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The National Academy of Sciences is a private organization chartered by the United States Congress in 1863 to advise the federal government on questions of science and technology. The National Academy of Engineering is a private organization established in 1964 to share in the chartered responsibilities of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Research Council was established in 1916 and is the operating division of the two Academies.

Funds for the program on Advancing Materials Research were provided by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. DMR-8511336), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Andrew W.Mellon Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, and the Technological Leadership Program of the National Academy of Engineering. A program initiative designed to lead to a funded project on this topic also led to the development of this report. The initiative was approved by the National Research Council Fund’s Committee, whose members are the Presidents of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The views expressed in this volume are those of the authors and are not presented as those of the sponsors.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Advancing materials research.

Based on presentations and discussions from a symposium held in Washington, D.C., 28–29 Oct. 1985.

Bibliography: p.

Includes index.

1. Materials—Research—Congresses. I. Psaras, Peter A. II. Langford, H.Dale. III. National Academy of Engineering. IV. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)

TA404.2.A39 1986 620.1′1 86–23656

ISBN 0-309-03697-6

Copyright © 1987 by the National Academy of Sciences

No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, electronic or phonographic recording system, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the United States government.

Printed in the United States of America

ON THE COVER (left to right):

Top row: Potter in his workshop, from The Progress of Man and Society, John Trusler, 1791; Computed diffraction pattern for an ideal icosahedral quasicrystal; Bakelite billiard and cue balls, 1910, courtesy of Union Carbide Corporation. Middle row: Water wheel, from The Iconographic Encyclopedia of Science, Literature, and Art, 1851; Silicon wafer, courtesy of IBM Corporation; Corinthian capital, from The Iconographic Encyclopedia. Bottom row: Glass blower, from The Progress of Man and Society; Schematic of cross-linking in a polymer negative resist used in fabricating integrated circuits; Machine part, Jeff Zaraba/FOLIO.

First Printing, November 1986

Second Printing, July 1987

Third Printing, September 1988

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