TRANSFER OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGIES

Committee to Evaluate Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technology for the U.S. Army

Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies TRANSFER OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGIES Committee to Evaluate Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technology for the U.S. Army Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study by the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design was conducted under grant no. DAAE30-99-1-0100 from the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Copies available in limited supply from: Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3505 email: bmaed@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.org/bmaed Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies COMMITTEE TO EVALUATE TRANSFER OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE U.S. ARMY SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors Manufacturing Engineering, Warren, Michigan, Chair EARL W. BRIESCH, Consultant, Sarasota, Florida GEOFFREY DEARNALEY, Consultant, San Antonio, Texas JOHN L. GARDON, Akzo Nobel Coatings (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan FRANK N. JONES, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan JOSEPH H. OSBORNE, Boeing Phantom Works, Seattle, Washington ROSE A. RYNTZ, Visteon Automotive Systems, Dearborn, Michigan DAVID A. SUMMERS, University of Missouri-Rolla MICHAEL R. VAN DE MARK, University of Missouri-Rolla Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Staff BONNIE A. SCARBOROUGH, Program Officer (through November 1999) PATRICK J. DOYLE, Program Officer (from November 1999)

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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies BOARD ON MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING DESIGN JOSEPH G. WIRTH, Raychem Corporation, Mt. Shasta, California (retired), Chair F. PETER BOER, Tiger Scientific, Inc., Boynton Beach, Florida JOHN G. BOLLINGER, University of Wisconsin, Madison HARRY E. COOK, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign PAMELA A. DREW, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington ROBERT EAGAN, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico EDITH M. FLANIGEN, UOP Corporation, White Plains, New York (retired) JOHN W. GILLESPIE, JR., University of Delaware, Newark JAMIE C. HSU, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan RICHARD L. KEGG, Milacron, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio (retired) JAY LEE, United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut JAMES MATTICE, Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio CAROLYN W. MEYERS, North Carolina AT&T University, Greensboro JOE H. MIZE, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (retired) FRIEDRICH B. PRINZ, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California JAMES B. RICE, JR., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge DALIBOR F. VRSALOVIC, AT&T Labs, Menlo Park, California JOEL SAMUEL YUDKEN, AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C. TONI MARECHAUX, Director

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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies PREFACE In July 1999, in response to a request by the U.S. Army, the National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee to Evaluate Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technology for the U.S. Army under the direction of its Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design. The specific organizations to be evaluated were the Industrial Ecology Center (IEC) and especially the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (NDCEE), Johnstown, Pennsylvania, for which the IEC had oversight responsibility from 1993 until 2000. The NDCEE was established by an act of Congress in 1990 for the purpose of demonstrating, applying, and disseminating advanced environmental technologies to the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), as well as industry and other government agencies. The overall objective of this study was to identify major barriers to, and approaches for, improving the transfer of pollution prevention technologies from the IEC to the U.S. Army, to other sectors of the Department of Defense, and to private industry, primarily defense contractors. After the initial scope of the project was defined and the committee was briefed on the overall IEC program, the sponsors and the committee realized both that the charge was very broad and that examination of representative projects as case studies would yield useful insights about major IEC and DOD-wide industrial pollution prevention programs. It was thought that the analysis of several technologies at the NDCEE would reflect a snapshot of barriers to technology transfer and implementation. Four such cases were identified, and the committee and sponsors agreed that recommendations based on what was learned in these cases could have a major impact on future technology transfer issues facing the Department of Defense. This report presents the results of the committee’s consensus recommendations in response to the charge given. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Col. James A. Ball, retired, Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, D.C., Carl Handsy, Tank-automotive and Armaments Command - Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Department of the Army, Warren, Michigan, James Holiday, Corpus Christi Depot, Department of the Army, Corpus Christi, Texas, Mark W. Ingle, Corrosion Control Division, Naval Sea Systems Command, Department of the Navy, Washington D.C., Terry M. Levinson, TML Consulting Group, Silver Spring, Maryland, John F. Rasmussen, Axsun Technologies, Billerica, Massachusetts, Jerry Rogers, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan, Donald Sekits, Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, Washington, and William Sharpe, Tank-automotive and Armaments Command - Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Department of the Army, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard A. Conway, retired, Union

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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies Carbide Corporation. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The chair also thanks the committee members for their participation in committee meetings and their effort and dedication in the preparation of this report; the sponsor, especially Robert Scola of the U.S. Army Industrial Ecology Center, speakers, and participants; and the staff of the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, especially Patrick Doyle, who coordinated the meetings and provided substantial assistance in the preparation and publication of this report. Sheila Kia, Chair Committee to Evaluate Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technology for the U.S. Army

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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies TABLE OF CONTENTS     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   5      NATIONAL DEFENSE CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXCELLENCE   6      History   6      Organization   6      NDCEE Programs   7      Oversight   8      Sources of Funding   8      Relationship with Other Programs   9      STUDY OBJECTIVES AND APPROACH   11 2   TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER   13      CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER   13      TRANSFER OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGIES   15      ROLE OF AN INTERMEDIARY IN TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER   17 3   NDCEE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: SELECTED CASES   19      CASE I. ELECTROCOAT and CASE II. POWDER COATING   19      NDCEE Program Overview   20      Program Effectiveness   22      Concluding Remarks   25      CASE III: COATING REMOVAL BY ULTRAHIGH-PRESSURE WATERJET   25      NDCEE Program Overview   25      Program Effectiveness   26      Concluding Remarks   28      CASE IV: ION BEAM SURFACE MODIFICATION   28      NDCEE Program Overview   29      Program Effectiveness   30      Concluding Remarks   30 4   BARRIERS TO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER   31      DEPOT MAINTENANCE   31      ADDITIONAL FACTORS   32 5   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   35      GENERAL CASE STUDY CONCLUSIONS   35      APPROPRIATENESS OF TECHNOLOGIES   36      ORGANIZATION AND TASKS   37      PLANNING FOR APPROVAL PROCESSES   38      FINAL THOUGHTS   39

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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies     APPENDICES         A  BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS   43     B  INVITED SPEAKERS   45     C  REVIEW OF ORGANIC COATING TECHNOLOGY   46     D  ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS   51

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Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technologies LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1-1   Department of Defense environmental technology programs   9 Figure 3-1   Schematic of electrodeposition process   20 Figure 3-2   Annual cost of powder coating or electrocoating at various production volumes   21 Figure 3-3   Calculated cost per square foot for electrocoat at various production volumes   22 Figure 3-4   Program funding for NDCEE's waterjet effort   26 Table C-1   Market Share of Coating Sales in the United States in 2000   46

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