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AAAAI (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology). 2000. The Allergy Report. Milwaukee, WI: AAAAI.

Aaby P, Shaheen SO, Heyes CB, Goudiaby A, Hall AJ, Shiell AW, Jensen H, Marchant A. 2000. Early BCG vaccination and reduction in atopy in Guinea-Bissau. Clin Exp Allergy. 30:644– 650.

Aaltonen J, Bjorses P. 1999. Cloning of the APECED gene provides new insight into human autoimmunity. Ann Med. 31:111–116.

Abiru N, Eisenbarth GS. 2000. Multiple genes/multiple autoantigens role in type 1 diabetes. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 18:27–40.

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Akira S, Takeda K, Kaisho T. 2001. Toll-like receptors: Critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol. 2:675–680.

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Ausiello CM, Urbani F, la Sala A, Lande R, Cassone A. 1997. Vaccine- and antigen-dependent type 1 and type 2 cytokine induction after primary vaccination of infants with whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccines. Infect Immun. 65:2168–2174.

Avendano A, Ferreccio C, Lagos R, Horwitz I, Cayazzo M,Fritzell B, Meschievitz C, Levine M. 1993. Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate vaccine does not depress serologic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, or pertussis antigens when coadministered in the same syringe with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at two, four, and six months of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 12:638–643.


Bach JF. 2001. Protective role of infections and vaccinations on autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 16:347–353.

Bach JF, Chatenoud L. 2001. Tolerance to islet autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. Annu Rev Immunol. 19:131–161.

Ball LK. 2001. Risk Assessment of Thimerosal in Childhood Vaccines. Presentation to Immunization Safety Review Committee. Cambridge, Massachusetts.



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Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction REFERENCES AAAAI (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology). 2000. The Allergy Report. Milwaukee, WI: AAAAI. Aaby P, Shaheen SO, Heyes CB, Goudiaby A, Hall AJ, Shiell AW, Jensen H, Marchant A. 2000. Early BCG vaccination and reduction in atopy in Guinea-Bissau. Clin Exp Allergy. 30:644– 650. Aaltonen J, Bjorses P. 1999. Cloning of the APECED gene provides new insight into human autoimmunity. Ann Med. 31:111–116. Abiru N, Eisenbarth GS. 2000. Multiple genes/multiple autoantigens role in type 1 diabetes. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 18:27–40. Adkins B. 2000. Development of neonatal Th1/Th2 function. Int Rev Immunol. 19:157–171. Afari EA, Kamiya Y, Nkrumah FK, Dunyo SK, Akpedonu P, Kamiya H, Fukai F. 1996. Randomized controlled trial of acellular diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccines in southern Ghana. Ann Trop Paediatr. 16:39–48. Akira S, Takeda K, Kaisho T. 2001. Toll-like receptors: Critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol. 2:675–680. Albert LJ, Inman RD. 1999. Molecular mimicry and autoimmunity. N Engl J Med. 341:2068–2074. Alm JS, Lilja G, Pershagen G, Scheynius A. 1997. Early BCG vaccination and development of atopy. Lancet. 350:400–403. Anderson HR, Poloniecki JD, Strachan DP, Beasley R, Bjorksten B, Asher MI. 2001. Immunization and symptoms of atopic disease in children: Results from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Am J Public Health. 91:1126–1129. Anderson P, Johnston RB Jr, Smith DH. 1972. Human serum activities against Hemophilus influenzae, type b. J Clin Invest 51(l):31–38. Annunziato D, Kaplan MH, Hall WW, Ichinose H, Lin JH, Balsam D, Paladino VS. 1982. Atypical measles syndrome: Pathologic and serologic findings. Pediatrics. 70:203–209. Arstila TP, Casrouge A, Baron V, Even J, Kanellopoulos J, Kourilsky P. 1999. A direct estimate of the human alphabeta T cell receptor diversity. Science. 286:958. Arvin AM, Maldonado Y, Gans H. 2001. Immunization with live attenuated vaccines in infancy. Third International Pediatric Infectious Disease Conference: Monterey, CA. Asher MI, Weiland SK. 1998. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). ISAAC Steeriing Committee. Clin Exp Allergy. 28 Suppl 5:52–66; discussion 90–91. Atkinson MA, Eisenbarth GS. 2001. Type 1 diabetes: New perspectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet. 358:221–229. Ausiello CM, Urbani F, la Sala A, Lande R, Cassone A. 1997. Vaccine- and antigen-dependent type 1 and type 2 cytokine induction after primary vaccination of infants with whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccines. Infect Immun. 65:2168–2174. Avendano A, Ferreccio C, Lagos R, Horwitz I, Cayazzo M,Fritzell B, Meschievitz C, Levine M. 1993. Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate vaccine does not depress serologic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, or pertussis antigens when coadministered in the same syringe with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at two, four, and six months of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 12:638–643. Bach JF. 2001. Protective role of infections and vaccinations on autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 16:347–353. Bach JF, Chatenoud L. 2001. Tolerance to islet autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. Annu Rev Immunol. 19:131–161. Ball LK. 2001. Risk Assessment of Thimerosal in Childhood Vaccines. Presentation to Immunization Safety Review Committee. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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