Conclusion

Because the available data demonstrate the absence of mycoplasma contamination and demonstrate that the presence of trace amounts of squalene is not associated with an increase in the rates of adverse events following vaccination with AVA, the committee concludes that further investigation of possible AVA contamination is not warranted at this time.

REFERENCES

al-Mazrou A, Scheifele DW, Soong T, Bjornson G. 1991. Comparison of adverse reactions to whole-virion and split-virion influenza vaccines in hospital personnel. Canadian Medical Association Journal 145(3):213–218.

Anderson LJ, Winkler WG, Hafkin B, Keenlyside RA, D’Angelo LJ, Deitch MW. 1980. Clinical experience with a human diploid cell rabies vaccine. JAMA 244(8):781–784.

Aoki FY, Yassi A, Cheang M, Murdzak C, Hammond GW, Sekla LH, Wright B. 1993. Effects of acetaminophen on adverse effects of influenza vaccination in health care workers. Canadian Medical Association Journal 149(10):1425–1430.


Banzhoff A, Schwenke C, Febbraro S. 2000. Preservative-free influenza vaccine. Immunology Letters 71(2):91–96.

Baseman JB, Tully JG. 1997. Mycoplasmas: sophisticated, reemerging, and burdened by their notoriety. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(1):21–32.

Beyer WE, Palache AM, Kerstens R, Masurel N. 1996. Gender differences in local and systemic reactions to inactivated influenza vaccine, established by a meta-analysis of fourteen independent studies. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 15(1):65–70.

Brachman PS, Gold H, Plotkin S, Fekety FR, Werrin M, Ingraham NR. 1962. Field evaluation of a human anthrax vaccine. American Journal of Public Health 52:632–645.


Chen RT. 2000. Special methodological issues in pharmacoepidemiology studies of vaccine safety. In: Strom BL, ed. Pharmacoepidemiology. 3rd ed. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd . Pp. 707–732.

Cherry N, Creed F, Silman A, Dunn G, Baxter D, Smedley J, Taylor S, Macfarlane GJ. 2001. Health and exposures of United Kingdom Gulf War veterans. Part II. The relation of health to exposure. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 58(5):299–306.

Chutivongse S, Wilde H, Benjavongkulchai M, Chomchey P, Punthawong S. 1995. Postexposure rabies vaccination during pregnancy: effect on 202 women and their infants. Clinical Infectious Diseases 20(4):818–820.

Czeschinski PA, Binding N, Witting U. 2000. Hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccinations: immunogenicity of combined vaccine and of simultaneously or separately applied single vaccines. Vaccine 18(11–12):1074–1080.


Darlow HM, Belton FC, Henderson DW. 1956. The use of anthrax antigen to immunize man and monkey. Lancet ii(Sept 8):476–479.

Diez-Domingo J, Albert A, Valdivieso C, Ballester A, Diez LV, Morant A. 1998. Adverse events after polysaccharide meningococcal A&C vaccine. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 30(6):636–638.


Ellenberg SS, Chen RT. 1997. The complicated task of monitoring vaccine safety. Public Health Reports 112(1):10–20.

Englund JA, Glezen WP, Barreto L. 1992. Controlled study of a new five-component acellular pertussis vaccine in adults and young children. Journal of Infectious Diseases 166(6): 1436–1441.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement