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References Arbitman-Smith, R., Haywood, H. C., and Bransford, J. D. (1984~. Assessing cognitive change. In P. Brooks, R. Sperber, and C. N. McCauley (Eds.), L~arnsug and cognition in the mortally retarded (pp. 433-472~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Belmont, J. M., Butterfield, E. C., and Ferretti, R. P. (1982~. To secure transfer of training, instruct selI-management skills. In D. K. Detterman and R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Hou' and how much can ir~clligencc bc incrca~cd? (pp. 147-1543. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Bereiter, C., and Bird, M. (1985~. Use of thinking aloud in identification and teaching of reading comprehension strategies. Cognition and Inatn~ction, £, 131-1 56. Bereiter, C., and Scardamalia, M. (1982~. From conversation to composition: The role of instruction in a developmental process. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advanece ire instructional psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1-64~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Bolt Beranek and Newman. (1983~. Final reports Proicet Ir~clligencc: The deuclop- mer~ of procedures to cnhanec thinl~r~g skills. Cambridge, MA: Bolt Beranek and Newman Laboratories, Inc. Bransford, J. D. (In press). Enhancing thinking and Icarning. San Franci~co: Freeman and Co. Brown, A. L., Bransford, J. D., Ferrara, R. A., and Campione, J. C. (1983~. Learning, remembering, and understanding. In J. H. Flavell and E. M. Markman (Eds.), Cogni~vc development (Vol. III of P. H. Mussen, Ed., Handboo)c of child psychology, pp. 77-1663. New York: Wiley. 51
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52 REFERENCES Brown, J. S., and Van Lehn, K. (1980). Repair theory: A generative theory of `'bugs.~ In T. P. Carpenter, J. M. Moser, and T. A. Romberg (Eds.), Addition and subtraction: A cognitive perspectioc (pp. 117-1353. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Browne, M. N., and Keeley, S. N. (1981~. Asking the right questions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bureau of Education. (1918~. Cardinal principles of ~ccondary education (Bull. No. 353. Washington, DC: Department of the Interior. Caplan, J. S. (1985, April). Thc deuclopmcnt of intcilectual curiosity. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Toronto, Canada. Carraher, T. N., Carraher, D. W., and Schliemann, A. D. (1985~. Mathematics in the streets and in schools. British Journal of Dcoclopmcntal Psychology, 5, 21-29. Clement, J. (1982~. Algebra word problem solutions: Thought processes under- lying a common misconception. Jourrml of Research in Mathematics Education, 1,, 16-30. Cole, M., and Griffen, P. (Eds.). (1987). Contcr;tualfactors in education: Imp roving ~cicnec and math cducationfor msnoritic~ and women. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Center for Educational Research. College Entrance Examination Board. (1983~. Academic preparation for college. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Collins, A., Gentner, D., and Rubin, A. (1981~. Tcachsng study strategies (Rep. No. 4794~. Cambridge, MA: Bolt Beraneck and Newman Laboratories, Inc. Collins, A., and Smith, E. E. (19823. Teaching the process of reading compre ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r r ? 7 ~ pension. In 1~. L)etterman and in. :jternnerg peas.), now muen ana now can intciligence bc incrcased`P (pp. 173-185~. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Collins. A.. Brown. J. S.. and Newman S. E. (In press). Teaching the craft of , . . . . ~ , reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing and Icarrung: Induce for a cognition scicnec of instruction. Hillsdale, NJ; Erlbaum. Condry, J., and Chambers, J. (1981~. Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning. In M. R. Lepper and D. Greene (Eds.), Thc hidden cow of reward (pp. 61-84~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Covington, M. V. (1983~. Motivated cognitions. In S. G. Paris, G. M. Olson, and H. W. Stevenson (Eds.), Learning and motivation in the classroom (pp. 139- 1643. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. Covington, M. V. (1985~. Strategic thinking and the fear of failure. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, and R. Glaser (Eds.), Thsnksug and Icarning stills: Vol. 1. Rclatsng instruction to research (pp. 389-416~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Covington, M. V. (In press). Instruction in problem-solving planning. In S. L. Friedman, E. K. Scholnick, and R. R. Cocking (Eds.), Blueprir~ for thinking: Thc role of planning in cognitive deuclopmcnt. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. lDansereau, D. F. (1985~. Learning strategy research. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, and R. Glaser (Eds.), T~rUcsng and Icarnin' bacilli: Vol. 1. Relating irutruction to research (pp. 209-2393. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Day, J. D. (1980~. Training summarization skills: A comparuen of tracing methods. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois. de Bono, E. (1970~. Lateral thirsting. New York: Harper & Row. de Bono, E. (1976~. Tc aching thinking. London: Temple Smith.
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REFERENrCES 53 de Bono, E. (1985~. The CoRT thinking program. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, and R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning Sicily: Vol. I. Rallying instruction to research (pp. 363-388~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Dehn, N., and Schank, R. (1982~. Artificial and human intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), IIandboolc of human ir~clligenec (pp. 353-391~. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. de Fleer, J., and Frown, 3. 5. t19bU). Mental models of physical mechanisms and their acquisition. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognac skills and their acq2~itiorz (pp. 285-309~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Dweck, C. S. (In press). Motivation. In R. Glaser and A. Lesgold (Eds.), The hand600kofp~ychologyandcducation (Vol. 1~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Dweck, C. S., and Elliot, E. S. (1983~. Achievement motivation. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Socialization, personality, arid social development (Vol. IV of P. H. Mussen, Ed., Handbook of child psychology, pp. 643-692~. New York: Wiley. Edwards, J., Baldauf, R. B., and Cook, J. (1984, August). Thc effect of a thinking Sicily program on student. Paper presented at the Conference on Thinking, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Ennis, R. H. (1980~. A conception of rational thinking. In J. Coombs (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1979 (pp. 3-30~. Normal, IL: Philosophy of Education Society. Ennis, R. H. (1985~. Critical thinking and the curriculum. National Forum, 65~1), 28-31. Feuerstein, R., Jensen, M. R., Hoffman, M. B., and Rand, Y. (1985~. In- strumental enrichment, an intervention program for structural cognitive modifiability: Theory and practice. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, and R. Glaser (Eds.), 17~=hng and Icarning s1~illa: Vol. 1. Relating instruction to research (pp. 43-82~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Plower, L. S., and Hayes, J. R. (1980~. The dynamics of composing: Making plans and juggling constraints. In L. Gregg and E. Steinberg (Eds.), Cog- nitivc procc~c~ in writing: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 31-503. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Fuller, M. (1975, June). Teaching the process of problem soling. Paper presented at Annual Conference, American Society for Engineering Education, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. Fuller, M. (19783. Rca~oningforc:r~perimcatcr`. Paper presented at Frontiers in Education Conference, Orlando, Florida. Gelman, R., and Gallistel, C. R. (1978~. Thc child' understanding of number. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ginsburg, H. A. (1977~. Children' arithmetic: Thc lcarrung process. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Glaser, R. (19843. Education and thinking: The role of knowledge. American Paychologut, 59' 93-104. Groen, G., and Parkman, J. M. ( 1972~. A chronometric analysis of simple addition. Psychological Review, 79, 320343. Hayes, J. R. (1981~. Thc complete problem solar. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press. Hetherington, E. M. (1983~. Socialization, personality, and social development. (Vol. IV of P. H. Mussen, Ed., Handbook of child psychology). New York: Wiley. Hiebert, J., and Wearne, D. (1985~. A model of students' decimal computation procedures. Cognition arid Instruction 2, 175-205.
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54 REFERENCES Hursh, B., Hans, P., and Moore, M. (1983~. An interdisciplinary model to implement general education. Journal of H~gAcr Education, 54~1), 42-59. Johnson, R. H. (1981~. The new logic course: The state of the art in non-formal methods of argument analysis. Teaching Philosophy, j(2), 123-143. Johnson, R. H., and Blair, J. A. (1980~. The recent development of informal logic. In J. A. Blair and R. H. Johnson (Eds.), Informal logic (pp. 3-28~. Pt. Reyes, CA: Edgepress. Jones, B. F., Amiran, M., and Katims, M. (1985~. Teaching cognitive strategies and text structures within language arts programs. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, and R. Glazer (Eds.), Twining and learning Ad: Vol. 1. Relating instruction to rcscarch (pp. 250296~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Jones, B. F., Friedman, L. B., Tinzmann, M., and Cox, B. E. (1984~. Content- driven comprehension instruction and a~ce~mcnt: A model for Army-training literature. (Tech. Rep.~. Alexandria, VA: Army Research Institute. Journal of Educational Psychology. (1921~. Intelligence and its measurement: A symposium. The Journal, 12, 123-147, 195-216. Just. M. A.. and Carpenter. P. A. (1980). , . , _ _ __= , ~ , A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Rc~ncu', 87, 329-354. Kintsch, W. (1979~. On modeling comprehension. Educational P~ychologut, 11, 3-14. Kruglanski, A. W. (1981~. Endogenous attribution and intrinsic motivation. In M. R. Lepper and D. Greene (Eds.), The hidden coats of reward (pp. 85-108~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Larkin, J. H., McDermott, J., Simon, D. P., and Simon, H. (1980~. Expert and novice performance in solving physics problems. Scicnec, £08, 1335-1342. Lazere, D. (1982~. Cornpo~ition for critical thinking: A courec description. San Louis Obispo, CA: California Polytechnical State University Press. Lepper, M. R. (1981~. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in children: Detrimen- tal effects of superfluous social controls. In W. A. Collins (Ed.), Minnesota ~yn~o~um on chid psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 155-214~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Lepper, M. R. (1983~. Extrinsic reward and intrinsic motivation: Implications for the classroom. In J. M. Levine and M. C. Wang (Eds.), Tcacher and student perccptiona: Implications for learning (pp. 281-318~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Lepper, M. R., and Greene, D. (1981~. Overjustification research and beyond: Toward a means-end analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. R. Lepper and D. Greene (Eds.), 17`c bidden costs of reward (pp. 100148~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Lipman, M. (1982~. Harry Stottiemcicr'` discovery. Philadelphia: Temple Univer- ~ity Press. (Original work published in 1974.) Lipman, M. (19853. Thinking skills fostered by philosophy for children. In J. W. Segal, S. F`. Chipman, and R. Glaser (Eds.), Thirsting and Icarrung skill`: Vol. I. Relating instruction to research (pp. 83-108~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Lochhead, J. (198S). Teaching analytical reasoning skills through pair problem solving. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, and R. Glaser (Eds.), Thirsting and Icarrung shills: Vol. 1. Relating irutruction to research (pp. 100132~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Mandl, H., Stein, N. L., and Trabasso, T. (Eds.~. (19843. Lcarrung and corr2prchen~ion of tent. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. .
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REFERENCES 55 Matz, M. (1982~. Towards a process model for high school algebra errors. In D. Sleeman and J. S. Brown (Eds.), Ir~ciligent tutoring eyatenu (pp. 25-50~. New York: Academic Press. McGraw, K. O. (1981~. The detrimental effects of reward on performance: A literature review and a prediction model. In M. R. Lepper and D. Greene (Eds.), Thc hidden cook of reward (pp. 33-60~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. McPeck, J. (1981~. Critical thinks log and education Oxford, England: Martin Robinson Meichenbaum, D. (1985~. Teaching thinking: A cognitive-behavioral perspec- tive. In S. F`. Chipman, J. W. Segal, and R. Glaser (Eds.), Thirsting and Icarnsng skull: Vo1 I! R~n~nh anal reran n'`~tir,~ Inn ~n7-deft HillcAnl" ~ ~ ~of_ 1' ~ r z - _ _ J . A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ N J: girl uaum. Messick, S. (Ed.~. (19763. Individuality in Icarning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (1983~. Thc third national mathematics aasca~mcnt: Renaults, trends and Deuce (13-MA-01~. Denver, CO: Educational Commission of the States. Neves, D. M., and Anderson, J. R. (1981~. Knowledge compilation: Mechanisms for the automatization of cognitive skills. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognstivc shills and their ac~isstior~ Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Newell, A., and Estes, W. K. (1983~. Cognitive science and artificial intelligence. In Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (Ed.), Rcacarch briefings 1985. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Newell, A., and Rosenbloom, P. S. (1981~. Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cogni~vc skills and their acquisition (pp. 1-56~. Hilladale, NJ: Erlbaum. Nicholls, J. G. (1983~. Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation: A theory and its implications for education. In S. G. Paris, G. M. Olson, and H. W. Stevenson (Eden, Lcarnino and moliva~on in the ~I~rr~nm Inn 211- 238~. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. Nickerson, R. S., Perkins, D., and Smith, E. E. (1985~. Thc teaching of thirsting. Hillsdale, N3: Erlbaum. Norris. S. P. (19853. Thinking about critical thinking: Philosophers can't go it alone. In D. A. Nyberg (Ed.), Philosophy of education. Palincsar, A. S., and Brown, A. L. (19843. Reciprocal teaching of comprehen~ion- fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cogrution and Instruction, 1, 117-175. Papert, S. (1980~. Mindetorrru. New York: Basic Books. Paris, S. G., and Jacobs, J. E. (1984~. The benefits of informed instruction for children' reading awareness and comprehension skills. Child Dcveloprnent, 55, 2083-2093. Paris, S. G., Cross, D. R., and Lipson, M. Y. (1984~. Informed strategies for learning: A program to improve children's reading awareness and comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 1239-1252 Paul, R. (1982~. Teaching critical thinking in the "strong" sense: A focus on ~elf-deception, world views, and a dialectical mode of analysis. Informal Logic' 4, 3-7. Paul, R. (In press) . A review of Critical thinking and education. Informal Logic. Perfetti, C. (1985~. Reading ability. New York: Oxford University Press. Perkins, D. N. (1982~. Digi~ultics in everyday reasoning and their change with cduc~on. Final Report to the Spencer Foundation, Project Zero, Harvard University. __ 7 _
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56 REFERENCES Peterson, P., Swing, S., Stark, K., and Waas, G. (1984). Student's cognitions and time on task during mathematics instruction. American Educational Research Journal, At, 487-515. Poison, P. G., and Jeffries, R. (1985~. Analysis instruction in general problem- solving skills: An analysis of four approaches. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, and R. Glaser (Eds.), Twining and learning skills: Vol. t. Relating instruction to research (pp. 417-455~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Reif, F., and St. John, M. (1979~. Teaching physicists' thinking skills in the laboratory. American Journal of Physics, 47, 95~957. Resnick, D. P. (1980~. Minimum competency testing historically considered. Review of Research in Education, 8, 3-29. Resnick, D. P., and Resnick, L. B. (1977~. The nature of literacy: An historical exploration. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 370-385. Resnick, L. B. (1987~. The development of mathematical intuition. In M. Perlmutter (Ed.), Minnc~ota symposium on child psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 159- 194~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Resnick, L. B., Cauxinille-Marmeche, E., and Mathieu, J. (1987~. Understand- ing algebra. In J. S loboda and D. Rogers (Eds.), Cognitsuc proccaacs in mathematics (pp. 169-203~. New York: Oxford University Press. Rubinstein, M. F. (1980~. A decade of experience in teaching an interdisciplinary problem-solving course. In D. T. Tuma and F. Reif (Eds.), Problem soling and education. Induce in teaching and research (pp. 25-38~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Scardamalia, M., and Bereiter, C. (1985~. Fostering the development of selI- regulation in children's knowledge processing. In S. F`. Chipman, J. W. Segal, and R. Glaser (Eds.), Thirsting and leaning skills: Vol. 2. Research and open questions (pp. 563-5783. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Schoenfeld, A. (1982~. Measures of problem-solving performance and of problem- sol~ring instruction. Journal for Rc~carch in Mathematics Education, 1S, 31-49. Schoenfeld, A. (19833. Problem solving in the mathematics curriculum. A report, recommcndatioru, and an annotated bibliography. Report prepared for The Mathematical Association of America Committee on the Teaching of Un- dergraduate Mathematics. Schoenfeld, A. (1985~. Mathematical problem soling. New York: Academic Press. Segal, J. W., Chipman, S. F., and Glaser, R. (Eds.~. (1985~. Thinking and Icarning a~11~: Vol. 1. Relating ir~truction to rcscarch Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. Simon, H. A. (19763. Identifying basic abilities underlying intelligent perfor- mance of complex tasks. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of ir~clligenec (pp. 65-98~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Sleeman, D. (1983~. Assessing aspects of competence in basic algebra. In D. Sleeman and J. S. Brown (Eds.), Ir~ciligent tutoring J~tCm~ (pp. 185-199~. New York: Academic Press. Stein, N. L. (1986~. Knowledge and process in the acquisition of writing skills. In E. Z. R~thkopf (Ed.), Review of research in deduction, 18 (pp. 255-258~. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Stein, N. L., and Trabasso, T. (1982~. What's in a ~tory: An approach to comprehension and instruction. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advancca in instructional psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 213-267~. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Sternberg, R. J. (1986~. Intciligencc appied. New York: Harcourt Brace Jo- vanovich.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: