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Appendixes

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Nuclide Ru-103 Ru-105 Ru-106+ Rh-103m Rh-105 Pd-103 Pd-109 Ag-105 Ag-108m+ A~-l lOm A~-111 Cd-109 Cd-115 Cd-115m In-111 In-113m In-114m In-llSm Sn-113 Sn-125 Sb-124 Sb-125 Te-123m Te-125m Te-127 Te-127m Te-129 Te-129m Te-131 Te-13 lm Te-132 Te-133 Te-133m Te-134 I-123 I-125 I-126 I-129 I-130 I-131 I-132 I-133 I-135 Xe-13 lm Xe-133 Xe-135 Cs-129 Cs-131 Cs-132 Cs-134m Quantity (Bq) 106 106 . 10' ~ . 108 . . 10' 108 , . 100 ~ 106 . 106 o6 . 6 100 lo6 lo6 10~ 107 10 6 100 ~ -- 107 1 107 .- 10~ lo6 .- 10' lo6 .- . 10' 105 105 . ~- 107 .~ lo6 1~ ~ 6 6 105 .- 10~ 106 - 04 04 lolo 105 100 ~ 105 _ 105 Concentration L (kBq/kg) 2 10 r An 10 . 104 ,A, 10~ 103 103 2 10 0 . 103 04- A' 10~ . 102 . 102 lo2 . 10< 103 10 10 . As . 10~ . 102 1o3 . 103 1o3 A. 10t 103 10 10 A. 104 10 10 10 10 10 A, 10< 2 10 102 10 10 10 _- 10' . 103 10~ 2 105 10 ~ 103 Nuclide Cs-134 Cs-134 Cs-136 Cs-137+ Cs-138 Ba-131 Ba-140+ La-140 Ce-139 Ce-141 Ce-143 Ce- 144+ Pr-142 Pr-143 Nd-147 Pm-147 Pm-149 Sm-151 Sm-153 Eu-152 Eu-152m Eu-154 Eu-155 Gd-153 Gd-159 Tb-160 Dy- 166 Ho-166 Er-169 Er-171 Tm-170 Tm-171 Yb-175 Lu-177 Hf-181 Ta-182 W-181 W-185 W-187 Re-186 Re-188 Os-185 Os-191 Os-19lm Os-193 Ir-l9O Ir-192 Ir-194 Pt-191 Pt-193m C-10 Quantity (Bq) 104 10r 05 04 104 l 10 . 105 . 10' . 1o6 l 10' . 106 . 10 105 1 10 1 . 106 1 . 1 10' 1 106 1 1 10 1 106 ~ 106 1 100 1 1o6 1 l 10' 1 107 1 l 10~ 1 106 1 1 lou 1 105 1 1 10' 1 106 1 1 100 107 1 1o7 . 106 1 hoL ~1 07 07 _ 106 10 105 10 107 7 10' 106 10~ 104 - 103 0U 106 1 Concentration (kBq/kg) 1O4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1o2 10 2 10~ 102 10 102 1 104 10 1 102 1 io2 1 10 1 10 1 10 1 10 1 102 1 103 1 1o 1 03 03 04 102 1 103 104 03 03 10 1 10 1 1o3 1 1o4 1 102 1 103 1 102 1 10 1 102 1 10 1 102 1 10 1 10 1 1o2 1 102 1 1o3 1

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A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members Richard S. Magee, chair, is currently vice president, Carmagen Engineering, Inc., and technical director, New Jersey Corporation for Advanced Technology. His previous positions include associate provost for research and development and executive director, Otto H. York Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT); professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Department of Chemical Engineering, Chem- istry, and Environmental Science, NJIT; associate director, Environmental Pro- tection Agency (EPA) Center for Airborne Organics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); director, Northeast Hazardous Substance Research Center, NJIT; and director, Stevens Institute of Technology Energy Center. He has chaired numerous groups and committees including a number of National Research Coun- cil (NRC) committees. His NRC service includes chair and member of the NRC Evaluation Panel for the National Bureau of Standards Center for Fire Research; member of the Board of Assessment of the National Engineering Laboratories; chair and member of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program; chair and member of the Panel on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Chemical Disposal Technologies; and chair and member of the Committee on Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates. He is a fellow of the Ameri- can Society of Mechanical Engineers and a National Associate of the National Academies. He has also provided service to the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- tion Science Committee as a member of the Priority Area Panel on Disarmament Technologies and as a member of the Advisory Panel on Security-related Civil Science and Technology. He has extensive experience in environmental science 183

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184 and engineering, including expertise in combustion, incineration, ardous waste, and energy technologies. He has a B.E., an M.S., and an Sc.D. from Stevens Institute of Technology. APPENDIX A 1 , emissions, naz- David E. Adelman is an associate professor at the University of Arizona's James E. Rogers College of Law. His work focuses on the myriad interfaces between law and science, with particular emphasis on evaluating environmental and regu- latory issues relating to new or controversial technologies as well as assessing the impacts of intellectual property regimes on scientific research in the United States. He is a member of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management Advisory Board, as well as a member of the National Academies' Committee on Building a Long-term Environmental Quality Research and De- velopment Plan in the U.S. Department of Energy, which evaluated DOE' s Envi- ronmental Management science program. From July 1998 to September 2001, he was a senior attorney with the Natural Resources Defense Council's (NRDC) Nuclear and Public Health programs in Washington, D.C., where he monitored and litigated issues pertaining to the environmental cleanup of the nuclear weap- ons complex and developed proposals for appropriate regulatory mechanisms for agricultural biotechnology. Prior to his position at NRDC, he was an associate at the law firm of Covington & Burling in Washington, D.C., where he litigated patent disputes and provided counsel on environmental regulatory issues. He received a B.A. in chemistry and physics from Reed College in 1988, a Ph.D. in chemical physics from Stanford University in 1993, and a J.D. from Stanford Law School in 1996. Jan Beyea is a senior scientist with Consulting in the Public Interest and a consultant to the National Audubon Society and the Epidemiology Department of the Mount Sinai Medical School. He consults on nuclear physics and other en- ergy and environmental topics for numerous local, national, and international organizations. He has been chief scientist and vice president, National Audubon Society, and has held positions at the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Princeton University, Holy Cross College, and Columbia University. He has served on numerous advisory committees and panels including as a member of the NRC's Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Energy Engineering Board; Committee on Alternative Energy R&D Strategies; and Committee to Review DOE's Fine Particulates Research Plan. He has served on the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board, Task Force on Economic Modeling and the policy committee of the Recycling Advisory Council. He served as an advisor to various Office of Technology Assessment studies. He has expertise in energy technolo- gies and associated environmental and health concerns and has written numerous articles on environment and energy. He received a B.A. from Amherst College and a Ph.D. in physics from Columbia University.

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APPENDIX A 185 jack S. Brenizer, ,Ir., is a professor in the Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering and chairman of the Nuclear Engineering Program at the Pennsylva- nia State University. His previous positions include associate professor, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, and engineering technician, AMP Incorporated. His research and teaching interests cover a wide range of expertise related to nuclear science and engineering, nuclear measurements, radiation detection, reactor operations and systems, and effects of radiation. He is a recipient of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E7 Charles W. Briggs Award and a Board Member of the International Society for Neutron Radiography. He is a member of the American Nuclear Society, the Health Physics Society, Sigma Xi, the American Society for Nonde- structive Testing, the ASTM, the International Society for Neutron Radiography, and the International Society for Optical Engineering. He has a B.S. in physics from Shippensburg State College and an M.E. (engineering science) and a Ph.D. (nuclear engineering) from the Pennsylvania State University. Lynda L. Brothers is a partner with Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal. Her previ- ous positions include partner, Davis Wright Tremaine (1990-2000~; executive vice president, Raytheon Hanford, Inc. (1996~; assistant director, Hazardous, Solid and Radioactive Waste and Air Quality, Department of Ecology, State of Washington (1983-1985~; deputy assistant secretary for environment, U.S. De- partment of Energy (1979-1981~; and counsel, Subcommittee on Environment and Atmosphere, Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Repre- sentatives (1978-1979~. She has extensive experience in environmental and ra- dioactive waste issues that cut across many agencies and jurisdictions and ad- dresses regulatory issues related to defense wastes and commercial low-level radioactive waste. She has served on a number of advisory boards and commit- tees including the NRC's Board on Radioactive Waste Management (1989-1996~; Committee on Classification of Documents at the Department of Energy; Com- mittee to Review New York State's Siting and Methodology Selection for Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. She has also served on the Advisory Board, Virginia Mason Center for Women's Health; the Northwest Citizens' Forum on High Level Nuclear Waste at Hanford; and the Board of Trustees, Washington Environmental Foundation. She served as chair of the Northwest Interstate Com- pact Commission on Low Level Radioactive Waste from 1983-1985. Until spring of 2000, she was counsel to the board of directors of Envirocare of Utah, and she currently serves on the board of directors, American Birding Association. She has a J.D. from the Golden State University, an M.S. in biology from the University of Virginia, and a B.S. in genetics from the University of California, Berkeley. Robert ,1. Budnitz is president of Future Resources Associates, Inc., in Berkeley, California. Previously, he served as deputy director and director of the U.S.

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186 APPENDIX A Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC's) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and also held several management positions at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California. His professional interests are in envi- ronmental impacts, hazards, and safety analysis, particularly of the nuclear fuel cycle. He has been prominent in the field of nuclear reactor safety assessment and waste repository performance assessment, including probabilistic risk assess- ment. Dr. Budnitz has served on numerous investigative and advisory panels of scientific societies, government agencies, and the National Research Council. His most recent NRC committee service was with the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, Committee on Buried and Tank Wastes and Committee on Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Standards. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Cal Rad Forum, an association of public and private institutions and corporations that generate low-level radioactive waste in the Southwestern Low-Level Waste Disposal Compact, which supports the prompt development of the Ward Valley site in California. He received a B.A. from Yale University and a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University. Gregory R. Choppin is currently the R.O. Lawton Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at Florida State University. His research interests involve the chemis- try of the f-elements, the separation science of the f-elements, and the physical chemistry of concentrated electrolyte solutions. During a postdoctoral period at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, he par- ticipated in the discovery of mendelevium, element 101. His research and educa- tional activities have been recognized by the American Chemical Society' s Award in Nuclear Chemistry, the Southern Chemist Award of the American Chemical Society, the Manufacturing Chemist Award in Chemical Education, the Chemi- cal Pioneer Award of the American Institute of Chemistry, a Presidential Citation Award of the American Nuclear Society, and honorary D.Sc. degrees from Loyola University and the Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden). Dr. Choppin has served as member, chair, or vice chair of numerous NRC committees and is currently a member of the Board on Radioactive Waste Management and chair of the Committee on Building a Long-term Environmental Quality Research and Development Program in the U.S. Department of Energy. Dr. Choppin received a B.S. in chemistry from Loyola University, New Orleans, and a Ph.D. from the University of Texas, Austin. Michael Corradini (National Academy of Engineering [NAB]) is a professor in the Department of Engineering Physics at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and associate dean of the College of Engineering. Dr. Corradini's research focus is nuclear engineering and multiphase flow with specific interests that include light-water reactor safety, fusion reactor design and safety, waste management and disposal, vapor explosions research and molten core concrete interaction research, and energy policy analysis. He is a member of the American Institute of

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APPENDIX A 187 Chemical Engineers, the American Society of Engineering Education, and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and a fellow of the American Nuclear Society. Dr. Corradini has received numerous awards including the National Science Foundation's Presidential Young Investigators Award, the American Nuclear Society's reactor safety best paper award, and the University of Wiscon- sin, Madison campus, teaching award. He is the author of more than 100 techni- cal papers and has served on various technical review committees, including the research review panel of the USNRC and the direct heating review group. He is currently a member of the NRC's Electric Power/Energy Systems Engineering Peer Committee and chair of the Frontiers of Engineering Organizing Commit- tee. Dr. Corradini was elected to the NAE in 1998. He received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Marquette University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. James W. Dally (NAE) is Glenn L. Martin Institute Professor of Engineering Emeritus, University of Maryland, College Park. Dr. Dally has had a distin- guished career in industry, government, and academia and is the former dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Rhode Island. His former posi- tions include senior research engineer, Armour Research Foundation; assistant director of research, Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute; assistant professor, Cornell University; professor, Illinois Institute of Technology; and senior engineer, International Business Machines Corporation. He is also an in- dependent consultant. Dr. Dally is a mechanical engineer and the author or coau- thor of six books, including engineering textbooks on experimental stress analy- sis, engineering design, instrumentation, and the packaging of electronic systems, and has published approximately 200 research papers. He has served on a number of NRC committees and is currently on the Committee on the Future Environ- ments for the National Institute for Standards and Technology and the Committee on Review of Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's Truck Crash Causa- tion Study. He has a B.S. and an M.S. from the Carnegie Institute of Technology, and a Ph.D. from the Illinois Institute of Technology. Edward R. Epp is professor of radiation oncology, emeritus, Harvard Univer- sity. He has served as physicist, Department of Radiology, Montreal General Hospital; has worked at the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research where he served as member and professor of biophysics at Cornell University in the Graduate School of Medical Sciences; was professor of radiation oncology, Harvard Medical School; and served as head of the Division of Radiation Bio- physics in the Department of Radiation Oncology at Massachusetts General Hos- pital. Dr. Epp is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. He has served as president of the Radia- tion Research Society and on a number of committees of the National Academy of Sciences. He has also been a member of the National Institute of Health

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188 APPENDIX A Radiation Study Section and the National Cancer Institute Clinical Program Project Committee. In 2000, he was the Failla Memorial Lecturer for the Greater New York Chapter of the Health Physics Society in association with the Radia- tion and Medical Physics Society of New York. His research interests include radiation physics and dosimetry, radiation biophysics, and mechanisms of radia- tion action in cells. His specific research on mechanism aspects has dealt with the biological effects of ultrahigh-intensity pulsed radiation in the presence of oxy- gen and other chemical sensitizers. He obtained his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Saskatchewan and his Ph.D. in nuclear physics from McGill University. Alvin Mushkatel is currently a professor in the School of Planning and Land- scape Architecture at Arizona State University (ASU). Previous positions at ASU include professor, School of Public Affairs; director of the Doctor of Public Administration Program; and director of the Office of Hazards Studies. He has held positions in political science at the University of Denver; University of Missouri, St. Louis; and St. John's University in Minnesota. He has conducted numerous studies and published widely in a number of areas including risk per- ception, siting of hazardous waste facilities, public and stakeholder involvement in policy making, and nuclear waste policy. He has served on numerous advisory bodies and committees including the U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters Public Participation Seminar Series Panel on public trust and confidence, and on the following NRC committees: Earthquake Engineering and a number of its subpanels; Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stock- pile Disposal Program; Committee to Assess the Policies and Practices of the Department of Energy to Design, Manage, and Procure Environmental Restora- tion, Waste Management, and Other Construction Projects; and Committee on Decontamination and Decommissioning of Uranium Enrichment Facilities. Dr. Mushkatel received his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Oregon. Rebecca R. Rubin is a partner in the BAHR Environmental Company, in which she leads and performs environmental studies and evaluations for clients in the federal and commercial sectors. She has held a number of positions in the envi- ronmental field including director, Army Environmental Policy Institute, manag- ing the research, analysis, and development of progressive environmental poli- cies and strategies for the U.S. Army; and manager, project leader, and analyst, Environmental Program, Institute for Defense Analyses, where she managed the environmental studies program and conducted studies for the Department of Defense and other government agencies. Her experience in the environmental area covers a broad range of subjects including the integration of environmental, safety, and health considerations with defense acquisition; evaluation of site contamination, developmental testing of environmental technologies; and poli-

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APPENDIX A 189 cies and strategies for environmental cleanup and compliance. She has a B.A. from Harvard College and an M.A. from Columbia University. Michael T. Ryan is an associate professor, Department of Health Administration and Policy, Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). He earned his B.S. in radiological health physics from Lowell Technological Institute in 1974. In 1976, he earned his M.S. in radiological sciences and protection from the University of Lowell. Dr. Ryan received a Ph.D. in 1982 from the Georgia Institute of Technol- ogy, where he was recently inducted into the Academy of Distinguished Alumni. Dr. Ryan is an editor in chief of Health Physics Journal. Over the past 10 years, he has served on the Technical Advisory Radiation Control Council for the State of South Carolina. He is a member of the National Council of Radiation Protec- tion and Measurements (NCRP) scientific vice president for Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management and chair of Scientific Committee 87; and a member of the board of directors. He is also a member of NCRP's scientific committee 87-4 on Management of Waste Metals Containing Radioactivity. Dr. Ryan is certified in the comprehensive practice of health physics by the American Board of Health Physics. Dr. Ryan holds adjunct appointments at Georgia Tech and at the University of South Carolina and the College of Charleston where he has taught radiation protection courses at the graduate level. He is currently serving on the Scientific Review Group appointed by the Assistant Secretary of Energy to review the ongoing research in health effects at the former weapons complex at Mayak in the Southern Urals of the former Soviet Union. Prior to his appointment at MUSC, Dr. Ryan was most recently vice president of Barnwell Operations for Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., and previously served as vice president of regula- tory affairs, having responsibility for developing and implementing the company's policies and programs to comply with state and federal regulations. Before join- ing Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., as director of the Environmental and Dosimetry Laboratory in 1983, Dr. Ryan spent seven years in environmental health physics research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Richard I. Smith retired from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in 1996 after nearly 40 years of scientific activities on the Hanford Site, where he was a staff engineer in the Systems and Risk Management Department. He has exten- sive experience related to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of li- censed nuclear facilities, including cost analyses and environmental impact analy- ses. His studies on the decommissioning of power and test reactors, fuel cycle facilities, and non-fuel cycle nuclear facilities, which focus on estimating the costs and occupational radiation dose for D&D of nuclear facilities, are known and used throughout the world. He has participated in the development of several reports for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the D&D of nuclear facilities, dealing with the status of technology decontamination, disas-

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190 APPENDIX A sembly, and waste management, and he served as a member of an IAEA working group considering the planning for decommissioning of WWER-440 reactors throughout the former Eastern bloc countries. He has also recently contributed to the International Nuclear Safety Program in the area of planning for decommis- sioning the three undamaged reactors at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine. He has led studies in the storage, packaging, and transport of spent fuel and greater than Class C waste. He has served on the NRC Committee on Decon- tamination and Decommissioning of Uranium Enrichment Facilities, and the Committee to Assess the Policies and Practices of the DOE to Design, Manage and Procure Environmental Restoration, Waste Management, and Other Con- struction Projects. He has a B.S. in physics from Washington State University and an M.S. in applied physics from the University of California at Los Angeles; he is a professional engineer in nuclear engineering, licensed in the states of Washington and California. Dale Stein (NAB) is president emeritus of Michigan Technological University and retired professor of materials science. He has held positions at Michigan Technological University, the University of Minnesota, and the General Electric Research Laboratory. He is a recipient of the Hardy Gold Medal of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers and the Geisler Award of the American Society of Metals (Eastern New York Chapter), and he has been an elected fellow of the American Society of Metals and the American Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science. He has served on numerous NRC commit- tees: he is currently a member of the Committee on Review of DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies; Committee on Review of National Transportation Science and Technology Strategy; and Research and Technology Coordinating Committee of the Transportation Research Board; he was chair of the Committee on Decontamination and Decommissioning of Uranium Enrichment Facilities. He previously was a member of the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Re- search Advisory Board. He is currently chairman of the Advisory Committee for the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), which is con- cerned primarily with advising the USNRC on the granting of a license for a repository for high-level nuclear waste; CNWRA is affiliated with the Southwest Research Institute, a contractor to the USNRC. He is also a member of the NAE and is an internationally known authority on the mechanical properties of engi- neering materials. He received his Ph.D. in metallurgy from Rensselaer Polytech- nic Institute. Detlof van Winterfeldt is a professor of public policy and management at the University of Southern California and director of its Institute for Civic Enter- prise. He also is the president of Decision Insights, Inc., a management consult- ing firm specializing in decision and risk analysis. His research interests are in the foundation and practice of decision and risk analysis as applied to technology and

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APPENDIX A 191 environmental management problems. He is the coauthor of two books and au- thor or coauthor of more than 100 articles and reports on these topics. He has served on several committees and panels of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Research Council, including the NSF's Advisory Panel for its Decision and Risk Management Science Program and the NRC' s Commit- tee on Risk Perception and Risk Communication.