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Appendix The following individuals were kind enough to discuss their work or provide materials for study during the course of this project: RUDOLF ARNHEIM Ann Arbor, Mich. A. B. ARONS Department of Physics University of Washington TONY BLAIR Department of Philosophy University of Windsor ALFRED BORK Professor of Physics Director, Educational Technology Center University of California, Irvine NEIL M. BROWNE Department of Economics Bowling Green State University 59 COURTNEY B. CAZDEN Graduate School of Education Harvard University MICHAEL COLE Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition University of California, San Diego MARTIN COVINGTON Department of Psychology University of California, Berkeley DONALD F. DANSEREAU Department of Psychology Texas Christian University EDWARD DE BONO Fekenharn Norfolk, England

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60 SHARON DERRY Center for Educational Technology Florida State University REUVEN FEUERSTEIN Hadassah-WIZO-Canada Research Institute Bar Ilan University Jerusalem FRANK FISHER Urban Institute Washington, D.C. MAYNARD O. FULLER Department of Chemical Engineering McGill University ROBERT G. FULLER Department of Physics and Director, The ADAPT Program University of Nebraska RUTH GARNER College of Education University of Maryland ERNEST T. GOETZ Department of Educational Psychology Texas A&M University PAUL HAAS Department of Economics Bowling Green State University ANITA HARNADEK Midwest Publications Co., Inc. Pacific Grove, Calif. JULIA S. HOUGH Director The Franklin Institute Press Philadelphia APPENDIX RALPH JOHNSON Department of Philosophy University of Windsor BEAU FLY JONES Chicago Public Schools STUART KEELEY Department of Psychology Bowling Green State University LAWRENCE KOHLBERG Graduate School of Education Harvard University JILL LAEIKIN Department of Psychology Carnegie-Mellon University DONALD LAZERE Department of English California Polytechnic State University MARK LEPPER Department of Psychology Stanford University MATTHEW LIPMAN Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children Montclair State College JACK LOCHHEAD Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Massachusetts JOHN McPECK Department of Philosophy University of Western Ontario SARAH MICHAELS Graduate School of Education Harvard University

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APPENDIX FRED NEWMANN Director National Center on Effective Secondary Schools University of Wisconsin RAYMOND S. NICKERSON Director, Information Science Division Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. Cambridge, Mass. STEPHEN P. NORRIS Institute for Educational Research and l:)evelopment Memorial University of Newfoundland SCOTT G. PARIS Director, Center for Research on Learning and Schooling University of Michigan RICHARD PAUL Department of Philosophy Sonoma State College FREDERICK REIF Department of Physics University of California, Berkeley MOSHE F. RUBENSTEIN School of Engineering and Applied Sciences University of California, I~os Angeles MARLENE SCARDAMALIA Center for Applied Cognitive ~ - ;>clence Ontario Institute for Studies in Education ALAN SCHOENFELD School of Education University of California, Berkeley 61 MICHAEL SCRIVEN Department of Education University of Western Australia IRVING SIGEL Senior Researcher Educational Testing Service Princeton, N.J. LESLIE P. STEFFE Department of Mathematics Education University of Georgia ROBERT STERNBERG Department of Psychology Yale University JOHN SWETS Chief Scientist Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. Cambridge, Mass. STEPHEN TOULMIN Department of Philosophy University of Chicago CHARLES WALES College of Engineering Center for Guided Design University of West Virginia PERRY WEDDLE Department of Philosophy Sacramento State University CLAIRE E. WEINSTEIN Department of Educational Psychology University of Texas at Austin ARTHUR WHIMBEY Lakeworth, Fla. MERLIN WITTROCK Department of Education University of California, Los Angeles

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62 DONALD R. WOODS Department of Chemical ~ - ~ng~neer~ng McMaster University APPENDIX