Index

A

AAMR. See American Association on Mental Retardation

Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), 203

Activities of daily living, 175

Adaptive behavior, 141-207

classification simulations, 224-229

declines with age, 251

differing conceptualizations, 144-148

dimensions of, 148-154

domains, 148-153, 182-183, 214-218

and maladaptive behavior, 154

nature and definition of, 141-154

personal competence model, 153

relationship to intelligence, 208-244

social competence model, 152

structure, 148-150

Adaptive behavior assessment, 6-8, 32-33, 155-174, 176-180

adaptive behavior scales, 166-174

breadth of domains, 149-150

combining with assessment of intellectual capabilities, 3

domains missing from adaptive behavior scales, 150-153

in eligibility determination, 174-195

methods, 155-158

psychometric concerns in using adaptive behavior scales, 158-166



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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Index A AAMR. See American Association on Mental Retardation Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), 203 Activities of daily living, 175 Adaptive behavior, 141-207 classification simulations, 224-229 declines with age, 251 differing conceptualizations, 144-148 dimensions of, 148-154 domains, 148-153, 182-183, 214-218 and maladaptive behavior, 154 nature and definition of, 141-154 personal competence model, 153 relationship to intelligence, 208-244 social competence model, 152 structure, 148-150 Adaptive behavior assessment, 6-8, 32-33, 155-174, 176-180 adaptive behavior scales, 166-174 breadth of domains, 149-150 combining with assessment of intellectual capabilities, 3 domains missing from adaptive behavior scales, 150-153 in eligibility determination, 174-195 methods, 155-158 psychometric concerns in using adaptive behavior scales, 158-166

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits recommendations, 7-8, 205-206 research areas, 195-205 Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS), 160, 163, 167, 170-171, 184, 217, 219, 221-222, 228-229 Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale (ABES), 173 Adaptive Behavior Inventory (ABI), 172 Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC), 219 Adaptive behavior scale content and SSA criteria, 174-183 activities of daily living, 175 personal functioning, 180-181 social functioning, 175, 180 Adaptive Behavior Scales (ABS), 154, 160, 168-169 adequacy of normative samples for, 163-164 School Edition, 163-164, 167 Adaptive behavior scales, 166-174 AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scales, 168-169 Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, 170-171 Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale, 173 Adaptive Behavior Inventory, 172 Battelle Developmental Inventory, 171 Comprehensive Test of Adaptive Behavior, 171-172 Independent Living Scales, 172-173 Parent Rating of Student Behavior, 173 Scales of Independent Behavior, 169-170 Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 167-168 Administrative law judge, 17 Adults, 270-273 criteria for mental retardation, 20 Aicardi syndrome, 259 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) benefits, 43-45 American Association of Mental Deficiency, 143 American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) Adaptive Behavior Scale-School Edition, 163-164, 167 Adaptive Behavior Scales, 154, 160, 163-164, 168-169, 203 on behavioral descriptions of adaptive functioning, 7, 30-31, 149 defining mental retardation, 22-24, 147, 150-151 American Psychiatric Association, 24, 29-31, 145 American Psychological Association, 104, 125 American Psychological Association, Division 33 defining mental retardation, 29, 147-148, 213-214 on standardized assessment of adaptive functioning, 7, 30, 145 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 46, 61, 65 Annual Statistical Supplement, 26 Appeals Council, 17 Army Mental Tests, 72 Asperger’s disorder, 256-257 Assessment, 155. See also Adaptive behavior assessment; Intellectual functioning assessment issues in eligibility determination, 174-195 methods, 155-158 Assessment conditions that affect intelligence test scores, 100-106 environmental conditions, 105-106 examinee characteristics, 101-104 examiner influences, 104-105 potential threats to validity of intelligence test results, 102-103 psychometric considerations, 106

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 254-257 Avoidant personality disorder, 256 B Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 10, 34 Barriers to employment, for people with disabilities, 61-63 Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI), 106, 171 Binet Scale, 70-71 Binet-Simon Scale, 70 Borderline intellectual functioning, 265-266 British hierarchical theorists, 80-82 C Carroll’s three-stratum theory, 88-91 Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory, 112 Cattell-Horn theory, of fluid and crystallized intelligence, 5n, 82-88 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program, 25 Cerebral palsy, 257-258 Childhood disintegrative disorder, 256-257 Children, criteria for mental retardation, 21-22 Classification agreement in IQ and adaptive behavior, 223-230 classification agreement in existing data, 223-224 simulations of IQ and adaptive behavior classification agreement, 224-229 Classification criteria for adaptive behavior, 212-218 adaptive behavior domains, 214-218 cutoff scores, 212-214 Classification criteria for intellectual functioning, 210-212 Clinical considerations in adaptive behavior scales, 189-195 choice of assessment methods, 189-190 differences among typical performance measures, 193-194 instrument choice, 190-192 response sets, 194-195 structured versus unstructured interviews, 194 typical performance measurement, 192-193 Cognitive Assessment System (CAS), 92, 98, 110, 113 Combination of IQ and adaptive functioning data, 3, 8-9, 33-34, 208-244 classification agreement in IQ and adaptive behavior, 223-230 diagnostic construct of mental retardation, 209-218 recommendations, 8-9, 242-244 relationship of adaptive behavior and intellectual functioning, 218-230 SSI and DI eligibility decisions, 230-241 variables that influence correlations, 218-223 Comparable prediction, in IQ tests, 136 Competencies versus perceptions, 219-220 Composite scores supported through factor analyses, of IQ tests, 129 Comprehensive evaluation, 232-233 Comprehensive Test of Adaptive Behavior (CTAB), 171-172, 217 adequacy of normative samples for, 164

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Concurrent validity, 130 Confirmation bias, 231 Confirmatory factor analyses, of IQ tests, 129-130 Consequential reasoning, methodologies for, 200 Consequential validity, of IQ tests, 131 Content validity, of IQ tests, 128 Convergent validity, 237-241 changes in prevalence of learning disabilities and mental retardation, 239 evidence of, 130 inconsistent information, 238 information from other agencies, 238-241 Correlates, of assessed intelligence, 73-74 Correlations, variables that influence, 218-223 Criteria for mental retardation, 19-22 for adults, 20 for children, 21-22 Criterion-related validity, of IQ tests, 130 Crystallized intelligence, Cattell-Horn theory of, 5n, 82-88, 112, 114n, 140n Cultural issues, 273-274 Current SSA regulations, adaptive behavior domains in, 217 Current standardization sample, norms for IQ testing, 123-126 Cutoff scores, 212-214 D Data, methods for collecting, 233-235 DDS. See Disability determination services Determination decisions, 2. See also Disability determination process Developmental disorders, autism and pervasive, 254-257 Developmental period, onset of mental retardation in, 3 Developmental range effects, 159-160 DI. See Disability Insurance benefits Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) on behavioral descriptions of adaptive functioning, 7 defining mental retardation, 24-25, 29, 145-146, 250, 262-263, 265, 267 Diagnostic construct of mental retardation, 209-218 classification criteria for adaptive behavior, 212-218 classification criteria for intellectual functioning, 210-212 Differential diagnosis, 10-11, 34-35, 245-281 adults, 270-273 clinical considerations and eligibility determination, 247-251 cultural issues, 273-274 high school years and adolescence, 266-270 infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, 252-261 part scores, 277-278 recommendations, 10-11, 280-281 school-age children, 261-266 specific disorders associated with mental retardation, 274-278 Differential item function (DIF), in IQ tests, 135 Differential test function (DTF), 135 Dimensions of adaptive behavior, 148-154 Disability determination process, 16-19 commonly used instruments, 2 for mental retardation, 1 sequential evaluation, 18-19 Disability determination services (DDS), 17

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Disability examiners, 17 Disability Insurance (DI) benefits gateway to other services, 47-51 health care linkages, 53-55 and other federal social service programs, 42-47 recipients of, 2, 39-42 role in reducing poverty, 51-52 Disability Insurance (DI) eligibility decisions, 230-241 common judgment errors, 231-232 comprehensive evaluation, 232-233 convergent validity, 237-241 examiner qualifications, 237 information on intellectual and adaptive functioning, 233-237 Discriminant evidence of validity, 130 Division 33, American Psychological Association. See American Psychological Association, Division 33 Doll, Edgar, 142-143 Down syndrome, 275 DSM-IV. See Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dual diagnosis, 204 E Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment (EPSDT) program, 55 Educational systems, identification of students with mental retardation, 2, 67 Electroencephalography, 259 Eligibility determination, 174-195, 248-251 clinical considerations, 189-195 correspondence between SSI classification domains and those in prominent adaptive behavior measures, 182-183 general clinical practice and adaptive behavior scales, 187-189 principal measures, 176-180 relation of principal adaptive behavior scale content to SSA criteria, 174-183 sensitivity of scales at ranges in which diagnostic confirmation is a priority, 181, 184-187 Employability, of people with mental retardation, 3-4, 55-60, 65-66 Employment barriers, for people with disabilities, 61-63 English as a second language, 134 Environmental conditions, 105-106 Examinee characteristics, 101-104 Examiner influences, 103-105 Examiner qualifications, 237 Examiner’s manual norms for IQ testing, 122-123 reporting all statistical transformations used to develop interpretive scores in, 122-123 External evidence of IQ test fairness, 136-137 comparable prediction, 136 minimizing adverse impact and selection bias outcomes, 136-137 External evidence of IQ test validity, 130-131 criterion-related validity, 130 generalizability of validity, 131 tests guiding decision making meaningfully, 130-131 tests providing evidence of consequential validity, 131 F Face validity, of IQ tests, 128 Factor analysis techniques, 74 Factorial invariance, 136

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Fairness in IQ testing, 133-137 external evidence of, 136-137 internal evidence of, 134-136 False negatives, 230 False positives, 11, 230 Federal social service programs, SSI and DI in context of, 42-47 Fetal alcohol syndrome, 277-278 Floor and ceiling effects, 159 problems with, 220-221 Fluency factors, 85 Fluid intelligence, Cattell-Horn theory of, 5n, 82-88, 112, 114n, 140n Fragile X syndrome, 275 Full-scale IQ (FSIQ), 20-21, 31, 73, 108-109, 115 Functional unities, 79 G Generalizability of test score reliability, 133 of validity of IQ tests, 131 Genetic conditions, associated with mental retardation, 275-276 Grand mal seizures, 259 Group Examination Alpha, 72-73 Group Examination Beta, 72-73 Group language and nonverbal assessments, 72 Guilford’s structure of intellect, 82 Gullibility/credulity component of social competence, 151-153 H Health care linkages, with SSI and DI, 53-55 Health-related organizations, defining mental retardation, 3 Hearing impairment, 260 High school years and adolescence, 266-270 History of intelligence tests, 70-74 Binet Scale, 70-71 correlates of assessed intelligence, 73-74 group language and nonverbal assessments, 72 pioneer nonverbal assessments, 71-72 Wechsler scales, 72-73 History of mental retardation definitions, 22-24 Home and Community Based Services waiver program, 48 Horn, John L., 85 I ICD-9. See International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification IDEA. See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 Illinois Planning Council on Development Disabilities (IPCDD), 60 Inconsistent information, 238 Independent Living Scales (ILS), 172-173 Individual capabilities, combining data from intellectual and adaptive functioning to profile , 3 Individualized education program (IEP), 50 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 (IDEA), 50, 58, 261, 270 Amendments of 1997, 50 Infants, 252-261 autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 254-257 cerebral palsy, 257-258 hearing impairment, 260 mortality in U.S., 53

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits seizure disorders, 258-260 vision impairment, 261 Information on intellectual and adaptive functioning, 233-237 methods for collecting data, 233-235 settings, 236-237 sources of information, 235-236, 238-241 Information processing theories, 92 Institute of Medicine, 260 Instruments choice among, 190-192 commonly used in determining retardation, 2 Intellectual functioning deficits in, 1 relationship to adaptive behavior, 208-244 theories of the structure of intellectual abilities, 75-93 Intellectual functioning assessment, 4-6, 31-32, 69-140 conditions that affect intelligence test scores, 100-106 history of intelligence tests, 70-74 intelligence tests commonly used in diagnosing mental retardation, 95-100 multidimensional versus unidimensional measures, 117-118 psychometric standards, 118-137 recommendations, 5-6, 139-140 use of total test scores and part scores, 106-117 Intelligence test norms, 119-127 floors and ceilings , 127 item difficulty gradients, 126-127 normative samples, 120-121 standardization sample, 123-126 statistical transformations, 122-123 Intelligence tests commonly used in diagnosing mental retardation, 95-100 principal measures, 96-99 Internal consistency, 132 Internal evidence of IQ test fairness, 134-136 differential item function, 135 invariant factor structure and scale reliabilities, 135-136 multicultural bias and sensitivity reviews, 135 theoretical underpinnings, 134-135 Internal evidence of IQ test validity, 127-130 composite scores supported through factor analyses, 129 content validity, 128 face validity, 128 factor analyses, 129-130 substantive validity, 128-129 International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9), 25-26, 29 International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10), 30, 146, 262-263 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICIDH-2), 204 International English, 146 Interviews, structured versus unstructured, 194 Invariant factor structure and scale reliabilities, in IQ tests, 135-136 IQ simulations, 224-229 Monte Carlo, 225-226 Item density, 161 Item sampling in relation to age, 160-161 J Joint Association Test Standards, 224 Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 167 Judgment errors in eligibility decisions, 231-232 confirmation bias, 231 primacy effect, 232

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits K Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), 98, 113 L Landau-Kleffner syndrome, 259 Leiter International Performance Scale, 71 Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R), 99 Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, 259 Levels of mental retardation, 221-223 Life span development, 251 Listings of Impairments, 19-21, 62 Local reliability, 132-133 M MADDSP. See Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program Magnitude of total test score, in part scores, 113-117 Maladaptive behavior, 154 Manual of Diagnosis and Professional Practice in Mental Retardation, 144 McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities, 124, 126 Meaningful differences, in part scores, 110-111 Medicaid benefits, 43-45, 47-48, 53, 55, 64 need to extend to people with mental retardation, 67 Medical consultants, 17 Medically Needy Program, 54 Mental energy, 76-77 Mental Measurements Yearbooks, 167 Mental retardation defining, 1-4, 29-30, 67-68, 147-148, 213-214 disability determination process for, 1 employment of people with, 55-60 mild range of, 1 onset, 3 prevalence in U.S., 2, 15, 25-27, 246 Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program (MADDSP), 25 Mild mental retardation, 1 versus learning disability, 262-265 Minimizing adverse impact and selection bias outcomes, in IQ tests, 136-137 Monte Carlo simulations, 36, 184, 224- 226 Multicultural bias and sensitivity reviews, in IQ tests, 135 Multidimensional versus unidimensional measures, of cognitive functioning, 117-118, 148-149 N National Academy of Social Insurance, 63 National Association of School Psychologists, 104, 125 National Commission on Childhood Disability, 44 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 26 National Health Interview Survey Disability Supplement (NHIS-D), 52 Nongenetic conditions, associated with mental retardation, 277-278 Normally distributed characteristics, 211 Normative samples for IQ testing reflective of appropriate demographic parameters, 120-121 sufficiently large, 120

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Normative samples in adaptive behavior scales, 163-164 for the AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-School scales, 163-164 for the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, 163 for the Comprehensive Test of Adaptive Behavior-R, 164 for the Scales of Independent Behavior-R, 163 for the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 164 Norms for IQ testing, reflective of adequate item difficulty gradients, 126-127 North American English, 146-147 O Office of Special Education Programs, 239 Onset of mental retardation, age of, 3 Outdated tests, 124 P Parent Rating of Student Behavior (PRSB), 173 Part scores, 109-117, 277-278 appropriate cognitive abilities, 112-113 magnitude of total test score, 113-117 meaningful differences, 110-111 statistical significance, 109-110 use of, 109-117 PASS model, 91-92 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), 117-118 People with disabilities, employment barriers for, 61-63 People with mental retardation and employment, 55-60 lower than two standard deviations below the mean in adaptive behavior assessment, 185 need to extend Medicaid benefits to, 67 return to work, 61 Performance IQ (PIQ), 20-21, 31, 115 Personal competence model, 153 Personal functioning, 180-181 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 , 10, 34 Pervasive developmental disorders, autism and, 254-257 Pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD NOS), 256-257 Petite mal seizures, 259 Pioneer nonverbal assessments, 71-72 PIQ. See Performance IQ Policy context, 28, 38-68 Positive manifold, 76 Poverty link with disability, 52 risks associated with, 52 role of SSI and DI benefit programs in reducing, 51-52 Prader-Willi syndrome, 275-276 Predictive validity, 130 Preschoolers, 252-261 autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 254-257 cerebral palsy, 257-258 hearing impairment, 260 seizure disorders, 258-260 vision impairment, 261 Prevalence of learning disabilities, changes in, 239 Prevalence of mental retardation, 2, 15, 25-27, 246 changes in, 239 in the general population, 25-26 in the social security system, 26-27 Primacy effect, 232

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Primary mental abilities, 78 Principal adaptive behavior scale content, relation to SSA criteria, 174-183 Professional organizations. See also individual organizations defining mental retardation, 2-3 Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disability (PASS-ADD), 204 Psychological examiners, 103-105 Psychometric concerns with adaptive behavior scales, 106, 158-166 adequacy of normative samples, 163-164 developmental range effects, 159-160 floor and ceiling effects, 159 item density, 161 item sampling in relation to age, 160-161 reliability of informant judgments, 161-162 sociocultural biases, 164-166 validity of informant judgments, 162-163 Psychometric standards, 118-137 evidence of test score validity, 127-131 fairness in testing, 133-137 intelligence test norms, 119-127 test score validity, 131-133 Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults, 204 Q Question guide, for assessment of social-cognitive processes, 202 R Racial backgrounds, of applicants for services under SSA, 2 RAND, 13 Raven Progressive Matrices, 118 Recency effect, 232 Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior, 204 Reliability of informant judgments, 161-162 Research needed, 12-14, 35 Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, 203 in adaptive behavior assessment, 195-205 Assessment of Dual Diagnosis, 204 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health, 204 Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disability, 204 Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults, 204 recommendations, 13-14 Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior, 204 social-cognitive perspective, 195-203 World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II, 204-205 Response sets, 194-195 Rett’s disorder, 256 Return to work, by people with mental retardation, 61 Rural educational systems, identification of students in, 2, 67 S Sample variance, 220 Sampling plans, thoroughly described norms for IQ testing, 120 Scale content, 218-219 Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB-R), 32-33, 169-170, 218, 222-223, 225-226 adequacy of normative samples for, 163, 166-167

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Schizophrenia, 256 School-age children, 261-266 borderline intellectual functioning, 265-266 mild mental retardation versus learning disability, 262-265 Scoring, use of total test scores versus part scores, 106-117 Seguin Form Board, 71 Seizure disorders, 258-260 Sensitivity of scales at ranges in which diagnostic confirmation is a priority, 181, 184-187 Sequential evaluation, in the disability determination process, 18-19 Settings, 236-237 Social-cognitive perspective, 195-203 question guide for assessment of social-cognitive processes, 202 Social competence model, 152 Social functioning, 175, 180 Social maturity, 141 Social Problem-Solving Test, 199, 201 Social Security. See U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) Social skills and vocational success, 173-174 Social skills dimension of social competence, 150-151 Social Skills Rating Scales (SSRS), 174 Sociocultural biases, 164-166 Sources of information, 235-236 Spatial reasoning, 113 Spearman, Charles, 74 Spearman’s two-factor theory, 75-78 Specific disorders associated with mental retardation, 274-278 genetic conditions, 275-276 nongenetic conditions, 277-278 SSA. See U.S. Social Security Administration SSI. See Supplemental Security Income benefits Standardization of examiners and procedures, in IQ testing, 123 Standardized assessment, of adaptive functioning, 7, 30, 145 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 98n, 117, 119, 125, 180n Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition, 98-99, 111, 113, 128-129, 221 State Child Health Insurance Program (CHIP), 54 State disability determination services (DDS), 17 Statistical significance, in part scores, 109-110 Structure of intellect (SOI), 82 Structured interviews, versus unstructured, 194 Students, identification of in educational systems, 2 Substantive validity, of IQ tests, 128-129 Sullivan v. Zebley, 10, 34, 43-44 Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits gateway to other services, 47-51 health care linkages, 53-55 and other federal social service programs, 42-47 recipients of, 2, 39-42 role in reducing poverty, 51-52 Supplemental Security Income (SSI) eligibility decisions, 230-241 common judgment errors, 231-232 comprehensive evaluation, 232-233 convergent validity, 237-241 examiner qualifications, 237 information on intellectual and adaptive functioning, 233-237 Supports and services, recommendations, 66-67 T Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) benefits, 45-46

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Terman, Lewis M., 70 Terminology issues, 134, 146 Test Critiques, 167 Test of Interpersonal Competence for Employment (TICE), 200-201 Test of Social Interference (TSI), 198, 201 Test score validity, 127-133 external evidence of, 130-131 generalizability of test score reliability, 133 internal consistency, 132 internal evidence of, 127-130 local reliability, 132-133 total test short-term stability, 133 Theories of intellectual abilities, 75-93, 134-135 British hierarchical theorists, 80-82 Carroll’s three-stratum theory, 88-91 Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence, 5n, 82-88 Guilford’s structure of intellect, 82 information processing theories derived from cognitive psychology, 92 multiple intelligences, 93 PASS model, 91-92 Spearman’s two-factor theory, 75-78 Sternberg’s notion of successful intelligence, 93 Thurstone’s primary mental abilities, 78-80 Thurstone, L.L., 78 Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act, 63-66 need to go beyond, 66 Toddlers, 252-261 autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 254-257 cerebral palsy, 257-258 hearing impairment, 260 seizure disorders, 258-260 vision impairment, 261 Total test scores, 108-109 Total test short-term stability, 133 True positives, 230 U Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), 99, 110, 113 Urban educational systems, identification of students in, 2, 67 U.S. Department of Education, 25, 261 Office of Special Education Programs, 239 U.S. General Accounting Office, 58, 61 U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA), 1 Annual Statistical Supplement, 26 Appeals Council, 17 applicants for services under, 2 defining mental retardation, 2-4, 19-22, 67-68, 209 disability determination process, 16-19 disability programs, 15-22 examiners, 103-105 locating local offices of, 17 Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, 39 programs in context, 11-12 U.S. Supreme Court, 10, 34, 43-44 V Validity of informant judgments, 162-163 Validity of IQ tests, 127-131 external evidence of, 130-131 internal evidence of, 127-130 potential threats to, 102-103 Variables that influence correlations, 218-223 ceiling and floor problems, 220-221 competencies versus perceptions, 219-220

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Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits level of mental retardation, 221-223 sample variance, 220 scale content, 218-219 Velo-cardio-facial syndrome, 275 Verbal comprehension, 113 Verbal IQ (VIQ), 20-21, 31, 115 Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), 33, 154, 167-168, 180n, 218-219, 225-229 adequacy of normative samples for, 164 manual for, 221 Survey Form, 166 Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS), 23, 143, 167 VIQ. See Verbal IQ Vision impairment, 261 W Wechsler, David, 72 Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, 118 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, 96-97 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III), 96-97, 110, 219 Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-R, 108 Wechsler scales of intelligence, 4, 6, 31-32, 72-73, 99 outdated, 124 Wechsler Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Organization Indexes, 115 West syndrome, 259 Williams syndrome, 275 Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, 100, 169 Work incentives. See also Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act recommendations, 66-67 World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II), 204-205 World Health Organization (WHO), 204 defining mental retardation, 2, 29-30, 146 on standardized assessment of adaptive functioning, 7, 30 Z Zebley decision. See Sullivan v. Zebley

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