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enforcing fair housing laws. Because the study is an audit, however, no enforcement activity will occur as a direct result of the testing outcomes.


As noted in Chapter 1, the 2000 HDS audit involves 60 sites and is a multiphase study: Phase I, including 20 sites, began in 2000; Phase II began in 2001; and Phase III will begin in 2002. In Phase I, an attempt is being made to obtain national estimates of disparate treatment in home seeking among African American and Hispanic groups; these estimates will be used to measure changes in discrimination over time since the most recent HDS audit (1989), as well as for future studies. To assess the appropriateness of the current testing methodology for other ethnic groups, the Phase I study also includes pilot testing for Asian American and American Indian groups. Phases II and III, which were still in the development stages when the workshop was convened, are intended to expand upon Phase I by producing more-precise estimates of the incidence of discrimination at the national level. Based on the results of pilot testing in Phase I, Phase II will extend the analysis of minority groups from African Americans and Hispanics to Asian Americans and American Indians. The study will include site-specific estimates and pilot sites for three Asian American groups— Chinese, Korean, and Southeast Asian—and for American Indian groups in rural areas.

Estimation of discrimination for these populations represents a new area for the HDS. Measurement issues arise with each new group being studied. For example, measuring discrimination in the American Indian community requires changes to the original sampling design. Rather than focusing in metropolitan areas, the sampling frame will include less-populated areas in an attempt to depict more accurately the housing market these groups face.


The Phase I design uses two-stage cluster sampling. The sampling frame is a collection of 105 metropolitan statistical areas satisfying the following criteria: (1) according to 1980 census data, the population exceeded 100,000 residents; and (2) the concentration of African American households exceeded a nominal threshold. Metropolitan areas were stratified into (1) those sites for which both African American and Hispanic

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