Index

A

Adhesion promoters for multilayer substrates, 211–212

Adsorbates

isolated, 284, 288

surface studies of, 288, 297–298, 302–304

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), establishment of IDLs, 35, 37

Aggregates

iron-carbon, 73

nanoscale examination of, 73

osmium-copper, 193–197

polycrystalline, 72, 78–79

ruthenium-copper, 191, 193–194, 198

Aharanov-Bohm effect, 141

Aircraft, polymer composites in, 271

Allied Corporation, solid-state extrusion of polymers, 253

Alloys

aluminum base, 11–12, 56, 62, 78–79, 125, 138, 231

amorphous, 92–95

brittle fracture in, 121–122

ceramic-stiffened, 231–233

cobalt-chromium, 65, 90

copper-cobalt, 96

corrosion-resistant, 59–61, 90

crystalline, 57, 77–78

design of, 122–123, 126

ductile fracture in, 120–121

ductile ordered, 78–84

face-centered (fcc) cubic systems, 96–97

flow properties of, 79–80, 118–120

germanium-silicon, 293

hardening of, 123, 126, 157–158

homogeneous glassy, 77–78

to increase ductility of ceramic solids, 225

ion implantation in, 62–66

iron-nickel, 102

magnetic, 91–95

metal, as catalysts, 189–191

monocrystalline, 67–68, 78

multicomponent, self-reinforced ceramic, 242

nickel base, 11, 74–75, 97, 189–191

polycrystalline, 78–79

polymer, 271–273

problem areas in, 123

refinement of second-phase precipitates in, 61

RSP, 56–61, 123

shear instability in, 120–121

single-crystal processing of, 67–68

strengthening of, 68–69, 78–83

super, 57, 61–62, 67–70

supermodulus effect in, 74–75

superplasticity in, 69–71

titanium, stress corrosion cracking of, 125

toughness/toughening of, 68–69, 103, 120, 122, 126, 231

transition-metal, 75, 94–95;

see also specific alloys

vapor-deposited compositionally modulated, 74–75

XD, 232–233

yttria-zirconia, 361

see also Aggregates; Bimetallic catalysts; Steels



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Advancing Materials Research Index A Adhesion promoters for multilayer substrates, 211–212 Adsorbates isolated, 284, 288 surface studies of, 288, 297–298, 302–304 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), establishment of IDLs, 35, 37 Aggregates iron-carbon, 73 nanoscale examination of, 73 osmium-copper, 193–197 polycrystalline, 72, 78–79 ruthenium-copper, 191, 193–194, 198 Aharanov-Bohm effect, 141 Aircraft, polymer composites in, 271 Allied Corporation, solid-state extrusion of polymers, 253 Alloys aluminum base, 11–12, 56, 62, 78–79, 125, 138, 231 amorphous, 92–95 brittle fracture in, 121–122 ceramic-stiffened, 231–233 cobalt-chromium, 65, 90 copper-cobalt, 96 corrosion-resistant, 59–61, 90 crystalline, 57, 77–78 design of, 122–123, 126 ductile fracture in, 120–121 ductile ordered, 78–84 face-centered (fcc) cubic systems, 96–97 flow properties of, 79–80, 118–120 germanium-silicon, 293 hardening of, 123, 126, 157–158 homogeneous glassy, 77–78 to increase ductility of ceramic solids, 225 ion implantation in, 62–66 iron-nickel, 102 magnetic, 91–95 metal, as catalysts, 189–191 monocrystalline, 67–68, 78 multicomponent, self-reinforced ceramic, 242 nickel base, 11, 74–75, 97, 189–191 polycrystalline, 78–79 polymer, 271–273 problem areas in, 123 refinement of second-phase precipitates in, 61 RSP, 56–61, 123 shear instability in, 120–121 single-crystal processing of, 67–68 strengthening of, 68–69, 78–83 super, 57, 61–62, 67–70 supermodulus effect in, 74–75 superplasticity in, 69–71 titanium, stress corrosion cracking of, 125 toughness/toughening of, 68–69, 103, 120, 122, 126, 231 transition-metal, 75, 94–95; see also specific alloys vapor-deposited compositionally modulated, 74–75 XD, 232–233 yttria-zirconia, 361 see also Aggregates; Bimetallic catalysts; Steels

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Advancing Materials Research Alumina dislocation barriers in, 114 impurities in, 212 incorporation of zirconium oxide into, 235 microelectronics applications, 211 porous, biomedical applications, 239 Aluminosilicates as catalysts, 199–200 Aluminum oxide reinforced with SiC whiskers, 236–238 Aluminum, modulus of, 255–256 American Ceramic Society, 225 American Chemical Society, 20, 166 American Physical Society, 278 Angle-dependent inverse photoemission, 301 Angle-resolved photoemission, 283–284, 289, 298–299 Aperiodic tilings, 155–156 Artificial intelligence, 367 AT&T Holmdel Laboratories, 18 Atom scattering, theoretical effort required to study, 285 Atomic and molecular state changes, advances in, 18–19 Atomic Energy Commission, role in establishing MRLs, 27–29, 36 Auger electron microscopy, applications, 123, 189 Automobiles ceramic-metal composites in, 212, 351–352 high-strength low-alloy steels in, 54, 56 polymer composites in, 275, 351 Automotive industry computer-aided and computer-integrated manufacturing in, 353 electronic and information materials applications in, 350–351 near net-shape fabrication processing in, 352 B Bainite formation theory, 104–105 Baker, William O., 29, 37 Ball milling to produce SiC fibers, 236 Band-gap engineering, 168–169, 292 Bernstein-Kearsley-Zapas theory, 280 Bimetallic catalysts aggregates of immiscible components as, 191–193 characterization of, 193 complication in studying, 189 highly dispersed clusters, 193–199 osmium-copper supported on silica, 193–197 platinum-iridium dispersed on alumina, 197–199 platinum-rhenium, 199 ruthenium-copper, 191, 193–194, 198 Bioglass, 239 Biology, role in future of materials science, 220–222 Biomaterials, examples of, 221 Biomedical materials applications of, 216–217 see also Prosthetics, materials used in Block copolymers applications, 273 processing and properties of, 45, 271–273 Bock, H., 12 Boron, effect on ductility and strength of polycrystalline alloys, 78–79 Brillouin spectroscopy, 303–304 Brillouin zone, 75, 302–303, 309 Brittle fracture in alloys, 121–122 hydrogen role in, 124 problems in studying, 125 Brookhaven National Laboratories management of concurrent research at, 337–338 operating costs for experiments at, 338 synchrotron radiation equipment, 336 Brooks, Harvey, 28 Brown University, 45, 46 Bulk materials methods for studying order in, 138 new phenomena in, 162–166 C Calcium phosphates, biomedical applications, 239 California Institute of Technology, 47 Carbon fiber applications, 15–17 modulus of, 15, 256 production, 207–208 Carnegie Mellon University, 5, 45 Case Western Reserve University, 45 Cast iron, modulus of, 256 Catalysis in ceramics processing, 205 heterogeneous, 177–178 homogeneous, 177 materials applications of, 215 materials research in, 177–201 outlook for, 201 in petroleum production, 181, 191, 199–200 progress in, 177 specificity in, 178, 191 at surface of a solid, 177–178 Catalysts

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Advancing Materials Research bismuth molybdate systems, 200 cobalt molybdate systems, 200 definition, 177 industrial use, 177 oxides as, 180, 200 redox, 215 surface study applications in, 293 types of materials used as, 178, 180, 191, 193, 200–201 zeolites, 200 see also Aluminosilicates as catalysts; Bimetallic catalysts; Metal catalysts; Transition metals Catalytic processes dehydrogenation of cyclohexane to benzene, 191–194 economical, 217 Houdry cracking, 200 hydrogenolysis of ethane to methane, 178–179, 191–194 oxidation of ethylene, 178 selective inhibition of Group VIII metal, 191–192 steps in, 177 Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 165 Ceramic particles, vapor-phase reactions to produce, 230–231 Ceramics advances in, 225–227 alloys to increase ductility of, 225 applications in chemistry, 227 automotive applications, 237–239, 351–352 chemical syntheses in, 227–231 cost-effectiveness, 231 electronics applications, 240 fibers incorporated in, 236 mechanical engineering role in, 234–239 medical applications, 239, 242 metallurgical applications, 231–233 in microelectronic devices, 211–213 notch brittleness in, 225, 234 oxide-based, 228 polymeric precursors to, 210, 214, 266–267 single-crystal form, 240 transformation toughening of, 117, 122, 234–239 whiskers incorporated in, 236–237 Ceramics processing opportunities for chemists in, 204–205 for oxide-based ceramics, 229 Cerevital, 239 Chalcogenides, layered transition-metal, 137 Charge-density waves, discovery, 163 Chemical fuels production, 215 Chemical industry contributions to materials science, 203, 215 environmentally acceptable processing methods, 217 Chemical processes, molecular control of, 217 Chemical vapor deposition applications, 167, 213 understanding of, 217 Chemicals, high purity in, 217 Chemisorption measurements of metal dispersion in catalysts, 182, 185 see also Hydrogen chemisorption Chemistry areas in which new synthetic materials will emerge, 219 areas of high activity in, 216–218 ceramics applications in, 227–228 contributions in materials processing, 217 in fabricating microelectronic devices, 212–213 in materials science, 203–222 opportunities in, 211 organosilicon, 208–210 strengths of, 205–206 vectorial, 222 Coatings antireflective, 312–317 antistatic, 229 biomedical, 239 ceramic, 237 polymers used as, 246, 266 Collapse transition, 277–278 Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering (COSMAT), report on materials research concept, 4, 6, 38–39 Composites in aircraft, 274–275 carbon-fiber-reinforced, 207–208 carbon-polymer, 15–16, 213 ceramic-metal for automobile engines, 212 failure mode of, 208 fiber-reinforced, 86–87, 209, 351 in situ precipitated, 233 metal-matrix, 84–88, 231–233 multiphase ceramic, 211–212 optimum size of, 126 piezoelectric, 241 polymer-matrix, 16, 45, 86, 274–277 problems with, 275–276 self-assembling, 217–219, 251, 272 silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers, 267 submicron, 46 tailoring high-performance multilayer structures, 212, 240–241 toughening of, 126, 234–236

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Advancing Materials Research see also Alloys Computer simulations to describe atom interactions, 114 of dislocation motions, 119 of freezing of a liquid, 156 of molecular dynamics of gas-surface interactions of scattering processes, 296 see also Models/modeling Condensed-matter physics, connections with materials research, 131–147 Condon, E.U., 26 Conduction electrons, mass in heavy-electron compounds, 132 Conductors organic, 163, 216, 219 polymeric, 163, 214 superionic, 138 Conference on the Mechanical Properties of Engineering Ceramics, 225 Coordinating Committee on Materials Research and Development (CCMRD), role in establishing IDLs, 29, 35–36 Core-hole decay, study of dynamics of, 300 Core-level photoelectron spectroscopy, 284, 299–300 Cornell University, 44–46, 336 Corning Glass Works, biomedical applications of ceramics, 239 Coupling agents, failure of, 211–212 Crack nucleation, 122 Crack propagation of brittle cracks, 121 in Nicalon fiber, 267 problems in understanding, 118, 125 process, 120–121 resistance of materials to, 117 Crack tip screening by surrounding dislocations, 117 toughening of ceramic by, 122 Crack tips, hydrogen enhancement of bond breaking at, 124 Cracks/cracking brittle cleavage, 117 causes, 226 configurations, 117 J integral for, 117 nonpropagating, 122 perfectly brittle, 117, 118 problems in studying, 118 retardants, 235 solvability of problems with, 125 strain energy release rate, 117 Crystallization of liquids, rate-limiting factor in, 157 Crystallography on electron microscope, 158–159 x-ray, contribution to polymer studies, 266 x-ray diffraction scattering in, 153 Crystals acousto-optical, 358 calculation of equilibrium shape of, 153 ceramic, 114 commercial demand for, 358 composite (twins or multiple twins), 153 deviations from periodicity, 153–154 different forms of, 153 distorted icosahedra in, 156 identification of, 153 interfaces with disordered materials, 292 internal structure of, 153 lead, 283 modulated structures, 154–155 nonlinear optical, 45 organic, 45 plastic, 138 urea, 45 vibrational spectroscopy of surfaces of, 301–304 see also Liquid crystals; Quasi-periodic crystals; Single-crystal processing D Dammel, R., 12 Delamination of fiberglass-reinforced epoxy circuit boards, 211 Dendrites, 138 Dienes, G.J., 29 Dip coating, application, 229 Disclinations, 126 Dislocation arrays examples of, 112, 116 in fcc metals, 114 Dislocations barriers to motions of, 114 bulk, modeling of, 114, 116 crack tip screening by, 117, 123 double-kink nucleation and growth, 114 elastic field calculations for, 114 elastic theory of, 112 elimination of in semiconductor devices, 126 flips, origin of, 113 glide plane and bow-out of, 119–120 interphase interfaces, 114 lattice theory of, 112–114 loop approximation, circular, 117 loops encircling particles, 120 multiple, calculations of, 114–116

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Advancing Materials Research nonlinear elastic theory applied to, 116 partial, 114 pileups, 225–226 pileup theory, 118 problems in studying, 114–117 reduction of in metallic and semimetallic surfaces, 10 role of, 114, 117 screw, 112, 124 solutes interacting with, 119 solvability of problems of, 125 techniques for studying, 114 vector field theory for, 112 see also Grain boundary dislocations Disordered electron systems metal-insulator transitions in, 139 quantum interference effects in, 139–147 Dispirations, 126 Distribution transformers, use of amorphous alloy cores in, 92 Doping modulation of semiconductors, 169 of polymers, 265 Dow Corning, polymeric precursor development by, 267 Downer, M., 19 Ductile tensile fracture, 120–121, 124 Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), 121–123 Duwez, Pol, 157 E Electric power industry, materials needs in, 359 Electrical conduction finite-size effects of, 139 in ultrasmall structures, 139–147 Electrical energy storage, polymer applications in, 214 Electrical resistances of superconductors, 134–135 Electrical/electronics industry, materials for, 354–360 Electron charge-density wave structures, 137 Electron energy-loss spectroscopy, 302–303 Electron microscope/microscopy crystallography on, 158–159 dark-field, 158 direct lattice resolution, 114 dislocation interactions studied with, 114 facility, 336 of metal dispersion in platinum-alumina catalyst, 183 in polymer science, 255 weak-beam technique, 114 see also Scanning tunneling microscope Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, 299 see also Synchrotron radiation sources Electron-beam lithography, fabrication of superconducting line, 142 Electronics automotive applications, 350–351 multilayer substrates for, 211–212 sensors in power systems, 356–358 Embrittlement of alloys, 57 of amorphous polymers, 263 hydrogen, 66, 124–125 of ionic solids, 225 problems in studying, 125 role of impurities in, 123 of steels, 54, 66, 123–124 Energy conversion in biological systems, 222 chemistry contributions to, 214–215 fuel cells, 359, 361 Engineering contributions to materials science, 205–206 see also Band-gap engineering; Materials science and engineering Engineering Research Centers economic potential of, 8 need addressed by, 8, 48 Epitaxy strained-layer, 168 see also Heteroepitaxy, definition and applications; Homoepitaxy, definition and applications; Molecular beam epitaxy Epremian, Edward, 28 Etch processes, applications in microelectronics, 212 Europe, synthesis of solid-state compounds in, 164, 172 Excitation processes on surfaces, 284, 289, 300–301 Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), 184–187, 193–198, 284, 300 F f-Electron materials, properties of, 133 Federal Council for Science and Technology creation of, 20, 29 role in establishing IDLs, 36 Federov, E.S., 156 Fermi degeneracy temperatures of heavy-electron compounds, 132 Fermions, heavy, discovery of, 163

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Advancing Materials Research Field-ion microscopy, applications, 158, 292, 294 Films barium titanate, 229 Langmuir-Blodgett-like self-assembling monolayer, 217 metallic, 87 passive, 358 quarter-wave interference, 316 see also Ultrathin films Fluorescence spectroscopy, 304–305 Fork, R., 19 Fractional quantized Hall effect discovery of, 169 occurrence, 136 plateaus in Hall resistance, 136–137 Fracture of matter, cost of efforts to contain, 11 France, materials research status in, 164–165 Frank, F.C., 155 Frauenfelder, Hans, 18 Funding for basic science, 327–328 block, feasibility on campuses, 39, 48 for IDL program (FY 1969), 38 for large-scale facilities, 336, 338–339, 342 for materials research equipment, 345–346 for MBE research, 170 of MRL thrust groups, 42–43 needs for solid-state syntheses, 166 small-science trends in, 322–326 sources for university and national laboratory materials research, 338, 339 for U.S. metal-matrix program, 84 G Geballe, Theodore H., 4 Gels, tungstate and vanadium pentoxide, 229 Geodesic domes, 156 Germany, materials research status in, 164 Gibbs, J.W., 153 Glass fibers, modulus of, 255–256 Glass transition in polymers, 257, 259–260, 262–263 Glass-ceramic materials, processing, properties, and uses, 310–314 Glasses biomedical, 239 borosilicate, 228 lead borosilicate, 240 lead-iron phosphate, 227, 228 lithium aluminosilicate, 236–237 metallic, 56–57, 77, 92–93 spin, 45, 163 Graham, Thomas, 228 Grain boundary dislocations elastic field calculations for, 114 nonuniform spacings of, 114 role of, 114 in type 304 stainless steel, 115 Ground state, periodicity of, 156–157 H Hall resistance, definition, 136 Hall-Petch relation, 55, 73, 118 Harvard University, 5, 44, 46 Heavy-electron compounds, properties, 132–135 Hebb, M.E., 29 Helium-beam spectroscopy, 301–303 Herring, William Conyers, 5 Heteroepitaxy, definition and applications, 168 High-magnetic-field facility, 336 Hollomon, J. Herbert, 28, 29 Homoepitaxy, definition and applications, 168 Howe, J.P., 29 Hyaluronic acid, 221 Hydrogen chemisorption on Group VIII metals, 182 on nickel-copper alloy catalysts, 189–190 on platinum-on-alumina catalysts, 182–183 on ruthenium-copper aggregates, 191 Hydrogen embrittlement, 66, 124–125 Hydrogen storage interstitials, discovery, 163 I IBM Corp., ceramics applications by, 240–241 Icosahedral molecules and packing units, 155 Icosahedral quasicrystals in Al-Mn alloys, 138, 151–152 decagonal and dodecagonal point groups, 159 diffraction patterns, 151–152 growth of, 159 symmetry, 11, 154, 158–159 tools for studying, 158–159 see also Quasi-periodic crystals IDL program budget (FY 1971), 41 degrees awarded through, 38 effectiveness in increasing graduate education in materials research, 39 faculty/student participation in, 38, 41 funding for (FY 1969), 38 papers published, 38 research project subject areas, 38 transfer to NSF, 40–42

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Advancing Materials Research see also Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDLs); MRL program; Materials Research Laboratories (MRLs) Incommensurate structures, 137, 292 Inelastic atom scattering, 285 Inelastic electron scattering, 285, 301 Inelastic helium scattering, 289 Information storage need for advances in, 366 organic materials applied to, 216 Infrared spectroscopy surface studies via, 303 to study organic polymers, 247 Integral quantized Hall effect, 136–137 Integrated circuits interconnect failure in, 88–89 thin-film metallurgy of, 88–91 see also Very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) devices Intercalation compounds discovery, 163 incommensurate structures in, 137 interdisciplinary research on, 44–45 Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDLs) establishment of, 29, 35–39 purpose of, 37–38 quality of education at universities where established, 39 scope of interdisciplinary activities at, 39 universities operating, 36 years of operation of, 36 see also IDL program; Materials Research Laboratories (MRLs); MRL program Interfaces chemical modification of, 216 crystal, with disordered materials, 292 energies, 288 equipment and techniques for studying, 45 fiber-matrix, 87 incommensurate, 292 martensitic, 100–102 semiconductor-metal, 291 semiconductor-semiconductor, 136, 291–292 solid-liquid, 292, 304 solid-solid, 291 Intergranular fracture, role of impurities in, 123, 124 Inverse photoemission, surface studies via, 284, 300–301 Ion fragmentation, study of, 300 Ion implantation, metallurgical applications, 62–66, 89–90 Ion scattering advantages in surface studies, 294, 295–298 experiments, 283, 285 measurement of angular distribution of backscattered flux, 296 Ionization, core-hole, 299–300 Iowa State University, equipment-sharing program, 346 J Japan automotive applications of ceramics, 351 solid-state materials synthesis in, 165–166, 170 Johnson, Roy, 29 Josephson coupling energy, 145 K Kepler, J., 156 Kevlar 49, modulus of, 256, 274 Keyworth, George A., II, 8 Killian, James R., 20, 29 Kincaid, John F., 29 Knight shift, 188 Kondo effect in heavy-electron compounds, 135 Kyocera Corporation, single-crystal sapphire applications, 239 L Landau theory, use to predict crystallization of a liquid, 156 Lasers role in surface processing, 63–66, 306 surface studies with, 285, 303–306 Lattice mismatch, effect on epitaxial growth, 168 Lattice-trapping barrier, 117 Levine, D., 12 Libby, Willard, 28, 29 Light-scattering spectroscopy, 303–304 Liquid crystals areas needing study, 126 formation, 260 induced order in, 138 MRL research on, 44 smectic, hexatic phase of, 138 Lithium niobate, 45 Local-density functional theory, applications, 286–289, 291 Loose aggregate structures, 138 Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), 294, 295, 297–298 Lower-dimensionality materials, research accomplishments in, 44

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Advancing Materials Research M Magnetic ordering in heavy-electron compounds, 133 Magneto-optical recording of information, 94 Magnetoresistance of drawn platinum wire, 141–142 of evaporated aluminum film, 139–141 on one-dimensional ring, 142–143 Magnets applications, 94 large coercive force, 163 permanent, development of alloys for, 93–94, 352 Martin Marietta Laboratories, alloy development, 231–232 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5, 45–46, 230–231, 336 Materials research automotive industry applications, 350 condensed-matter physics and, 131–147 ensuring scientific contributions to, 321–323 equipment costs, 340–341, 344–345 facility types and corresponding equipment, 340–341 financial incentives for, 364 industrial collaboration in, 364–365 instrumentation requirements, 321–323, 329, 343–346 large-scale facilities for, 335–338, 340–341 national commitment to, 19, 338–343 national policy on, 349 new federal funding patterns in, 47, 324, 342–343 priorities in, 9 role of chemistry in, 204–207 small-group, 322–327 social factors in, 341 synthesis loop in, 164 Materials Research Groups, 47–48, 324, 340 Materials Research Laboratories (MRLs) accomplishments of, 38–39, 43–46, 347–348 block funding in, 40 character of research at, 44 contributions on university campuses, 365 contributions to industrial research programs, 362–363 establishment of, 35 interactions with industry, 348–353, 364–365 new-materials synthesis at, 165 NSF budget for, 43 quality of research at, 44 time-sharing of equipment, 43, 337, 346 universities operating, 36, 43 years of operation of, 36 see also IDL program; Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDLs); MRL program; Thrust groups Materials Research Society, role of, 19 Materials science and engineering arrangements and opportunities for advancing, 13–18, 330 deficiencies in, 342 domains of, 329–330 importance of chemistry to, 203, 219 interconnections of physical and life sciences relative to, 7 new frontiers, 11–12, 365–367 products and processes attributable to, 6–7, 10 relations to global resources and uses of matter, 6 Materials synthesis and processing, new techniques for, 307–317 Melt crystallization of organic polymers, 247, 249, 255, 261–262 Metal catalysts carbides, nitrides, and borides of transition metals as, 201 chemisorption measurements of metal dispersion, 182–184 composition of, 180 in gasoline production, 181, 191 most commonly used, 178 NMR characterization of, 187–189 platinum-on-alumina, 182 rate of reaction, 181 ratio of surface atoms to total atoms, 181–184 refractory material used with, 180 silver, 178 supported, 180–184 typical application of, 181 x-ray absorption spectroscopic characterization of, 184–187 see also Bimetallic catalysts Metal insulator transitions, discovery, 162–163 Metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) diagram of, 88–89 electrical resistance in, 139–140 electron micrograph of, 146 fractional quantization experiments on, 136 Metallurgical processing ion implantation and laser-beam processing, 62–66 at nanostructural level, 71–74 single-crystal processing, 67–68 steel refining, 53–54 Metallurgy

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Advancing Materials Research applications in ceramics, 231–233 costly gaps in knowledge, 52 microstructural refinements in, 68–78, 87 research opportunities in, 73, 75, 78, 84, 88–89, 95, 103–105 special metallic systems for structural purposes, 78–88 thin-film, of integrated circuits, 87–91 Metals amorphous, 126 barriers to dislocation motions in, 114 biomedical applications, 269–270 evaporation-condensation processing of, 71–74 future prospects with, 125–126 hydrogen embrittlement of, 124 impurities in, 123–124 microstructure and mechanical properties of, 71, 73–74, 111–127 nanocrystalline, 71–74 nonstructural applications, 88–95 stress corrosion cracking of, 124–125 usefulness, 52–53 see also Alloys; Bimetallic catalysts; Metal catalysts; Organic metals, accomplishments in; specific metals Metastable phases creation through rapid solidification, 56, 61, 66, 157–158 transformation to improve toughness of alloys, 75, 120–122 Michigan Molecular Institute, 277 Michigan State University, 277 Michigan Technological University, 277 Microbiology, advances in, 220–222 Microelectronic devices/components ceramics for, 211 packaging problems, 211–212 problems in fabricating, 211, 213, 217 role of chemistry in, 212 sensors in power systems, 356–358 Microwave resonators, high-dielectric-constant, 163 Mission agencies, basic research supported by, 327–329 Mixed-valence compounds, discovery, 163 Models/modeling of bulk dislocations, 114 of coherent surface nucleation, 262 of crack propagation, 122 of mixed-mode cracking, 118 pair-potential, 290 of reptation, 260–262, 280 of superplasticity, 70–71 three-dimensional, of dislocations, 123 Modulated structures, properties and processing of, 74–78, 87, 91 Modulus enhancement for fine metallic-layer structures, 75, 126 Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) discovery, 167 equipment requirements, 170 future of, 169–172 gas-source, 167 structures produced by, 168, 292 uses, 136, 309, 358 Molecular control of chemical processes, 217–219 Molecular genetics, practical applications, 220 Molecular science, new materials, processes, and strategies from, 215–218 Molecular-beam laser-probed experiments, 290 Mössbauer spectroscopy, 71 MRL program accomplishments of, 38–39, 46 awards from, 32–33, 43 budget, 41–43 current status of, 43 deficiencies in, 39 degrees awarded through, 43 faculty/student participation in, 13, 43 history and development of, 3–5, 20–21, 27–30 impetus for, 5–8, 12, 19–20, 27–29 NSF assumption of, 37, 40–42, 362 peer review process, 43 purpose of, 9–10, 21–22, 161 qualification for core support by, 40 reasons for successes of, 30–33 scientific setting for, 25–26 seed projects, 43; see also Thrust groups small-group research support by, 324 successfulness of, 30–33 see also Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDLs); IDL program; Materials Research Laboratories (MRLs) Multibeam nonlinear spectroscopy, 304 Multilayer multichip module (MMC), description, 240–241 Multilayer substrates, problems in fabricating, 211 N National Academy of Sciences, 4, 6, 28, 38–39 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 36, 277 National Bureau of Standards, 12, 277 National Institutes of Health, funding for equipment, 346 National Magnet Laboratory, 170

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Advancing Materials Research National Science Foundation (NSF) materials research funding, 338–339, 341–342 transfer of IDL program to, 37, 40–42, 362 Neutron scattering research facilities, 9, 336, 341 use to study organic polymers, 247 Nicalon fiber, 266–267 Nickel in alloys, 11, 74–75, 97, 102, 189–191 as a catalyst, 181 crystallization from melt, 157 Nippon Carbon Co., Nicalon fiber process, 266–267 Nondestructive examination, 276, 306, 359–360 Nonequilibrium structures characterized as novel forms of structural order, 138 Nonlinear laser spectroscopy, 304 Nonlinear optical phenomena, study of, 286, 290, 305 Nonlinear viscoelastic theory, 279 Northwestern University, 20, 44–46 Nuclear energy ceramics applications in, 242 materials needs in, 359 Nuclear magnetic resonance metal catalyst characterization by, 187–189 spin echo technique, 187 Nucleation autocatalytic, 99–100 heterogeneous, 99–100 homogeneous, 96–99 mechanism in glass-ceramics, 311 theory, 247 O Office of Naval Research, role in establishing MRLs, 13, 27, 28 Optical communications, organic materials applied to, 216 Optical instrument transformer, 356–357 Optical waveguides, 229, 240, 356 Optically responsive materials, 216, 219, 356–358 Organic chemistry, strengths of, 206 Organic materials disadvantages of, 206 optically responsive systems applications, 216 Organic metals, accomplishments in, 44–45 Organic polymer chains behavior in solution, 277–278 folding in, 247–249, 251–252, 254 regularity, 258 Organic polymers amorphous, 257–263 applications, 15–18, 246, 263–270, 351 blends, 218, 271–274 chirality, 257–258 commercial importance, 248–249, 265 crystalline, 126, 246–258 desirable properties of, 206 doping of, 265 embrittlement of, 263 extruded, 253, 255 fractions, 249 future uses of, 270, 277 glass transition in, 257, 259–260, 262–263 high-strength fibers, 252–255 impact strength, 257, 271–272 international advances in, 252 lamellar spherulitic structures in, 249–252, 254–255 modulus, 255–256, 259–260 morphology and properties, 246–263 piezoelectric, 264–266 as precursors for ceramics, 210, 214, 266–267 problems with, 256, 275–276 processing of, 247, 249, 251–256 reptations in, 257, 260–262, 280 shish kebab structures in, 252–255 in silicon chip technology, 268–269 single-crystal, 247–248 spherulites in, 249–252 tacticity of, 257–258 thermoplastic, 271–272, 275 unusual behavior of, 246, 259–260, 270, 278–279 waste disposal of, 256 see also Polymers Orowan-Friedel expression for breakaway of a dislocation from pinning particles, 118 Ostwald ripening, 58, 97 Ostwald, Wilhelm, 177 P Partially ordered systems, study areas in, 138 Particle-assisted deposition processes, fabrication of microelectronic devices, 213 Pauli paramagnetic susceptibilities, of heavy-electron compounds, 132 Peierls stress and energy, calculation of, 112 Pennsylvania State University, 47 Penrose, Richard A.F., 156

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Advancing Materials Research Pfann, William G., 10 Phase transformations, solid-state displacive-diffusional, 103–105 heterogeneous nucleation, 99–100 homogeneous nucleation, 96–99 martensitic, 98–105 plasticity and toughening induced by, 102–103 thermoelastic and nonthermoelastic, 100–102 Phase transitions MRL-related research accomplishments in, 44–45 within a single molecule, 277–278 Phosphorus crystallization from melt, 157 removal from steels, 54 Photoacoustic spectroscopy, 304 Photodesorption spectroscopy, 304 Photonics advances in, 366 ceramics contributions to, 240, 242 Photoresist technology, polymer applications in, 212, 268–269 Photothermal spectroscopy, 304 Physics, contributions to materials science, 205–206 Pileups crack tip screening by, 117 elastic field calculations for, 114 enhancement of crack nucleation through, 122 Planarity of slip, hydrogen enhancement of, 124 Plastics, engineering, 221 Platinum as a catalyst, 181, 185, 187–189 diamagnetic compounds, 188 x-ray absorption spectrum for, 184–185 Pohl, Herbert A., 18 Pohl, Robert Wichert, 26 Polybenzthiazole, 217 Polydisilylazane, 267 Polyether ether ketone (PEEK), pathway from crude oil to, 207–208 Polyethylene applications, 249, 269–270 commercial value, 257 discovery, 245 glass transition in, 259 modulus of, 255–256 molecular weights, 249–250 negative aspects of, 256 shish kebab structures in, 253–254 single crystals, 247 solid-state extrusion of, 253–255 spherulites in, 249–252, 255 structure, 247–248 Polyhydroxybutyrate/propionate, 221 Polylactic acid, 221, 239 Polymer melts, unusual behavior of, 278–280 Polymer science involvement of other fields in, 280–281 newer theories of, 277–281 Polymers biologically derived, 221 electrical energy storage applications, 214 electronic components from, 213 glassy, 126 interest in developing, 216 rigid-rod, 217 thermal degradation of, 229–230 see also Organic polymers Polypropylene solid-state extrusion of, 256–257 structure, 257–259 Polysaccharides, 220–221 Polystyrene, 259, 271–272 Polytechnic Institute of New York, 47 Polyvinyl fluoride applications, 265 molecular chain formations, 264–265 statistical mechanics approach to structural transitions in, 45 Powders, nanoscale, production of, 71–72 Power transformers, use of amorphous alloys in, 93 Precipitation hardening of alloys, 157–158 Precursor state, 290 Prepregnated tape, production of, 208 Princeton University, 5 Prosthetics, materials used in, 239, 242, 269–270 Purdue University, 45, 46 Q Quantized Hall effect, 135–136, 333; see also Fractional quantized Hall effect; Integral quantized Hall effect Quantum chemical molecular theory, 287 Quantum interference effects in disordered electron systems, 139–147 experimental configuration for studying, 141–142 Quartz crystallization from melt, 157 Quasi-periodic crystals developments in related fields, 154–157 discovery of, 151–153, 333 production through RSP, 56, 61 symmetry of, 11–12, 126; see also Icosahedral quasicrystals Quasi-periodic structures, 155–156

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Advancing Materials Research Quasiparticles, 137 R Raman scattering spectroscopy, 19, 303–305 Rapid solidification processing (RSP) in alloy production, 123 automotive applications, 352 creation of metastable phases through, 56, 61, 66, 157–158 grain-growth inhibition, 57–58 refinement of dendritic structures, 57 second-phase refinement by, 58–59, 61 Reactive ion etching, 332–333 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 47 Reptation, polymer movement by, 257, 260–262 Reynolds, Richard A., 9 Roy, Rustum, 9 Rutgers University, 231 Rutherford backscattering, 295–296 S Sapphire, single-crystal, biomedical applications, 239 Scanning tunneling microscope operation of, 292–293 problem with, 293 surface studies with, 283, 289, 292–294, 333 Scattering experiments to study surface atomic structure, 285, 289, 292, 294–298 Schottky barrier in, 291 Science Advisory Committee, 3 Screw dislocations in body-centered cubic crystal, 112 double-kink nucleation on, 124 Second-harmonic generation, probing of surfaces by, 305 Seitz, Frederick, 5, 26, 28 Self-assembling systems, development of, 217–219 Semiconductors applications, 167, 213 band-gap engineering in, 168–169, 308 elimination of dislocations in, 126 energy gaps, 291 gallium arsenide, 167, 169, 170, 213, 268 heterojunctions in, 136, 291 methods for producing, 167 modulation-doped, 169, 170 from molecular precursors, 213 organometallic precursors to, 213 passivating layers on, 292 photoelectrochemical solar cells based on, 214 quaternary, 46 refining of materials for, 10 semimagnetic, 46 silicon preparation for, 208 from strained-layer superlattices, 307–310 surface studies, 284, 286–288, 291, 304 Shank, C., 19 Shechtman, Daniel S., 12, 151, 153–154, 158 Shockley, William, 26 Shyamsunder, E., 18 Silane, 209 Silica gel, 228 Silicon advances with, 13–16 chemistry of derivatives of, 209 epitaxial growth of metallic silicon compounds on, 13, 288, 291 preparation for semiconductor devices, 208 reconstruction of cleaved (111) surface of, 287 study of energy bands of, 289 Silicon chip technology polymers in, 268–269 research opportunities in, 366 Silicon oxide fibers, applications, 13–15, 229 Silicon tetrachloride conversion to triethoxypropylaminosilane, 209 Silicon-carbide fibers route to development of, 209, 229–230, 236, 266 use in ceramics, 236–239 Single-crystal processing, 67–68 Sintering to produce SiC fibers, 236 Slater, J.C., 5 Smyth, C.P., 5 Solar energy systems, chemistry contributions to, 214–215 Solid-state extrusion of polymers, 253–254, 256 Solid-state synthesis equipment needs for, 166 industrial materials research in, 165 trends in, 164 Solidification in welding, 45 see also Rapid solidification processing (RSP) Solitons crack propagation by, 117 creation and motion of pairs, 114 Solution crystallization of polymers, 251–252, 254 Solution-to-gelation process

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Advancing Materials Research applications, 229 compounds used in, 314–315 for controlled-porosity materials, 314–317 hydrolysis of metal alkoxides, 229–230 MRL contributions to, 45 problems with, 229 for producing colloidal dispersions, 229 steps in, 228–229, 315–316 for synthesis of ceramic powders, 212 Solvents, theta, 277 Specific heats of heavy-electron compounds, 132–134 Spherulitic structure, 249–252, 254 Spin degrees of freedom, contribution to specific heats in heavy-electron compounds, 133–134 Spin-polarized photoemission, 299 Spinodal decomposition, 76, 138 Sputtering applications, 167 ion yields in, 291 Stanford University, 45–46, 336 Steels austenitic stainless, 103, 124 controlled rolling of, 54–55 embrittlement of, 54, 66, 123–124 feritic, 124 hydrogen degradation of, 66, 124 modulus of, 256 nickel-chromium, 123–124 oxidation-resistant, 61 processing responsible for unusual properties of, 53–54, 61, 157 refining of, 53–54 stress corrosion cracking of, 124 transformation toughening of, 103 Steinhardt, P.J., 12 Stevens, Donald K., 28, 29 Strategic materials, synthesis of, 8–9 Stress-induced crystallization, 253–254 Structural order, novel forms of, 11–12, 137–139 Substrates, multilayer, for electronics, 211–212 Sulfur in steel, reduction of, 53–54 Superconductivity effects of quantum mechanical fluctuations on, 145 resistance transition of SNS junctions, 143–145 single and triplet, 133 Superconductors Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer, 134 current vs. voltage of tungsten-rhenium line, 142–144 electrical resistances of, 134–135 heavy-electron compounds as, 133, 134 high-field, 163 high-temperature, 169 magnetic, 163 micrograph of square array of SNS junctions, 145, 146 organic, 216 technologically developed films, 163 Superlattices single-crystal, of magnetic and nonmagnetic metals, 169–170 strained-layer, 126, 307–310 Superplasticity, behavior characteristics, 69–71 Surface electron spectroscopy, uses of, 283–284 Surface science, progress in, 283–306 Surface theory advances in, 285–292 interface studies contributing to, 291–292 kinematics at surfaces, 290–291 total energy calculations, 286–289 Surfaces charge transfer at, 291 chemical reactions at, 290 coincident experiments on, 301 diffraction intensity calculations, 288–289 diffraction of monoenergetic atomic helium beams from, 288 equipment and techniques for examining, 45, 283–306 excitation processes on, 284, 289, 300–301 experimental probes of, 288–290 gas interactions at, 290 kinetics of, 290–291, 303 laser probing of, 304–306 melting at, 297 metallic screening at, 297 modification of, 62–66, 353 novel forms of order in phases as, 138 periodic structures, 286–287 phonon spectra, 285, 289, 302 processing of, 306 Rydberg-like states, 284 scattering experiments on, 294–298 single-crystal, 290 spectroscopic fingerprinting of, 290 spectroscopic tools for studying, 298–301 static characterization of, 291 step densities on, 297 tools for determining atomic structure of, 290, 292–294 vibrational states, 285, 288, 289, 301–305 Surfaces, crystal reduction of dislocations in, 10 vibrational spectroscopy of, 301–304

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Advancing Materials Research Synchrotron radiation facilities, 9, 283, 336, 341 Synchrotron radiation sources surface studies with, 45, 138, 283–284, 289, 294–296, 298–300 undulators on, 284, 299 Synthetic Rubber Program, 4, 6 T Tanenbaum, Morris, 29, 32 Temperatures, ultralow, research accomplishments in, 44 Tetrathiofulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ), 44 Thrust groups accomplishments of, 44–46 budget for, 43 collaborative use of major equipment facilities, 43 formation of, 42 funding for, 42–43, 47 importance of, 41 interaction among, 43 small-science research by, 325 Transformation toughening of alloys, 126 of ceramics, 117 Transition metal oxides, development of, 45 Transition metals in alloys, 75, 94 carbides, nitrides, and borides as catalysts, 201 Transmission electron microscope, applications, 158 Triethoxypropylaminosilane, conversion of silicon tetrachloride to, 209 Trisodium phosphate, biomedical applications, 239 Tungsten, low-temperature reconstruction of, 287–288 U Ultrasmall structures, electrical conduction in, 139–147 Ultrathin films discontinuous coarsening in, 89–90 grain growth in, 89–90 metastable crystal structures in form of, 169 novel forms of order in, 138 single-crystal, 358 status of technology for preparing, 166–167, 358 Ultraviolet spectroscopy, development of, 45 United States interest in synthesis of solid-state compounds, 164–165, 171–172 research effort in artificially structured compounds, 171 structure of university departments in, 165 United States Department of Defense (DOD), role in developing MRL program, 29, 35 United States Department of Energy, materials research facility funding, 338–339 Universities chemical research motivations of, 215–216 composites research in, 277 degrees awarded by materials-designated and engineering departments, 40 equipment acquisition by, 345–346 federal R&D expenditures in, 344 interaction with industry, 354, 355 trends in titles of materials departments at, 37 years of establishment and termination of IDLs/MRLs at, 36 see also specific universities University of California at Santa Barbara, 277 University of Chicago, 45, 46 University of Delaware, 277 University of Frankfort, 12 University of Illinois, 5, 46 University of Massachusetts, 45, 46, 277 University of Pennsylvania, 12, 20, 44–46 University of Texas at Austin, 47 Uranium oxide spheres, production of, 229 V Valence-band angle-resolved photoemission, 298–299 van der Waals forces, 246 Van Vleck, J.H., 5 VanVechten, J., 19 Vapor-phase reactions to produce ceramic particles, 230 Very-large-scale integrated (VSLI) devices ceramics for packaging, 240–242 diffusion barriers in, 91 metallization of, 88–91 problems with, 91, 126, 212 Vibrational spectroscopy of crystal surfaces, 301–304 Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 277 Vitalium metal, 269–270 Void nucleation, 120, 124 von Klitzing, Klaus, 135–136, 169 von Neumann, John, 28 W Washington University, 277 Waveguide devices, 229, 240, 356

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Advancing Materials Research Weak localization, 140–142 Westinghouse Electric Corp., materials research at, 354–360 White House Office of Science and Technology, 3, 20 Wigner, Eugene, 5, 26 Williams, John W., 20, 29 Wires, ultrathin, 142 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 277 Wulff, G., 153 X X-ray diffraction glancing-incidence, 138 X-ray diffraction scattering in crystallography, 71, 153 in surface studies, 283, 294, 296–298 X-ray emission spectroscopy, minimum volume size for chemical analyses, 158 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, 299 Y York, Herbert, 29 Yost, Charles, 29 Z Z-phase, 158 Zeolites, use in catalytic cracking, 200 Zirconium oxide, partially stabilized (PSZ), incorporation into ceramics, 235, 239, 241 Zone refining, 10

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