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line with the idea that it is important to ascertain discrimination in situations in which blacks are qualified buyers. This is not the same as saying that the impact of discrimination is most important at the realties blacks choose to use, but that the impact of discrimination is most important at the realties that sell homes blacks are qualified to buy.

The above point can be seen from display (1), in which the differences

(X(w,r(ea),ice,ic,ea,c) f(ice|w,r(ea),ic) –

X(b,r(ea),ice,ic,ea,c) f(ice|b,r(ea),ic))

are weighed by the density f(c,ea). Thus large differences can be paired with a small f(c,ea) weight and vice versa, and so the definition of overall-level discrimination changes with the distribution of realtors, ea.

How difficult would it be to match the market to the qualifications of blacks; that is, to choose home advertisements (i.e., realtors) with probabilities proportional to the “appropriate” segment of the black population?

REFERENCE

Pearl, J. 2000 Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference . New York : Cambridge University Press .





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