TECHNICAL, BUSINESS, AND LEGAL DIMENSIONS OF PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM PORNOGRAPHY ON THE INTERNET

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Committee to Study Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids from Pornography and Their Applicability to Other Inappropriate Internet Content

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council and Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop TECHNICAL, BUSINESS, AND LEGAL DIMENSIONS OF PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM PORNOGRAPHY ON THE INTERNET PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Committee to Study Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids from Pornography and Their Applicability to Other Inappropriate Internet Content Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council and Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study of which this workshop report was a part was supported by Grant No. 1999-JN-FX-0071 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Departments of Justice and Education; Grant No. P0073380 between the National Academy of Sciences and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation; awards (unnumbered) from the Microsoft Corporation and IBM; and National Research Council funds. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the symposium presenters and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08326-5 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800/624-6242 202/334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop COMMITTEE TO STUDY TOOLS AND STRATEGIES FOR PROTECTING KIDS FROM PORNOGRAPHY AND THEIR APPLICABILITY TO OTHER INAPPROPRIATE INTERNET CONTENT RICHARD THORNBURGH, Kirkpatrick & Lockhart LLP, Chair NICHOLAS J. BELKIN, Rutgers University WILLIAM J. BYRON, Holy Trinity Parish SANDRA L. CALVERT, Georgetown University DAVID FORSYTH, University of California at Berkeley DANIEL GEER, @Stake LINDA HODGE, Parent Teacher Association MARILYN GELL MASON, Independent Consultant MILO MEDIN, Excite@Home JOHN B. RABUN, National Center for Missing and Exploited Children ROBIN RASKIN, FamilyPC Magazine ROBERT SCHLOSS, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center JANET WARD SCHOFIELD, University of Pittsburgh GEOFFREY R. STONE, University of Chicago WINIFRED B. WECHSLER, Independent Consultant Staff HERBERT S. LIN, Senior Scientist and Study Director GAIL PRITCHARD, Program Officer (through June 2001) LAURA OST, Consultant JOAH G. IANOTTA, Research Assistant JANICE SABUDA, Senior Project Assistant DANIEL D. LLATA, Senior Project Assistant (through May 2001)

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD DAVID D. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair DAVID BORTH, Motorola Labs JAMES CHIDDIX, AOL Time Warner JOHN M. CIOFFI, Stanford University ELAINE COHEN, University of Utah W. BRUCE CROFT, University of Massachusetts at Amherst THOMAS E. DARCIE, AT&T Labs Research JOSEPH FARRELL, University of California at Berkeley JEFFREY M. JAFFE, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies ANNA KARLIN, University of Washington BUTLER W. LAMPSON, Microsoft Corporation EDWARD D. LAZOWSKA, University of Washington DAVID LIDDLE, U.S. Venture Partners TOM M. MITCHELL, Carnegie Mellon University DONALD NORMAN, Nielsen Norman Group DAVID A. PATTERSON, University of California at Berkeley HENRY (HANK) PERRITT, Illinois Institute of Technology BURTON SMITH, Cray Inc. TERRY SMITH, University of California at Santa Barbara LEE SPROULL, New York University JEANNETTE M. WING, Carnegie Mellon University Staff MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Director HERBERT S. LIN, Senior Scientist ALAN S. INOUYE, Senior Program Officer JON EISENBERG, Senior Program Officer LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Program Officer CYNTHIA PATTERSON, Program Officer STEVEN WOO, Program Officer JANET BRISCOE, Administrative Officer DAVID PADGHAM, Research Associate MARGARET HUYNH, Senior Project Assistant DAVID DRAKE, Senior Project Assistant JANICE SABUDA, Senior Project Assistant JENNIFER BISHOP, Senior Project Assistant BRANDYE WILLIAMS, Staff Assistant

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES EVAN CHARNEY, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Chair JAMES A. BANKS, University of Washington DONALD COHEN, Yale University THOMAS DEWITT, Children’s Hospital Medical Center of Cincinnati MARY JANE ENGLAND, Washington Business Group on Health MINDY FULLILOVE, Columbia University PATRICIA GREENFIELD, University of California at Los Angeles RUTH T. GROSS, Stanford University KEVIN GRUMBACH, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital NEAL HALFON, University of California at Los Angeles School of Public Health MAXINE HAYES, Washington State Department of Health MARGARET HEAGARTY, Columbia University RENÉE R. JENKINS, Howard University HARRIET KITZMAN, University of Rochester SANDERS KORENMAN, Baruch College, City University of New York HON. CINDY LEDERMAN, Juvenile Justice Center, Dade County, Florida VONNIE McLOYD, University of Michigan GARY SANDEFUR, University of Wisconsin-Madison ELIZABETH SPELKE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology RUTH STEIN, Montefiore Medical Center Liaisons ELEANOR E. MACCOBY (Liaison, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education), Department of Psychology (emeritus), Stanford University WILLIAM ROPER (Liaison, IOM Council), Institute of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Staff MICHELE D. KIPKE, Director (through September 2001) MARY GRAHAM, Associate Director, Dissemination and Communications SONJA WOLFE, Administrative Associate ELENA NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence JOAH G. IANNOTTA, Research Assistant

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop Preface In response to a mandate from Congress in conjunction with the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act of 1998, the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) and the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine established the Committee to Study Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids from Pornography and Their Applicability to Other Inappropriate Internet Content. To collect input and to disseminate useful information to the nation on this question, the committee held two public workshops. On December 13, 2000, in Washington, D.C., the committee convened a workshop to focus on nontechnical strategies that could be effective in a broad range of settings (e.g., home, school, libraries) in which young people might be online. This workshop brought together researchers, educators, policy makers, and other key stakeholders to consider and discuss these approaches and to identify some of the benefits and limitations of various nontechnical strategies. The December workshop is summarized in Nontechnical Strategies to Reduce Children’s Exposure to Inappropriate Material on the Internet: Summary of a Workshop.1 1   National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Nontechnical Strategies to Reduce Children’s Exposure to Inappropriate Material on the Internet: Summary of a Workshop, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Joah G. Iannotta, ed., Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001.

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop The second workshop was held on March 7, 2001, in Redwood City, California. This second workshop focused on some of the technical, business, and legal factors that affect how one might choose to protect kids from pornography on the Internet. The present report provides, in the form of edited transcripts, the presentations at that workshop. Obviously, because the report reflects the presentations on that day, it is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all of the technical, business, and legal issues that might be relevant to this subject. All views expressed in this report are those of the speaker (who sometimes is a member of the study committee speaking for himself or herself). Most importantly, this report should not be construed as representing the views of the Committee to Study Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids from Pornography and Their Applicability to Other Inappropriate Internet Content; the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board; the Board on Children, Youth, and Families; the National Research Council; or the Institute of Medicine. The report contains 17 chapters, each of which is essentially an edited transcript of the various briefings to the committee during the workshop. Questions and comments from the audience and committee members are included as footnotes. The first four chapters are devoted to the basics of information retrieval and searching. The next three (Chapters 5-7) address some of the technology and business dimensions of filtering, the process through which certain types of putatively objectionable content are blocked from display on a user’s screen. Two chapters (Chapters 8-9) then address technical and infrastructural dimensions of authentication— the process of proving that one is who one asserts to be. The next three chapters (Chapters 10-12) address automated approaches to negotiating individualized policy preferences and dealing with issues of intellectual property (and preventing unauthorized parties from viewing protected material). Chapter 13 addresses the problems associated with a dot-xxx domain for “cordoning off” sexually explicit material on the Internet. Chapters 14-16 cover various issues associated with business models for the Internet, and the final chapter, Chapter 17, discusses one legal scholar’s perspective on regulating sexually explicit material on the Internet. Gail Pritchard was largely responsible for assembling the speakers at this workshop, and Laura Ost generated the first draft of the report. This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review com-

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of these workshop proceedings: William Aspray, Computing Research Association, Hinrich Schütze, Novation Biosciences, and Frederick Weingarten, American Library Association. Although these individuals reviewed the report, they were not asked to endorse it, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Peter Blair of the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Herbert S. Lin, Senior Scientist and Study Director Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop Contents 1   BASIC CONCEPTS IN INFORMATION RETRIEVAL Nicholas Belkin   1     1.1 Definitions and System Design,   1     1.2 Problems,   2 2   TEXT CATEGORIZATION AND ANALYSIS David Lewis and Hinrich Schütze   5     2.1 Text Categorization,   5     2.2 Advanced Text Technology,   7 3   CATEGORIZATION OF IMAGES David Forsyth   11     3.1 Challenges in Object Recognition,   11     3.2 Screening of Pornographic Images,   12     3.3 The Future,   14 4   THE TECHNOLOGY OF SEARCH ENGINES Ray Larson   16     4.1 Overview,   16     4.2 Boolean Search Logic,   17     4.3 The Vector Space Model,   18     4.4 Searching the World Wide Web,   19

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop 5   CYBER PATROL: A MAJOR FILTERING PRODUCT Susan Getgood   23     5.1 Introduction,   23     5.2 Why Filter?,   24     5.3 SuperScout and Cyber Patrol,   25     5.4 The Review Process,   29     5.5 The Future,   31 6   ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR AUTOMATIC WEB FILTERING Michel Bilello   33     6.1 Background,   33     6.2 The WIPE System,   34 7   A CRITIQUE OF FILTERING Bennett Haselton   36     7.1 Introduction,   36     7.2 Deficiencies in Filtering Programs,   37     7.3 Experiments by Peacefire.org,   38     7.4 Circumvention of Blocking Software,   45 8   AUTHENTICATION TECHNOLOGIES Eddie Zeitler   48     8.1 The Process of Identification,   48     8.2 Challenges and Solutions,   50 9   INFRASTRUCTURE FOR AGE VERIFICATION Fred Cotton   53     9.1 The Real World Versus the Internet,   53     9.2 Solutions,   56     9.3 The Extent of the Problem,   59 10   AUTOMATED POLICY PREFERENCE NEGOTIATION Deirdre Mulligan   62 11   DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY John Blumenthal   65     11.1 Technology and Policy Constraints,   65     11.2 Designing a Solution to Fit the Constraints,   67     11.3 Protecting Children,   73     11.4 Summary,   75

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop 12   A TRUSTED THIRD PARTY IN DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT David Maher   76     12.1 InterTrust Technologies,   77     12.2 Countermeasures and Hackers,   80     12.3 Summary,   84 13   PROBLEMS WITH A DOT-XXX DOMAIN Donald Eastlake   85 14   BUSINESS DIMENSIONS: THE EDUCATION MARKET Irv Shapiro   90     14.1 The Role of Teachers,   90     14.2 Historical Perspective,   91     14.3 The School Marketplace,   92 15   BUSINESS MODELS: KID-FRIENDLY INTERNET BUSINESSES Brian Pass   96     15.1 Building an Internet Business,   96     15.2 Comparing Business Models,   98     15.3 The Role of Parents,   103 16   BUSINESS MODELS BASED ON ADVERTISING Chris Kelly   104     16.1 Comparison of Advertising Models,   104     16.2 Portals, Advertising Networks, and Targeting,   105     16.3 Choice of Models,   106     16.4 Advertising, Regulation, and Kids,   107 17   CONSTITUTIONAL LAW AND THE LAW OF CYBERSPACE Larry Lessig   110     17.1 Introduction,   110     17.2 Regulation in Cyberspace,   111     17.3 Possible Solutions,   112     17.4 Practical Considerations,   118 APPENDIX:   BIOGRAPHIES OF PRESENTERS   124

OCR for page R1
Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop This page in the original is blank.