, primary health care, rural health care, cost-benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. He is a past president of the Association for Health Services Research and a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine. He is founder of the Partnership for Prevention, a coalition of private-sector business and industry organizations, voluntary health organizations, and state and federal public health agencies based in Washington, D.C. that have joined together to work toward the elevation of disease prevention among the nation’s health policy pri-

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary orities. He is an at-large member of the National Board of Medical Examiners. Since 1994 he has served as President and CEO of the North Carolina Institute of Medicine. He is Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the North Carolina Medical Journal. CEDRIC E. DUMONT, M.D., is Medical Director for the Office of Medical Services (MED) at the U.S. Department of State. Dr. Dumont graduated from Columbia University with a B.A. in 1975 and obtained his medical degree from Tufts University School of Medicine in 1980. Dr. Dumont is a board-certified internist with subspecialty training in infectious diseases. He completed his internal medicine residency in 1983 and infectious diseases fellowship in 1988 at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D.C. Dr. Dumont has been a medical practitioner for over 19 years, 2 of which included service in the Peace Corps. Since joining the Department of State in 1990, he has had substantial experience overseas in Dakar, Bamako, Kinshasa, and Brazzaville. For the past 3 years, as the Medical Director for the Department of State, Dr. Dumont has promoted the health of all United States Government employees serving overseas by encouraging their participation in a comprehensive health maintenance program and by facilitating their access to high-quality medical care. Dr. Dumont is a very strong supporter of the professional development and advancement of MED’s highly qualified professional staff. In addition, he has supported and encouraged the use of an electronic medical record, which will be able to monitor the health of all its beneficiaries, not only during a specific assignment but also throughout their career in the Foreign Service. JESSE L. GOODMAN, M.D., M.P.H., was professor of medicine and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the University of Minnesota, and is now serving as Deputy Director for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where he is active in a broad range of scientific, public health, and policy issues. After joining the FDA commissioner’s office, he has worked closely with several centers and helped coordinate FDA’s response to the antimicrobial resistance problem. He was co-chair of a recently formed federal interagency task force which developed the national Public Health Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance. He graduated from Harvard College and attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine followed by internal medicine, hematology, oncology, and infectious diseases training at the University of Pennsylvania and University of California Los Angeles, where he was also chief medical resident. He received his master’s of public health from the University of Minnesota. He has been active in community public health activities, including creating an environmental health partnership in St. Paul, Minnesota. In recent years, his laboratory’s research has focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tickborne diseases. His laboratory isolated the etiological intracellular agent of the emerging tickborne infection, human granulocytic ehrli-

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary chiosis, and identified its leukocyte receptor. He has also been an active clinician and teacher and has directed or participated in major multi-center clinical studies. He is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and, among several honors, has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation. RENU GUPTA, M.D., is Vice President and Head, U.S. Clinical Research and Development at Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Previously, she was Vice President, Medical, Safety, and Therapeutics at Covance. Dr. Gupta is a board certified Pediatrician, with subspeciality training in Infectious Diseases from Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, and the University of Pennsylvania. She was also Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania and the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, where she conducted research on the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Dr. Gupta received her M.B.,Ch.B with distinction from the University of Zambia, where she examined the problem of poor compliance in the treatment of tuberculosis in rural and urban Africa. She is currently active in a number of professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society of Microbiology. She is a frequent presenter at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and other major congresses, and has been published in leading infectious diseases periodicals. From 1989 to mid-1998, Dr. Gupta was with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, where she directed clinical research as well as strategic planning for the Infectious Diseases and Immunology Divisions. For the past several years, her work has focused on a better understanding of the problem of emerging infections. This has led to her pioneering efforts in establishing the Global Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, SENTRY, a private-academic-public sector partnership. Dr. Gupta chaired the steering committee for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. She remains active in women and children’s health issues, and is currently furthering education and outreach initiatives. More recently Dr. Gupta has been instrumental in the formation of the Harvard-Pharma Management Board, of which she is a member, to further the educational goals of the Scholars in Clinical Science Program at the Harvard Medical School. MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D., is Vice President for Biological Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Washington, D.C. The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) is a new organization whose mission is to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction and preventing their spread. Dr Hamburg is in charge of the biological program area. Before taking on her current position, Dr. Hamburg was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as a principal policy advisor to the Secretary of Health and Human Services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary development and review of regulations and/or legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for almost six years as the Commissioner of Health for the City of New York. As chief health officer in the nation’s largest city, Dr. Hamburg’s many accomplishments included: the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases; the development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels; and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She completed her internship and residency in Internal Medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a Fellow of the American Association of the Advancement of Science. CAROLE A. HEILMAN, Ph.D., is Director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Heilman received her bachelor’s degree in biology from Boston University in 1972, and earned her master’s degree and doctorate in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and 1979. Dr. Heilman began her career at the National Institutes of Health as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Cancer Institute where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986, she came to NIAID as the influenza and viral respiratory diseases program officer in DMID and, in 1988, she was appointed chief of the respiratory diseases branch where she coordinated the development of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as deputy director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for Approaches in human immunodeficiency virus vaccine research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career, Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and the World Health Organization in this area. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Society of Virology. DAVID L. HEYMANN, M.D., is currently the Executive Director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Communicable Diseases Cluster. From October 1995 to July 1998 he was Director of the WHO Programme on Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control. Prior to becoming director of this programme, he was the chief of research activities in the Global

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary Programme on AIDS. From 1976 to 1989 prior to joining WHO, Dr Heymann spent thirteen years working as a medical epidemiologist in sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Cote d’ Ivoire, the former Zaire and Malawi) on assignment from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in CDC-supported activities aimed at strengthening capacity in surveillance of infectious diseases and their control, with special emphasis on the childhood immunizable diseases, African haemorrhagic fevers, pox viruses, and malaria. While based in Africa, Dr Heymann participated in the investigation of the first outbreak of Ebola in Yambuku (former Zaire) in 1976, then again investigated the second outbreak of Ebola in 1977 in Tandala, and in 1995 directed the international response to the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit. Prior to 1976, Dr Heymann spent two years in India as a medical officer in the WHO Smallpox Eradication Programme. Dr Heymann holds a B.A. from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.D. from Wake Forest University, a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and completed practical epidemiology training in the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) training program of the CDC. He has published 131 scientific articles on infectious diseases in peerreviewed medical and scientific journals. JAMES M. HUGHES, M.D., received his B.A. in 1966 and M.D. in 1971 from Stanford University. He completed a residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. He is board-certified in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine. He first joined CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 1973. During his CDC career, he has worked primarily in the areas of foodborne disease and infection control in healthcare settings. He became Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases in 1992. The center is currently working to address domestic and global challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is an Assistant Surgeon General in the Public Health Service. SAMUEL L. KATZ, M.D., is Wilburt C. Davison Professor and chairman emeritus of pediatrics at Duke University Medical Center. He has concentrated his research on infectious diseases, focusing primarily on vaccine research, development and policy. Dr. Katz has served on a number of scientific advisory committees and is the recipient of many prestigious awards and honorary fellowships in international organizations. He attained his M.D. from Harvard Medical School and completed his residency training at Boston hospitals. He became a staff member at Children’s Hospital, working with Nobel laureate John Enders, during which time they developed the attenuated measles virus vaccine now used throughout the world. He has chaired the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the American Academy of Pediatrics (the Redbook Com-

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary mittee), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Vaccine Priorities Study of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and several World Health Organization (WHO) and Children’s Vaccine Initiative panels on vaccines. He is a member of many scientific advisory committees including those of the NIH, IOM, and WHO. Dr. Katz’s published studies include abundant original scientific articles, chapters in textbooks, and many abstracts, editorials, and reviews. He is the coeditor of a textbook on pediatric infectious diseases and has given many named lectures in the United States and abroad. Currently he co-chairs the Indo-US Vaccine Action Program as well as the National Network for Immunization Information (NNii). COLONEL PATRICK KELLEY, M.D., M.P.H., Dr.P.H., is Director of the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections System and the Director of the Division of Preventive Medicine at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, Maryland. He obtained his M.D. from the University of Virginia and a Dr.P.H. in infectious disease epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He is board-certified in general preventive medicine and a fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine. For many years he directed the Army General Preventive Medicine Residency at WRAIR. Colonel Kelley has extensive experience leading military infectious disease studies and in managing domestic and international public health surveillance efforts. He has spoken before professional audiences in over 15 countries and has authored or co-authored over 40 scientific papers and book chapters on a variety of infectious disease and preventive medicine topics. He serves as the specialty editor for a textbook entitled, Military Preventive Medicine: Mobilization and Deployment. MARCELLE LAYTON, M.D., is the Assistant Commissioner for the Bureau of Communicable Diseases at the New York City Department of Health. This bureau is responsible for the surveillance and control of 51 infectious diseases and conditions reportable under the New York City Health Code. Current areas of concern include antibiotic resistance; foodborne, waterborne, and tickborne diseases; hepatitis C and biological disaster planning for the potential threats of bioterrorism and pandemic influenza. Dr. Layton received her medical degree from Duke University. She completed an internal medicine residency at the University Health Science Center in Syracuse, New York, and an infectious disease fellowship at Yale University. In addition, Dr. Layton spent two years with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a fellow in the Epidemic Intelligence Service, where she was assigned to the New York City Department of Health. In the past, she has volunteered or worked with the Indian Health Service, the Alaskan Native Health Service, and clinics in northwestern Thailand and central Nepal.

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D., is Professor emeritus of Molecular Genetics and Informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at The Rockefeller University, New York, New York. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was co-chair of a previous Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992) and currently is co-chair of the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine. CARLOS LOPEZ, Ph.D., is Research Fellow, Research Acquisitions, Eli Lilly Research Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1970. Dr. Lopez was awarded the NTRDA postdoctoral fellowship. After his fellowship he was appointed assistant professor of pathology at the University of Minnesota, where he did his research on cytomegalovirus infections in renal transplant recipients and the consequences of those infections. He was next appointed assistant member and head of the Laboratory of Herpesvirus Infections at the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, where his research focused on herpes virus infections and the resistance mechanisms involved. Dr. Lopez’s laboratory contributed to the immunological analysis of the earliest AIDS patients at the beginning of the AIDS epidemic in New York. He is co-author of one of the seminal publications on this disease, as well as many scientific papers and co-editor of six books. Dr. Lopez has been a consultant to numerous agencies and organizations including the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the American Cancer Society. LYNN MARKS, M.D., is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He was on faculty at the University of South Alabama College of Medicine in the Infectious Diseases department focusing on patient care, teaching and research. His academic research interest was on the molecular genetics of bacterial pathogenicity. He subsequently joined SmithKline Beecham’s (now GlaxoSmithKline) anti-infectives clinical group and later progressed to global head of the Consumer Healthcare division Medical and Regulatory group. He then returned to pharmaceutical research and development as global head of the Infectious Diseases Therapeutic Area Strategy Team for GlaxoSmithKline. STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and a faculty member in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia from 4 years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Ad-

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary vanced Diagnostics program. Before coming to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor (Virology) at The Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) (selected by “American Scientist” for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century”), and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He currently serves as a Section Editor of the CDC journal “Emerging Infectious Diseases” and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute’s journal “Research in Virology”. Dr. Morse was Chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses (for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections); served as a member of the Institute of Medicine-National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses), and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992); was a member of the IOM’s Committee on Xenograft Transplantation; currently serves on the Steering Committee of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Emerging Infections, and has served as an adviser to WHO (World Health Organization), PAHO (Pan-American Health Organization), FDA, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other agencies. He is a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past Chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding Chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota where he is also Professor at the School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and Chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best selling book, Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM) Forum on Emerging Infections. He has also served on the IOM Committee, Food Safety, Production to Consumption, the IOM Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program and as a reviewer for the IOM report on chemical and biological terrorism.

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary GARY A. ROSELLE, M.D., received his M.D. from Ohio State University School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at Northwestern University School of Medicine and his Infectious Diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. Dr. Roselle is the Program Director for Infectious Diseases for VA Central Office in Washington, D.C., as well as the Chief of the Medical Service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a professor of medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Roselle has received commendations from the Cincinnati Medical Center Director, the Under Secretary for Health for the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for his work in the infectious diseases program for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings, and has published over 80 papers and several book chapters. DAVID M. SHLAES, M.D., Ph.D., is Vice President and Therapeutic Area Co-Leader for Infectious Diseases at Wyeth. Before joining Wyeth, Dr. Shlaes was professor of medicine at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and chief of the Infectious Diseases Section and the Clinical Microbiology Unit at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio. His major research interest has been the mechanisms and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria where he has published widely. He has recently become more involved in the area of public policy as it relates to the discovery and development of antibiotics. He has served on the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Emerging Infections since 1996. JANET SHOEMAKER, is director of the American Society for Microbiology’s Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in American Society for Microbiology (ASM) projects, including the production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as Assistant Director of Public Affairs for ASM, as ASM coordinator of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State, and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts, and is a graduate of the George

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary internship and residency in internal medicine at UCSF, where she also served as chief medical resident before completing her fellowship in clinical pharmacology and infectious diseases at UCSF. She earned her M.P.H. at the University of California, Berkeley in 1990. Dr. Gerberding is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Alpha Omega Alpha, the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI), and the American College of Physicians, and is a fellow in the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). She has served as chair and co-chair of the IDSA’s Committee on Professional Development and Diversity and co-chair of the Annual Program Committee, and was elected to serve as a member of the nominations committee. Dr. Gerberding is also a member of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and has served as a member of the AIDS/Tuberculosis Committee and as Academic Counselor on the SHEA Board, and will be president of SHEA in 2003. In the past, she served as a member of NCID/CDC Board of Scientific Counselors, the CDC HIV Advisory Committee, and the Scientific Program Committee, National Conference on Human Retroviruses. She has also been a consultant to NIH, AMA, CDC, OSHA, the National AIDS Commission, Office of Technology Assessment, and WHO. Her editorial activities have included appointments to the Editorial Board, Annals of Internal Medicine; Associate Editor, American Journal of Medicine, and service as a peer-reviewer for numerous journals. She has authored/co-authored more than 120 publications. Her scientific interests encompass infection prevention/healthcare quality promotion among patients and their healthcare providers and emerging infectious diseases threats. Currently, she is actively engaged in CDC’s response to the recent bioterrorist anthrax attacks through the U. S. mail delivery system. JAMES J. GIBSON, M.D., M.P.H., is State Epidemiologist and Director of the Bureau of Disease Control of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. In that job he is responsible for communicable and other acute disease surveillance, epidemiology, and control programs including planning, management, and evaluation of HIV, STD, TB, and vaccine-preventable disease control programs. In his prior career he represented the Centers for Disease Control at the U.S. Agency for International Development as medical officer for child survival programs, and as a tenured associate professor of preventive and internal medicine at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine. He has published on the epidemiology of herpes simplex infection, syphilis, and other infectious diseases, as well as complications of therapeutic abortions. His training included service in the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and a fellowship in infectious diseases. He is board-certified in internal medicine and in preventive medicine. MARY J. R. GILCHRIST, Ph.D., was named the director of the University Hygienic Laboratory on July 1, 1995. She holds a bachelor’s degree in microbi-

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary ology from the University of Iowa and an M.S. and Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana. She is a Diplomate of the American Board of Medical Microbiology. After a fellowship in clinical and public health microbiology at the Mayo Clinic, Dr. Gilchrist served in the state public health laboratories of Minnesota and Iowa and in two hospitals in Ohio. She was Director of Clinical Microbiology at the Children’s Hospital Medical Center and at the Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center in Cincinnati and Associate Professor at the University of Cincinnati. In 1991, after the Persian Gulf War, she was nominated as Federal Employee of the Year for her contributions to the bioterrorism response and planning for the Department of Veterans Affairs. In 1994, Dr. Gilchrist was named the Eagleson Institute Lecturer of the American Biological Safety Association. Dr. Gilchrist is an active member of the American Society for Microbiology and currently serves as president of the Association of Public Health Laboratories. She is a member of the CDC’s National Center for Infectious Diseases, Board of Scientific Counselors. Dr. Gilchrist is very active in the public health response to bioterrorism on the local, state, and national levels and has several committee appointments related to bioterrorism. She has recently been appointed to the Secretary of Health and Human Services’ Advisory Council on Public Health Preparedness. DONALD A. HENDERSON, M.D., currently is director of the newly created Office of Public Health Preparedness, which coordinates national response to public health emergencies. Dr. Henderson directed the World Health Organization’s global smallpox eradication campaign and was instrumental in 1974 in initiating WHO’s global program of immunization, which is now vaccinating 80 percent of the world’s children against six major diseases and has a goal of eradicating of poliomyelitis. Dr. Henderson is a Johns Hopkins University Distinguished Service Professor with appointments in the departments of Epidemiology and International Health at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. For the past four years, he has directed the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, of which he is a founding director. The center was established to increase awareness of the medical and public health threats posed by biological weapons. From 1977 through August 1990, Dr. Henderson was dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. He rejoined the Hopkins faculty in June 1995 after five years of federal government service in which he served initially as Associate Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President and later as Deputy Assistant Secretary and Senior Science Advisor in the Department of Health and Human Services. Dr. Henderson has been recognized for his work by many institutions and governments. In 1986, he received the National Medal of Science, presented by the President of the United States. He is the recipient of the National Academy of Sciences’ highest award, the Public Welfare Medal, and, with two colleagues, he shared the Japan Prize. Most recently he received from the Royal Society of Medicine the Edward Jen-

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary ner Medal. In all, 13 universities have conferred honorary degrees and 14 countries have honored him with awards and decorations. PETER B. JAHRLING, Ph.D., is Principal Scientific Advisor at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) based in Fort Detrick, Maryland, where he advises the Commander of USAMRIID on the development and coordination of research programs directed at prevention, treatment, and surveillance of infectious disease threats. He also conducts research to evaluate countermeasures, especially vaccines, against viral infectious disease and biological warfare threats. Dr. Jahrling is a consultant to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Research Council. He is also head of the WHO Collaborating Center for Arbovirus and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research at USAMRIID. Since 1996, Dr. Jahrling has served as a consultant to the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine’s Russian/U.S. Collaborative Program for Research and Monitoring of Pathogens of Global Importance. He has authored more than 140 scientific papers and chapters on viruses, biological warfare agents, and vaccines. Dr. Jahrling received his A.B. in biology from Cornell University and his Ph.D. in microbiology from Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences. ANNA JOHNSON-WINEGAR, Ph.D., is the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense, Chemical and Biological Matters (DATSD(CBM)). She serves as the single focal point within OSD responsible for oversight, coordination, and integration of the chemical/biological defense, counterproliferation support, chemical demilitarization, and Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) programs. She is a member of the OSD Steering Committee for Chemical-Biological Defense, and represents the DoD on numerous interagency and international groups addressing CB issues. Before joining the Pentagon staff, Dr. Johnson-Winegar was head of the Human Systems Department at the Office of Naval Research (ONR), where she was responsible for the direction, program planning, management, and oversight of their programs in biomedical, cognitive and neural sciences, human factors, and training technologies. Prior to that, she served as Director of Environmental and Life Sciences in the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) and Director of Medical, Chemical, and Biological Defense Research Programs at the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Her previous positions included product manager at the U. S. Army Medical Materiel Development Activity, and research investigator at the U. S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. She also participated as a biological weapons inspector in Iraq for UNSCOM. Dr. Johnson-Winegar received a B.A. in biology from Hood College, as well as an M.S. and Ph.D in microbiology from Catholic University of America. She has published numerous

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary technical manuscripts, and authored/co-authored several book chapters. She is a long-standing member of many professional societies, serves as a member of the National Board of Directors of the American Cancer Society (ACS), and is President of the ACS Mid-Atlantic Division. In 1998, she received the lifetime achievement award from Women in Science and Engineering. KRISTI L. KOENIG, M.D., FACEP, a board-certified emergency physician and Director of Emergency Management Strategic Healthcare Group, serves as the principal advisor on emergency management and disaster medicine to the Office of the Under Secretary for Health, Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. Prior to joining the department, she served as the Director of Prehospital and Disaster Medicine at Alameda County Medical Center in Oakland, California, and was associate professor on the Emergency Medicine Faculty at the University of California at San Francisco. She was invited on sabbatical to be the Co-Director of the Accident and Emergency Department at St. George’s Hospital National Health Service Trust in London, England where she concurrently served as the Director of Undergraduate Medical Student Education and Honorary Senior Lecturer at the University of London. Dr. Koenig has held appointments on multiple committees and boards including the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations’ (JCAHO) Committee on Healthcare Safety, chair of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Disaster Medicine Task Force, the American College of Emergency Physicians liaison to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the National Association of EMS Physicians Standards and Practice Committee, a California Senate appointment as the California Medical Association representative to the State Emergency Medical Services Commission, the California Health Policy and Data Advisory Commission, Advance Directive Subcommittee, the California Association of Hospitals and Health Systems EMS/Trauma Committee, and the London Ambulance Service Accreditation Ambulance Standards Working Group. Dr. Koenig is an honors graduate in applied mathematics from the University of California at San Diego, received her medical degree from Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, and completed an emergency medicine residency at Highland Hospital in Oakland, California, serving as chief resident in her final year. She is a fellow of the American College of Emergency Physicians and a clinical professor of emergency medicine at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dr. Koenig has also been an associate editor for Academic Emergency Medicine and serves on the editorial board for Journal Watch Emergency Medicine. She has authored numerous articles on emergency and disaster management. SCOTT P. LAYNE, M.D., Ph.D., is a tenured associate professor of epidemiology at the UCLA School of Public Health. He is board-certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases and trained in applied physics. Before joining

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary UCLA, Dr. Layne was a staff member at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. There, his work in infectious diseases utilized mathematical models and epidemiological data to understand the spread of HIV/AIDS in the United States. His further work in virology utilized mathematical models and laboratory experiments to understand the kinetics of HIV infection and biological blocking activities of immunoglobulins against HIV. In 1999, Dr. Layne organized a meeting under the auspices of the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Engineering to discuss infectious disease threats such as influenza, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and HIV and consider new approaches against them. What emerged was a plan to create new kinds of high-throughput laboratory and database resources that expedite disease surveillance and intervention efforts on an international scale. Dr. Layne is currently organizing a new effort to build a global lab against influenza in collaboration with the World Health Organization Influenza Program. He also is proposing a plan to build a high-throughput automated lab and database against bioweapons agents to strengthen homeland security and facilitate compliance and verification procedures for the Biological Weapons Convention. Dr. Layne has authored many publications and is editor of the book, Firepower in the Lab: Automation in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases and Bioterrorism. SCOTT R. LILLIBRIDGE, M.D., is Special Assistant to the Secretary of Health and Human Services for National Security and Emergency Management. Dr. Lillibridge works with HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson to enhance national preparedness for bioterrorism and other health emergencies. These efforts have included support to the various departmental initiatives in response to the recent anthrax crimes following the September 11 attacks. Until July 2001, Dr. Lillibridge was the first director of the CDC Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Program. This program was charged with enhancing CDC’s capacities to assist states and other partners in responding to bioterrorism. In addition to infectious disease concerns, the CDC program included consideration of chemical terrorism, the development of a National Pharmaceutical Stockpile, and support for a National Laboratory Response Network for bioterrorism. The CDC’s program was initiated in 1999. Dr. Lillibridge’s career has focused on emergency public health issues. He was the lead physician during the initial U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) response to the Oklahoma City bombing and also led the U.S. medical delegation to Tokyo following the Sarin release in 1995. During the 1996 Olympics, he served as the PHS science advisor to the multiagency task force that was assembled to protect the public against biological and chemical terrorism. From 1990–1992, Dr. Lillibridge was a member of CDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS). JAMES D. MARKS, M.D., Ph.D., currently is Professor of Anesthesia and Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr.

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary Marks received his undergraduate training at UC Berkeley, majoring in Biochemistry, and received his M.D. from UCSF. He completed residencies in internal medicine and anesthesia and a fellowship in critical care medicine. He is board-certified in all three specialties. He was a graduate student at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology under the supervision of Dr. Greg Winter and received his Ph.D. in 1992 for a dissertation titled, Making Human Antibody Fragments in Bacteria and Bacteriophage. From 1996–2001 he was the medical director of the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit at San Francisco General Hospital and continues to be an attending physician in the intensive care unit and operating rooms at San Francisco General Hospital. Dr Marks is a world recognized pioneer in the field of antibody engineering. He directs a research group using antibody diversity libraries and molecular evolution to dissect the molecular basis of infectious diseases and cancer and develop novel antibody based therapeutic approaches for these diseases. For the last 8 years he has worked on understanding the requirements for potent antibody neutralization of the botulinum neurotoxins under funding from the Department of Defense. He has 86 relevant publications in the field and is a co-inventor on 7 issued patents and 6 patent applications. ANDREA MEYERHOFF, M.D., M.Sc., DTMH, is the Director, Antiterrorism Programs, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA antiterrorism activities refer to the agency’s dual missions in public health and law enforcement. These include the protection of regulated products from terrorist tampering, and the availability of safe and effective medical products. FDA antiterrorism preparedness and response planning to meet these public health needs is developed and coordinated by the director, who serves as the point of contact for anti-terrorism issues at FDA. Dr. Meyerhoff joined the FDA in 1996 as a medical officer in the Division of Special Pathogens, and assumed her present position in July 2001. She is board-certified in infectious disease and internal medicine, and holds a M.Sc. in clinical tropical medicine. She is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at Georgetown University. THOMAS L. MILNE, is the executive director of the National Association of City and County Health Officials (NACCHO), a position he has held since January 1998. NACCHO serves the 3,000 local health departments in the country, providing a broad range of membership services, national policy advocacy, and cutting-edge tools and services for local public health practitioners. Mr. Milne reports to a thirty-member board of health officials who are elected by their member peers. He is a member of several national committees and boards addressing such issues as workforce development, bioterrorism, public health infrastructure, academics, and leadership, and was recently appointed to the HHS secretary’s Advisory Council on Public Health Preparedness. Prior to his current position, Mr. Milne served for 15 years as the executive director of the

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary Southwest Washington Health District, a three county public health department in Washington State. While there, he conceived and helped lead a dynamic healthy community process that has received national attention. Mr. Milne was a member of the steering committee that developed the innovative Public Health Improvement Plan in the state, and served on a variety of state and local boards relating to HIV/AIDS, managed care, and higher education. He has also served on a number of national boards, including those for NACCHO, the American Public Health Association, and the Public Health Leadership Society. Mr. Milne was a scholar in the inaugural year of the Public Health Leadership Institute. GARY J. NABEL, M.D., Ph.D., is currently Director of the Vaccine Research Center at the National Institutes of Health. He came from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where he was the Henry Sewall Professor of Internal Medicine and professor of biological chemistry, as well as a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. Dr. Nabel graduated magna cum laude from Harvard College, and then earned his M.D. and Ph.D. from Harvard University. He completed his postdoctoral fellowship in the laboratory of David Baltimore at the Whitehead Institute, MIT. Dr. Nabel is well known as a molecular virologist and immunologist for his work in the fields of HIV, cancer, and Ebola virus research. Dr. Nabel’s laboratory has studied mechanisms by which cells coordinate in the regulation of the expression of genes during viral infection and development. Specifically, they have examined the molecular basis of HIV transcriptional activation. In late 1997, Dr. Nabel led a group of researchers who demonstrated in guinea pigs that a DNA-based vaccine could generate protective immune responses to Ebola virus. He and his colleagues were also the first to use direct gene transfer to introduce therapeutic proteins into patients with melanoma, showing the feasibility and safety of this approach. Dr. Nabel is a member of the Institute of Medicine and his honors include the James Tolbert Shipley Prize for Research for Harvard Medical School, the Midwest American Federation for Clinical Research Young Investigator Award, and the ASBMB-Amgen Scientific Achievement Award. Dr. Nabel currently is associate editor of the Journal of Virology and the Journal of Clinical Investigation and serves on the editorial boards of several other journals. C.J. PETERS, M.D., is a professor in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. Dr. Peters has recently been named director of the Center for Biodefense at UTMB, which will serve as a catalyst for research and development efforts on effective medical countermeasures against bioterrorism and biological warfare. He had been Chief of Special Pathogens at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. Formerly chief of the Disease Assessment Division at USAMRIID, he has worked in the field of infectious diseases for three decades with the CDC, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Public Health Service. He was the

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary head of the unit that contained the outbreak of Ebola virus at Reston, Virginia. He was also called in to contain an outbreak of deadly hemorrhagic fever in Bolivia. He received his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University and has more than 275 publications in the area of virology and viral immunology. Dr. Peters is currently a member of the National Research Council Committee on Occupational Health and Safety in Care of Nonhuman Primates and the Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. STANLEY PLOTKIN, M.D., is currently a medical and scientific consultant, Aventis Pasteur, after seven years as Medical and Scientific Director, Pasteur Merieux Connaught Vaccines, Paris. He is also Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania and Emeritus Professor of Virology at the Wistar Institute. Over the course of his career he has served as Senior Assistant Surgeon, Epidemic Intelligence Service, USPHS, director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, and as associate chairman, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Plotkin has developed many vaccines, including the Rubella vaccine, RA27/3 strain, now exclusively used in the United States and throughout the world. He has held editorial positions with many scholarly journals and is a member of numerous professional and scientific societies, including the American Academy for the Advancement of Science, the Society for Pediatric Research, the American Society for Microbiology, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Epidemiologic Society. Dr. Plotkin has received several professional awards including the French Legion Medal of Honor (1998); the Clinical Virology Award, Pan American Group for Rapid Viral Diagnosis (1995); the Distinguished Physician Award, Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (1993); and the Bruce Medal of the American College of Physicians. DAVID A. RELMAN, M.D., is associate professor of medicine (infectious diseases) and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University, and Acting Chief of Infectious Diseases at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System. Dr. Relman received his clinical training at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, and his postdoctoral research training at Stanford. He joined the Stanford faculty in 1992. Since then, his research activities have focused on the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis, and on the discovery of previously unrecognized microbial pathogens and commensals. He has described a number of novel disease-causing infectious agents for the first time, and expanded our understanding of human microbial ecology. Recent work includes efforts to employ human and microbial genomic approaches for detection and classification of infectious diseases. Dr. Relman serves on advisory panels for federal agencies, such as the departments of Defense and Energy, CDC, and NIH, and committees for professional societies,

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary such as the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology. PHILIP K. RUSSELL, M.D., received his bachelor’s degree from Johns Hopkins University and his medical degree from the University of Rochester. He is board-certified in internal medicine and has authored or co-authored over 100 publications on infectious diseases. He is a professor emeritus at Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. Prior to joining the university in 1990, Dr. Russell served in the U.S. Army Medical Department where he pursued a career in infectious disease research, retiring as a major general. Military assignments included Director, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Commander, Fitzsimons Army Medical Center; and Commander, U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Overseas tours included Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. His military awards include the Legion of Merit and the Distinguished Service Medal. Academic appointments included professor of preventive Medicine at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Dr. Russell is a past president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and a fellow of the Infectious Disease Society of America. He served as special adviser to the international Children’s Vaccine Initiative. He was a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases and served on the President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. He has served on numerous boards and advisory committees for national and international agencies and now serves on the boards of directors of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute. He is member of the Strategic Advisory Committee of the Bill and Melinda Gates Children’s Vaccine Program. and a consultant to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. He chairs the Malaria Vaccine Task Force of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. He currently serves as special adviser in the Office of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services. JOHN SIMPSON, M.B.B.S., M.F.P.H.M., received his medical degree from University College, London. He trained as a general practitioner and was a principal in general practice in Croydon, London. He then trained in public health and was a consultant in communicable disease control in Surrey (where he set up the countywide service), and Wiltshire, England. These posts entailed considerable involvement in emergency planning and response. Since October 2000 he has been Regional Epidemiologist, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, South East, covering a population of 8 million in southern England. As part of this post he has recently coordinated a major study of the health effects of the flooding in Lewes, Sussex, England, in October/November 2000. He was seconded part-time to be head of the Emergency Planning Co-Ordination Unit at the Department of Health in London and subsequent to this has been working at the

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary Department of Health since September as part of the team coordinating the U.K. Health Response to the September 11 and deliberate anthrax release incidents in the United States. He is also a senior research fellow at the University of Bath. KATHRYN E. STEIN, Ph.D., is the Director of the Division of Monoclonal Antibodies (DMA), Office of Therapeutics Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), FDA, and Acting Chief, Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Immunology (LMDI), DMA. Dr. Stein received her B.A. in chemistry from Bard College and her Ph.D. in microbiology and immunology from Albert Einstein College of Medicine. She received a National Research Service Award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for post-doctoral studies at Harvard with Dr. Harvey Cantor and at the NIH with Dr. William Paul prior to her joining CBER’s Division of Bacterial Products in 1980. She has been the director of DMA since 1992 and prior to that time was chief of the LMDI in the Division of Bacterial Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review. She has an active research laboratory at CBER and is an expert in the field of immune responses to polysaccharide antigens, including the polysaccharide capsules of human pathogens. LIEUTENANT COMMANDER DONALD C. WETTER, P.A.-C, M.P.H., is an Emergency Coordinator with the Office of Emergency Preparedness in the U.S. Public Health Service. He has been involved in emergency services since 1968, primarily emergency medicine hospital, prehospital, and urgent care. He has had experience in disaster response since 1995. Mr. Wetter received his bachelor’s in microbiology from Arizona State University and his physician assistant degree from the University of Alabama in Birmingham. He has a master’s of public health degree from the University of Washington. KEVIN YESKEY, M.D., an active duty 0-6 in the U.S. Public Health Service, is the director of the Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He has served as the deputy director, Emergency Public Health in the Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services, National Center for Environmental Health, CDC. Dr. Yeskey is board-certified in emergency medicine. His previous assignments include associate professor and vice chair, Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University School of Medicine, and chief medical officer, PHS Office of Emergency Preparedness. His disaster response experience includes deployments to hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, mass migrations, and terrorist bombings.

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Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities - Workshop Summary FORUM STAFF STACEY L. KNOBLER, is Director of the Forum on Emerging Infections at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). She previously served as the co-director of the IOM Board on Global Health’s study, Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders in Developing Countries, and research associate for the Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola Virus. Ms. Knobler is actively involved in program research and development for the Board on Global Health. Previously, she has held positions as a Research Associate at the Brookings Institution, Foreign Policy Studies Program and as an Arms Control and Democratization Consultant for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in Vienna and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ms. Knobler has also worked as a research and negotiations analyst in Israel and Palestine. She is currently a member of the CBACI Senior Working Group for Health, Security, and U.S. Global Leadership. Ms. Knobler has conducted research and co-authored published articles on biological and nuclear weapons control, foreign aid, health in developing countries, poverty and public assistance, and the Arab-Israeli peace process. MARJAN NAJAFI, M.P.H., is a research associate for the Forum on Emerging Infections in the Board on Global Health. She has also worked with the IOM committee that produced Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. She received her undergraduate degrees in chemical engineering and applied mathematics from the University of Rhode Island. Ms. Najafi served as a public health engineer with the Maryland Department of Environment and, later, the Research Triangle Institute. After obtaining a master’s of public health from the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, she managed a lead poisoning prevention program in Micronesia with a grant from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Prior to joining IOM, she worked on a study researching the effects of cellular phone radiation on human health. LAURIE A. SPINELLI is a project assistant for the Forum on Emerging Infections in the Board on Global Health. Ms. Spinelli joined the IOM in July 2000 and has worked with the IOM committee that generated the Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World report. Currently, she is working on two forthcoming reports: Reducing the Impact of Birth Defects in Developing Countries and Improving Birth Outcomes in Developing Countries. Prior to joining IOM, she graduated from Syracuse University with a bachelor of arts degree in speech communications. Ms. Spinelli also teaches an interpersonal communication course at the College of Southern Maryland.