INDEX

Abilities, 42–44

Activities of Daily Vision Scale (ADVS), 137, 178, 182

Acuity. See Visual acuity

ADA. See Americans with Disabilities Act

Administrative law judges, 330

Administrative review process, 330

Adults, 31–34

disability decision flow for, 32

who cannot perform standard tests of visual function, 203

Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) scoring, 81–82

ADVS. See Activities of Daily Vision Scale

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 16–17

Aid to the Blind, 11

Alley running, 227

Allowance rate, 330

Ambulatory mobility effects of vision function, 153–161

adaptation to changing light levels, 159–160

binocular vision, 160

contrast sensitivity, 158–159

in controlled environments, 157

direct measures of O&M performance , 156–157

glare sensitivity, 160

recommendations, 161

theories of O&M, 154–155

travel needs of blind and partially sighted individuals, 155–156

in uncontrolled environments, 157–158

visual acuity, 158

visual fields, 159

visuocognitive factors, 160–161

AMD. See Age-related macular degeneration

American Medical Association (AMA), 64, 67, 81, 179

Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment: Vision, 41, 67

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 40



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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits INDEX Abilities, 42–44 Activities of Daily Vision Scale (ADVS), 137, 178, 182 Acuity. See Visual acuity ADA. See Americans with Disabilities Act Administrative law judges, 330 Administrative review process, 330 Adults, 31–34 disability decision flow for, 32 who cannot perform standard tests of visual function, 203 Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) scoring, 81–82 ADVS. See Activities of Daily Vision Scale Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 16–17 Aid to the Blind, 11 Alley running, 227 Allowance rate, 330 Ambulatory mobility effects of vision function, 153–161 adaptation to changing light levels, 159–160 binocular vision, 160 contrast sensitivity, 158–159 in controlled environments, 157 direct measures of O&M performance , 156–157 glare sensitivity, 160 recommendations, 161 theories of O&M, 154–155 travel needs of blind and partially sighted individuals, 155–156 in uncontrolled environments, 157–158 visual acuity, 158 visual fields, 159 visuocognitive factors, 160–161 AMD. See Age-related macular degeneration American Medical Association (AMA), 64, 67, 81, 179 Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment: Vision, 41, 67 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 40

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Angle of resolution. See Minimum angle of resolution Anomaloscopes, 96, 98 Appeals Council, 330–331 Assessment, 199–230. See also Evaluation; Tests of disability, 3–4 of job analysis databases, 128 Assessment of the disability determination process for visual impairment, 11–50 characterizing the visual requirements of work, 12 context of social security, 29–40 new ways of estimating visual disability, 12 prevalence and significance of visual impairments, 15–29 procedures for determining disability, 31–35 social model of disability, 40–49 testing capacity to work, 11 updating current criteria, 12–15 visual demands of everyday tasks, 11 Automated static perimetry, 6, 120, 221–224 Bailey-Lovie chart, 65, 212–214 BAT. See Brightness Acuity Tester Beneficiaries, 331 Berkeley Glare Test, 110 Best-corrected acuity, 36 Binocular function testing, 6, 46, 100–103 evaluation, 102–103 need to evaluate acuity, 60 recommendations, 103 summation test, 100 Binocularity, 8–9, 103, 122 effect on reading, 149 and O&M, 160, 165–166 Blind individuals, travel needs of, 155–156 Blindness, 36 legal, 74 Braille, 133 Brightness Acuity Tester (BAT), 110 Central visual acuity, 36–37, 69n Central visual efficiency, 112–113 Cerebral visual impairment, 219 Chart design need to standardize, 58–59 in standardizing visual acuity measurement, 60–61 Chart luminance, 5, 58–59, 63, 107 Children and visual impairments, 23–25, 34–35 disability decision flow, 34 infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, 25 limitations of the data, 24 numbers served under IDEA by disability and age group, 26– 27 school-age children, 24 SSA visually impaired and statutorily blind beneficiaries by age, 28 Chronic impairments, 282–284, 312–321 Claimants, 331 CLEK. See Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study Colenbrander Chart, 138 Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study, 181, 183 Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Kerataconus (CLEK) study, 181 Color deficits, effect on reading, 149 Color vision testing, 8–9, 46, 95–99, 122 evaluation, 96–99 and O&M, 166 recommendations, 99 Committee on Disability Determination for Individuals with Visual Impairments, 11

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Committee on Vision, 5, 13–14, 58, 61, 63, 66, 70, 77, 119, 183 Comprehension, in measuring reading, 136–137 Concepts and terms, 41–45, 281–285 abilities, 42–44 aspects of vision loss, 43 disabilities, 42–44 diseases, disorders, and injuries, 42–43 functional capacity, 43, 45 handicap, 43–44 impairment, 42–44 Concurrent claims, 331 Conditions for testing, need to specify, 59 Continuing disability review, 331 Contrast sensitivity, 46, 225–230 disability criteria for, 118 in evaluation of reading, 148–149 and O&M, 158–159, 164 in visual efficiency testing, 114 Contrast sensitivity in infants and children, 225–230 assessment in infants, 225–226 assessment in preschool-age children, 226–227 assessment in school-age children, 227–229 assessment in those who cannot perform standard tests, 229 issues needing further study, 230 recommendations, 229 Contrast sensitivity testing, 7–8, 83–95, 121–122, 229 evaluation, 83–92 incorporating into the SSA disability determination process, 94 issues needing further study, 93, 95 recommendations, 93–94 Controlled environments, O&M in, 157 Crawford Small Parts Dexterity Test, 175 Critical print size, in measuring reading, 134–135 Cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity (CRYO-ROP) study, 207, 209, 212–213, 228 Current Population Survey, 284 DDS. See Disability Determination Services Deaf-blind children, 24 Department of Education, 25 Office of Special Education Programs, 23 Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, 276 Department of Labor (DOL), 23, 186, 188, 191, 194–195 Occupational Information Network system, 188 DI. See Disability Insurance; Social Security Disability Insurance Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 33 Diplopia, 101 Disability, 42–44, 331–332 Disability criteria, 35–39, 117–118 central visual acuity, 36–37 contrast sensitivity, 118 loss of visual efficiency, 37–39 measurement of visual acuity, 118 measurement of visual fields, 118 statutory blindness, 36 visual efficiency, 118 visual fields, 37 Disability decision flow, 32, 34 Disability Determination Services (DDS), 332 Disability examiners, 332 Disability Insurance (DI), 1–10, 331 assessing disability, 3–4 recommendations, 5–10 testing infants and children, 4–5 tests of visual functions, 2 visual task performance, 3 Diseases, 42

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Disorders, 42 Distractors, 104 Division of Disability Program Information and Studies, 28n DOL. See Department of Labor Down syndrome, 207 Driving mobility, 161–168 aspects of vision function affecting, 161–166 binocularity, 165–166 color vision, 166 contrast sensitivity, 164 direct measures of driving ability, 166–168 dynamic visual acuity, 166 glare sensitivity, 166 recommendations, 168 visual acuity, 163 visual fields, 163–164 visual search and attention, 164–165 Duration, 332. See also Sequential evaluation process Dvorine test, 96 Dynamic visual acuity, and O&M, 166 Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), 61–62, 209–210, 212–214 Eccentricity, visual field, 69 Economic variables, 284–285 Employment and economic consequences of visual impairment, 275–321 Employment income, 287–304 Endurance, in measuring reading, 136 Equals listing, 332. See also Sequential evaluation process Equivalent viewing distances (EVDs), 170 ESP (elicited sequential presentation) method, 132 ETDRS (Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study) “Chart 1” acuity chart, 62, 65 Evaluation of binocular function testing, 102–103 potential value as a practical measure, 102 quantifying performance, 102– 103 why the measure might be useful, 102 Evaluation of color vision testing, 96–99 potential value as a practical measure, 97 quality of information available, 99 quantifying performance, 97–98 relation to other measures, 99 why the measure might be useful, 96–97 Evaluation of contrast sensitivity testing, 83–92, 147–148 and mobility, 87–88 Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Test, 8, 84 potential value as a practical measure, 89 quality of information available, 92 quantifying performance, 89–91 and reading, 86–87 relation to other measures, 91–92 and social participation and tool use/manipulation, 88 why the measure might be useful, 83–88 Evaluation of reading testing, 143– 150 allowing magnifiers, 145–146 cause of the reading disability, 143–144 ferreting out subject’s manipulation, 146

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits relating reading performance to visual function impairment, 146 scale for reading disability, 144 variability in reading measurements, 144–145 visual functions having little effect on reading, 149–150 Evaluation of visual acuity testing, 53–60, 147 conversion table for visual acuity notations, 54–55 quantifying performance, 58–60 Snellen-type acuity chart, 57 value as a practical measure, 56– 57 why the measurement is useful, 53–56 Evaluation of visual fields testing, 70–80, 147–148 issues needing further study, 82– 83 quality of information available, 79–80 quantifying performance, 74–79 relation to other measures, 79 value as a practical measure, 74 why the measure is useful, 70–74 EVDs. See Equivalent viewing distances “Extreme” limitation, 35, 200 Eye movements, in measuring reading, 137 EyeCon 5, 110 Farnsworth panel D-15 test, 96, 98 Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hues test, 96, 98 FICA, 30 Field of vision. See Visual fields Fixation and following, 205 Forced-choice preferential looking (FPL), 206–208 Foveal vision, 71 Glare and light/dark adaptation testing, 106–111 adaptation to rapidly changing light conditions, 108–109 glare disability, 109–110 recommendations, 8, 111 vision at low light levels, 106–107 Glare disability, 109–110 Glare sensitivity, and O&M, 160, 166 Glasgow acuity cards, 210–211 Goldmann perimetry, 76, 81, 220–221 Goldmann-Weekers Adaptometer, 108 GRE test, 136 Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment: Vision, 41, 67 H-R-R test, 96 Handicaps, 43–44 Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) evaluation, 128, 179–185 instruments, 4, 180–181 recommendations, 184–185 use in the disability determination process, 183– 184 vision-specific HRQOL instruments, 181–183 visual task performance testing, 198 Health screening questions, 280–281 Hearing office, 332 HHSAI. See Household size-adjusted income Homonymous hemianopsia, 71 HOTV test BVAT crowded, 210 letter chart, 210–211 Household size-adjusted income (HHSAI), 305 HRQOL. See Health-related quality of life Humphrey Automatic Refractor, 110 Humphrey Field Analyzer, 78–81, 121, 223

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits IADL. See Instrumental activities of daily living ICF. See International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health ICD-9. See International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision ICIDH. See International Classification of Impairment, Disability, and Handicap IDEA. See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Impairment, 17n, 42–44 Impairment of Central Visual Acuity, 58–59 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 23–27 Infants, 25, 200–201 Information sources and standards, 48–49 public forum, 49 standards for evidence, 48–49 InnoMed true vision analyzer (TVA), 110 Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) tasks, 175, 177 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), 40n, 282 International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), 41 International Classification of Impairment, Disability, and Handicap (ICIDH), 41, 42n, 44n Interocular difference in vision, effect on reading, 149 Intraventricular hemorrhage, 219 Ishihara test, 96 Isopters, 75 Job analysis using labor databases, 4, 186–193 Department of Labor, 188 importance of vision to job performance, 192–193 importance to the job of aspects of vision, 191 Position Analysis Questionnaire, 187 Job performance abilities, testing of visual functions as a predictor of, 127–128 Landolt rings, 52, 61 Lang stereo test, 102 Lea symbols chart, 210–211, 214, 227 Light levels, adaptation to changing, 108–109, 159–160 Literacy rates, 130 Log constrast sensitivity score, 8, 63, 65, 83–95, 114 LogMAR values, 65, 113, 141, 211– 213 MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability, 175 Macular region, 69. See also Age-related macular degeneration MAR. See Minimum angle of resolution “Marked” limitation, 35, 200 Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 210 McCormick, Ernest, 187 Mean defect (MD) methods, 120–121 Mean deviation (MD) methods, 78, 114 Medical experts (MEs), 123, 333 Medical listing, 333 Medical Outcomes Study Form-36 (SF-36), 181 Meets listing, 333. See also Sequential evaluation process MEs. See Medical experts Miller Nadler test, 110 Minimum angle of resolution (MAR), 52–53. See also logMAR values

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Minnesota Rate of Manipulation Test, 175 MNREAD Reading Acuity Chart, 138–139 Mobility evaluation and, 87–88 visual task performance testing, 197 Multiple disabilities, children with, 24 Nagel anomaloscope, 96 Nagi framework, 281 National Academy of Sciences, 322, 329 National Adult Literacy Survey, 143 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 276 National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS), 25 National Eye Institute, 210 National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ), 137, 172, 178, 184 National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey, 48 National Health Interview on Disability, 302–303, 309 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 17, 21, 23, 48, 276– 321 Coding Manual, 283 National Institute for Literacy, 143 National Institutes of Health Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study , 181, 183 Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study, 181 NCHS. See National Center for Health Statistics Near visual acuity, in standardizing visual acuity measurement, 65–66 NEI VFQ. See National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire NEILS. See National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study NHIS. See National Health Interview Survey Nonsevere impairment, 333. See also Sequential evaluation process O&M. See Orientation and mobility Occupational Information Network system (O*NET), 23, 188 O’Connor Finger and Tweezer Dexterity Test, 175 Octopus perimetry, 78, 81, 121, 222–223 Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study, 181 Office of Disability, 12 Division of Disability Program Information and Studies, 28n Office of Hearings and Appeals. See Appeals Council Office of Special Education Programs, 23 O*NET. See Occupational Information Network system Opthimus glare test, 110 Optotypes, 52 Orientation and mobility (O&M), 71–73, 153–168 ambulatory, 153–161 driving, 161–168 Other work, 333. See also Sequential evaluation process PAQ. See Position Analysis Questionnaire Partially sighted individuals, travel needs of, 155–156 Past relevant work, 33

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Test, 8, 84, 86–87, 90–93, 122, 226–229 Pepper Visual Skills for Reading test, 138 Performance-based tests, of social participation, 169–172 Perimetry. See also Visual fields testing Perimetry, in visually at-risk infants, 218–219 Perinatal asphyxia, 219 Peripheral vision field, 69 Periventricular leukomalacia, 219 Photopic lighting, 106 “Physical Residual Functional Capacity Assessment,” 33 Pickford-Nicholson anomaloscope, 96 Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), 23, 130, 187 usability of, 188–193 Preferred retinal locus, 148 Preschool-age children, 25, 202 Procedures for determining disability, 31–35 adults, 31–34 children, 34–35 criteria for children, 39–40 current disability criteria for vision, 35–39 Program participation, 306–307 Public forum, on visual disability determination methods and issues, 49, 322–329 Purdue Pegboard test, 175 Quantifying visual acuity performance, 58–60 need to evaluate binocular acuity, 60 need to specify conditions for testing, 59 need to specify testing procedures, 60 need to standardize chart design, 58–59 Quantifying visual field performance, 74–79 need for an automated static perimeter, 77–78 need for standardized “deviation from average normal” values, 78–79 plotting of an isopter for visual field determination, 75 Questionnaires, for measuring reading, 137 Randot stereo test, 102–103 Reading, 3, 71, 129–153 clinical tests, 138–141 evaluation, 86–87, 143–150 including in disability determination, 129–131 MNREAD Reading Acuity Chart, 139 range of reading tasks, 131–134 real-world, 142 recommendations, 151–153 standardizing testing procedures, 141–143 stimulus properties and the “reading envelope,” 150–151 Reading measurement, 134–137, 196–197 accuracy, 136 comprehension, 136–137 critical print size, 134–135 endurance, 136 eye movements, 137 questionnaires, 137 reading acuity, 134, 152 reading speed, 135–136, 152 Recognition acuity, 204 Refractive error, 36 Resolution acuity, 204 Retinal disparity, 103 Ross Pediatric Lipid Study, 207 Route memory, 154 RSVP (rapid serial visual presentation) method, 132

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits SAT test, 136 School-age children, 24, 202–203 who cannot perform standard tests of visual function, 203 Scoring method, in standardizing visual acuity measurement, 65–66 Scotomas, 71, 107, 147 Search capacity, effect on reading, 150 Self-reporting of social interaction, 172–173 of tasks using tools, 177–178 of visual impairment, 7 of visual problems, 17–20 Sequential evaluation process, 334 SGA. See Substantial gainful activity Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), 172, 181 SITA. See Swedish interactive thresholding algorithm SKILL card test, 95, 107 Snellen-type acuity chart, 57, 141 Social interaction, self-reporting of, 172–173 Social model of disability, 40–49 generic concepts and terms applied to vision, 41–45 information sources and standards, 48–49 lines of inquiry, 47–48 vision-specific concepts and terms, 45–46 visual functions, 45–46 Social participation, 73, 168–173 evaluation and, 88 performance-based tests, 169–172 recommendations, 173 self-reporting, 172–173 testing, 3 and visual task performance testing, 198 Social Security Act of 1935, 11, 29– 40 Title II, 12, 25 Title XVI, 12, 25, 199 Social Security Administration (SSA), 1–15 disability criteria, 29–40, 47, 58– 59, 67–68, 92–93, 111–112, 115–127, 196, 199–200, 211, 215 issues needing further study by, 8–10 Office of Disability, 12, 28n present caseload, 25 statutorily blind beneficiaries, 28 visually impaired claimants, 51 Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), 12, 20, 22, 30–31 payments under, 282, 292–293, 296–297, 306–307 Social Security tax program, 30 SSA. See Social Security Administration SSDI. See Social Security Disability Insurance SSI. See Supplemental Security Income Standardizing testing procedures, for reading, 141–143 Standardizing visual acuity measurement, 60–66 chart design, 60–61 ETDRS “Chart 1” acuity chart, 62 near visual acuity, 65–66 observation conditions, 61–63 scoring method, 65–66 testing conditions, 63–65 Static perimetry, 218 Statutory blindness, 36 Stereoacuity, 102 Stereopsis, 101 Stimulus properties, and the “reading envelope,” 150–151 Strabismus, 101 Substantial gainful activity (SGA), 30–31, 334 Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 12, 20, 22, 29–31, 34, 334 benefits from, 282, 294–297, 306–307

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Swedish interactive thresholding algorithm (SITA), 223 Talking Signs, 157 Terminology. See Concepts and terms Testing conditions, in standardizing visual acuity measurement, 63–65 Testing procedures, need to specify, 60 Test-retest reliability, 7, 77, 120 Tests adequacy of current, 11, 13–14 of capacity to work, 11 of infants and children, 4–5, 10, 214–215 Tests of visual functions, 2, 5–9, 51– 125 binocular function, 100–103 binocularity, 8–9, 103, 122 color vision, 8–9, 95–99, 122 contrast sensitivity, 7–8, 83–95, 121–122, 229 disability criteria, 117–118 glare and light/dark adaptation, 106–111 recommendations, 8–9, 118–125 visual acuity, 5–6, 52–69, 119, 214–215 visual efficiency, 111–117 visual fields, 6–7, 69–83, 120–121, 224 visual search, 8–9, 103–105, 122 Tests of visual task performance, 196–198 HRQOL, 198 mobility, 197 reading, 196–197 social participation, 198 tool use and manipulation, 197 TNO stereo test, 102–103 Toddlers, 25 Tool use and manipulation, 74, 173–178 evaluation of, 88 recommendations, 178 self-reporting of tasks, 177–178 vision and performance tests of tool use, 175–177 visual task performance testing, 197 Travel needs, of blind and partially sighted individuals, 155–156 True vision analyzer (TVA), 110 Tumbling E’s chart, 52, 210 Tunnel vision, 148 TVA. See InnoMed true vision analyzer Uncontrolled environments, O&M in, 157–158 United Nations, 130 Updating current criteria, 12–15 adequacy of current tests, 11, 13–14 limited range of visual functions tested, 12, 14–15 predicting performance in the workplace, 13 Usual work, 334. See also Sequential evaluation process VAQ. See Visual Activities Questionnaire VAR. See Visual acuity rating VEP. See Visual evoked potential VEs. See Vocational experts VF-14 instrument, 182 Vision loss of, 43 at low light levels, 106–107 and performance tests of tool use, 175–177 Vistech charts, 89–90, 92, 226–229 VisTech VCT 8000, 110 Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), 182 Visual acuity, 5–6, 46, 66–69, 119 charts for, 5 disability criteria for, 118 in evaluation of reading, 147 and O&M, 158, 163

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Visual acuity in infants and children, 203–216 assessment in infants, 205–210 assessment in preschool-age children, 210–211 assessment in school-age children , 211–213 assessment in those who cannot perform standard tests, 213– 214 fixation and following, 205 forced-choice preferential looking, 206–208 issues needing further study, 215–216 predictive value of results, 208– 210 recommendations, 214–215 visual evoked potential, 205–206 Visual acuity rating (VAR), 53, 65 Visual acuity testing, 52–69 evaluation, 53–60 recommendations, 66–69 standardizing visual acuity measurement, 60–66 Visual demands of everyday tasks, 11 Visual efficiency testing, 111–117 central visual efficiency, 112–113 combining measures, 115 contrast sensitivity, 114 recommendations, 8, 115–116 visual field efficiency, 113–114 Visual evoked potential, 205–206 Visual field efficiency, 113–114 Visual fields, 6–7, 37, 46, 81–82, 120–121, 216–225 disability criteria for, 118 in evaluation of reading, 147–148 and O&M, 159, 163–164 Visual fields in infants and children, 216–225 assessment in infants, 217–219 assessment in preschool-age children, 219–220 assessment in school-age children, 220–224 assessment in those who cannot perform standard tests, 224 automated static perimetry, 221–224 confrontation techniques, 217 Goldmann perimetry, 220–221 issues needing further study, 224–225 perimetry in visually at-risk infants, 218–219 recommendations, 224 static perimetry, 218 white sphere kinetic perimetry, 217–218 Visual fields testing, 69–83. See also Perimetry evaluation, 70–80 isopters, 75 mean deviation methods, 78, 114 orientation/mobility, 71–73 reading, 71 recommendations, 81–82 social participation, 73 tool use/manipulation, 74 why the measure is useful, 70–74 Visual functions, 42, 45–46, 117 binocular function, 46 color vision, 46 contrast sensitivity, 46 visual acuity, 46 visual fields, 46 visual search, 46 Visual functions having little effect on reading, 149–150 binocular vision, 149 color deficits, 149 in evaluation of reading, 149–150 interocular difference in vision, 149 search capacity, 150 Visual impairments, prevalence and significance of, 15–29 Visual search and attention, 8–9, 46, 105, 122 and O&M, 164–165

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Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Visual search testing, 103–105 evaluation, 104–105 recommendations, 105 Visual span, 148 Visual task performance, 3, 10, 126– 198 challenges of evaluation, 127– 128 health-related quality of life (HRQOL), 179–185 orientation and mobility (O&M), 153–168 reading tests, 3, 129–153 recommendations for tests, 3, 196–198 social participation testing, 3, 168–173 test battery, 3 tool use and manipulation, 173– 178 work skills and visual functioning, 185–195 Visuocognitive factors in O&M, 160–161 Vocational considerations, 33, 334 Vocational experts (VEs), 334 Weber contrast ratio, 85n White size III Goldmann target, 6, 77, 120 White sphere kinetic perimetry, 217–218 Work other, 333 past relevant, 33 Work skills and visual functioning, 185–195 job analysis using labor databases, 186–193 recommendations, 193–195 Workplace predicting performance in, 13 visual limitations in, 20–23 Worst distance acuity, 6, 119