assessed cognitive performance; (4) the use of total test scores, like full-scale IQs, and subscores (part or scale scores) in the diagnosis of mental retardation; (5) the use of comprehensive as opposed to restricted measures of intelligence; and (6) psychometric considerations in the selection and application of intelligence tests for diagnosing mental retardation, including test fairness.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THEORY AND PRACTICE

History of Development of Tests of Intelligence

The use of intelligence tests in the process of diagnosing mental retardation dates back to the turn of the 20th century, when Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed an intelligence test for that purpose. In the course of the implementation of universal education laws in France at that time, debates arose over the relative benefits and methods of educating schoolchildren with subnormal intelligence. As a result of this educational movement, Binet and Simon developed and in 1905 published what has come to be known as the first “practical” intelligence test (Sattler, 1988).

Binet Scale

Three years after its initial publication in 1905, the Binet-Simon Scale was revised by Binet and Simon (Binet & Simon, 1916) and then again by Binet in 1911. The instrument was noticed by researchers in the United States and was brought to this country by Goddard (1908). Three independent researchers, Huey, Kuhlmann, and Wallin, translated the Binet Scale into English in 1911 (Thorndike & Lohman, 1990), and use of the instrument and the general practice of assessing intelligence for many purposes spread quickly.

Lewis M. Terman was responsible for making the Binet Scale a recognized and accepted professional tool. Terman adopted, then revised, and renormed the instrument several times at Stanford University (Terman, 1916; Terman & Merrill, 1937, 1960, 1973), and from the



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