SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES IN ANIMAL NUTRITION

Promise for the New Century

Proceedings of a Symposium

Committee on Animal Nutrition

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES IN ANIMAL NUTRITION Promise for the New Century Proceedings of a Symposium Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the Research Council. ISBN 0-309-08276-5 Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION GARY L. CROMWELL, Chair, University of Kentucky MARY E. ALLEN, National Zoological Park MICHAEL L. GALYEAN, Texas Tech University RONALD W. HARDY, University of Idaho BRIAN W. MCBRIDE, University of Guelph KEITH E. RINEHART, Perdue Farms Incorporated L. LEE SOUTHERN, Louisiana State University JERRY W. SPEARS, North Carolina State University DONALD R. TOPLIFF, West Texas A&M University WILLIAM P. WEISS, The Ohio State University Staff CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Program Director JULIE BERRY, Science Writer GRETCHEN OPPER, Policy Intern STEPHANIE PADGHAM, Project Assistant MELINDA SIMONS, Project Assistant* *   through January 1999

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES HARLEY W. MOON, Chair, Iowa State University CORNELIA B. FLORA, Iowa State University ROBERT B. FRIDLEY, University of California BARBARA GLENN, Federation of Animal Science Societies LINDA GOLODNER, National Consumers League W.R. (REG) GOMES, University of California PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts GEORGE R. HALLBERG, The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts CALESTOUS JUMA, Harvard University GILBERT A. LEVEILLE, McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Denville, New Jersey WHITNEY MACMILLAN, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota (retired) TERRY MEDLEY, DuPont Biosolutions Enterprise WILLIAM L. OGREN, U.S. Department of Agriculture (retired) ALICE PELL, Cornell University NANCY J. RACHMAN, Novigen Sciences, Inc. G. EDWARD SCHUH, University of Minnesota BRIAN STASKAWICZ, University of California, Berkeley JOHN W. SUTTIE, University of Wisconsin JAMES TUMLINSON, USDA, ARS JAMES J. ZUICHES, Washington State University Staff CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Director HEATHER CHRISTIANSEN, Research Associate

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium Preface The science of animal nutrition has made significant advances in the past century. In looking back at the discoveries of the 20th century, we can appreciate the tremendous impact that animal nutrition has had on our lives. From the discovery of vitamins and the sweeping shift in the use of oilseeds to replace animal products as dietary protein sources for animals during the war times of the 1900s—to our integral understanding of nutrients as regulators of gene expression today—animal nutrition has been the cornerstone for scientific advances in many areas. At the milestone of our 70th year of service to the nation, the National Research Council’s (NRC) Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN) sought to gain a better understanding of the magnitude of recent discoveries and directions in animal nutrition for the new century we are embarking upon. With financial support from the NRC, we were able to organize and host a symposium that featured scientists from many backgrounds who were asked to share their ideas with us about the potential of animal nutrition to address current problems and future challenges. From this gathering, it became overwhelmingly evident that the answers to many of the important issues facing agriculture and the global population lie in animal nutrition. With few exceptions, animal nutrition accomplishments and opportunities impact almost every aspect of our universe. We structured the symposium and prepared this proceedings for a diverse audience, from nonscientists and policymakers, to scientists in nutrition and related areas. We hope to reach decision-makers in government, academic

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium institutions, foundations, and private industry, who are in positions to understand, direct, and support continued positive impacts and growth in animal nutrition. It is our hope that this proceedings will also guide students who are considering professions in animal nutrition, to consider the vast array of potential careers. By compiling this wide-ranging mix of nutrition topics as they impact various world-wide endeavors, we hope to convey our excitement about future opportunities and provide young scientists with an appreciation for the diversity of problems that can be addressed through animal nutrition. The symposium was organized under the guidance of former chair of the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Dale E. Bauman, Cornell University; former chair of the Committee on Animal Nutrition, Donald C. Beitz, Iowa State University; and members of the Committee on Animal Nutrition. This volume is comprised of individually authored papers that follow, and they fall into five broad categories: Conservation aspects of animal nutrition; Recent developments in animal nutrition, health, and well-being; Animal nutrition’s role in endeavors throughout our universe; International and economic aspects of animal nutrition; and Meeting challenges of the new century. The papers presented here provide a cohesive view of not only the scientific aspects of animal nutrition, but also speak to the practical application of science in day-to-day living. Many of the papers describe an inherent reliance on the work of the NRC’s CAN, which is understandable, given the fundamental role CAN plays in the work of individual scientists, regulators, consultants, professionals, and students. While the information in the proceedings is attributed to the individual perspectives of the authors who shared their expertise, it reflects the collective contributions of hundreds of individuals and groups who have devoted their lives to animal nutrition for the good of the public and the animals for which we are responsible. As a committee, we have benefitted greatly from the ideas presented here and hope that, as a result, this report represents a valuable compilation that puts our thinking for the future into its broadest perspective. Gary L. Cromwell, Chair Committee on Animal Nutrition

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium Acknowledgments The members of the Committee on Animal Nutrition express our thanks to the individuals who participated in this symposium by providing stimulating presentations and who provided us with thoughtful text to support their discussion. We are grateful to the symposium session moderators: Donald C. Beitz, Iowa State University; Mary E. Allen, Smithsonian Institution’s National Zoological Park; and Michael Galyean, Texas Tech University. We also wish to thank the session rapporteurs: John Halver, University of Washington; Joseph Fontentot, Virginia Polytechnic and State University; and Karin Wittenberg, University of Manitoba. The committee appreciates the assistance of science writer, Julie Berry, and National Research Council (NRC) policy intern, Gretchen Opper, in the preparation of this volume. In addition, we thank the many scientists who have provided input and ideas for this symposium and publication. Our heartfelt thanks and appreciation are extended to our NRC program director, Charlotte Kirk Baer, who enthusiastically championed this commemorative event and worked diligently to bring this work to a successful conclusion. Staff members who also supported us in this endeavor include Stephanie Padgham and Melinda Simons. For their work, we are grateful. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Donald Beitz, Iowa State University; Susan Crissey, Brookfield Zoo; Austin Lewis, University of Nebraska; and Robert Wilson, Mississippi State University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Delbert Gatlin, Texas A & M University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium Contents     KEYNOTE ADDRESS: INROADS TO ANIMAL CONSERVATION Jane Goodall   1 1   LANDMARK AND HISTORIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANIMAL NUTRITION Duane E. Ullrey   7 2   PROTECTING ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING: NUTRITION AND IMMUNE FUNCTION Kirk Klasing   13 3   DESIGNING FOODS: FEEDING ANIMALS TO REDUCE HUMAN HEALTH RISKS Bruce Watkins   21 4   METABOLIC MODIFIERS: ADVANCES IN ECONOMIC PRODUCTION OF SAFE FOOD Robert J. Collier   26 5   NUTRIENTS AS REGULATORS OF GENE EXPRESSION Donald Jump   32 6   OUR CHANGING ENVIRONMENT: DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR THE FUTURE Danny Fox   38 7   READINESS OF MILITARY SERVICE ANIMALS Susan Yanoff and Michelle Ross   44 8   RESEARCH AND EDUCATION NEEDS FOR THE NEXT GENERATION Quinton Rogers   48 9   INTERNATIONAL RELEVANCE OF FEED COMPOSITION INFORMATION Philip Thacker   53

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium 10   THE INTERNATIONAL AQUACULTURE MARKET AND GLOBAL NEEDS Daniel Villamar   57 11   MEETING THE CHALLENGES OF THE NEW CENTURY Dale E. Bauman   72     AUTHORS   78     APPENDIX   85 TABLES AND FIGURES Tables 2-1   Mechanisms by which nutrition modulates immunocompetence and disease resistance,   16 3-1   Status of designed foods,   23 9-1   Variations in the protein content of common feed ingredients,   55 10–1   Some estimated losses to disease in world shrimp farming,   61 Figures 1-1a   Galahad eating the pith of an oil nut palm frond,   3 1-1b   Wilke consuming leaves,   4 2-1   Dietary requirements set by the National Research Council are usually based on concentrations that maximize growth and reproduction and prevent known deficiency pathologies,   14 4-1   Phase I: Digestive process,   27 4-2   Phase II: Post-absorptive nutrient use,   28 5-1   Overview of nutrients as regulators of gene expression,   33 5-2   Cholesterol regulation of cholesterol metabolism,   34 5-3   Eicosanoid regulation of gene expression,   36 8-1   Total number of CAN publications and those in the Nutrient Requirement series per 5-year period,   49 8-2   Number of pages in the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements series for reports on swine, dogs, and cats during the last 45 years,   49 8-3   Number of references in the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements series for reports on swine, dogs, and cats during the last 45 years,   49

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Scientific Advances in Animal Nutrition: Promise for the New Century, Proceedings of a Symposium 10-1   Millions of metric ton (t) of capture and aquaculture fisheries production for human consumption,   58 10-2   Top species by unit value,   59 10-3   Severe effects of disease on shrimp production in Thailand and Ecuador,   60 10-4   Intensive, semi-extensive/semi-intensive and extensive aquaculture systems,   62 10-5   Extensive production system: use of animal manure for fertilization,   63 10-6   Extensive production system: harvesting food for fish,   64 10-7   Extensive production system: food fed to fish,   64 10-8   Semi-extensive production system for carp in ponds,   65 10-9   Semi-extensive production system: locally made food mixture,   66 10-10   Intensive production system: phase feeding,   68 10-11   Intensive production system: quality product harvesting,   68 10-12   Intensive production system: aeration,   69

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