2
Structure and Functioning of Riparian Areas Across the United States

The interaction of climate with the earth’s surface has created a variety of landscapes drained by networks of streams, rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Riparian areas are found adjacent to essentially all of these waterbodies except where human disturbance has intervened. Although riparian areas differ considerably in their structure and function from site to site, there are patterns in the attributes of riparian areas and how they are distributed across the landscape. While a single characteristic (such as the presence of bedrock) may strongly influence the size, characteristics, and functions of a given riparian area, generally the interaction of many climatic, hydrologic, geomorphic, and biological factors shape riparian environments. For example, differences in climate dictate the seasonality of the hydrologic cycle and determine the timing and intensity of flooding. Watershed features such the slope of the land, size of the watershed, storage capacity of the soil, and supplies of groundwater and sediment interact with climate to modulate or amplify these effects. Within the riparian area itself, further sources of variation can be found in channel morphology, sediment dynamics, and floodplain structure. Ultimately, all these factors influence species composition of riparian biota. This chapter focuses on the structure and functions of riparian areas, with an emphasis on those bordering streams and rivers rather than lakes and estuarine–marine waterbodies. Riverine riparian areas, because of their great collective length, comprise the vast majority of riparian areas in the United States.

FLUVIAL PROCESSES AND SEDIMENT DYNAMICS

Streams and rivers, which flow longitudinally downstream from higher elevations, can be classified by their size and the number of tributaries that flow



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management 2 Structure and Functioning of Riparian Areas Across the United States The interaction of climate with the earth’s surface has created a variety of landscapes drained by networks of streams, rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Riparian areas are found adjacent to essentially all of these waterbodies except where human disturbance has intervened. Although riparian areas differ considerably in their structure and function from site to site, there are patterns in the attributes of riparian areas and how they are distributed across the landscape. While a single characteristic (such as the presence of bedrock) may strongly influence the size, characteristics, and functions of a given riparian area, generally the interaction of many climatic, hydrologic, geomorphic, and biological factors shape riparian environments. For example, differences in climate dictate the seasonality of the hydrologic cycle and determine the timing and intensity of flooding. Watershed features such the slope of the land, size of the watershed, storage capacity of the soil, and supplies of groundwater and sediment interact with climate to modulate or amplify these effects. Within the riparian area itself, further sources of variation can be found in channel morphology, sediment dynamics, and floodplain structure. Ultimately, all these factors influence species composition of riparian biota. This chapter focuses on the structure and functions of riparian areas, with an emphasis on those bordering streams and rivers rather than lakes and estuarine–marine waterbodies. Riverine riparian areas, because of their great collective length, comprise the vast majority of riparian areas in the United States. FLUVIAL PROCESSES AND SEDIMENT DYNAMICS Streams and rivers, which flow longitudinally downstream from higher elevations, can be classified by their size and the number of tributaries that flow

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management into them. As shown in Figure 2-1, headwater streams are classified as first order, with order number increasing in a downstream direction. Headwater networks of very small streams accumulate rainfall, overland flow, snowmelt, or aquifer discharge, sending variable amounts of water downstream to increasingly larger channels. The water budget of all streams and rivers is determined by climate and by other watershed attributes such as topography, soil type, bedrock substrata, groundwater discharge, and vegetation. Natural flow patterns—unregulated by dams and water diversion—will vary with the dynamics of water delivery and cycling, unless the source is a spring fed by a deep (phreatic) aquifer that has very little surface connection (Gibert et al., 1994; Vervier, 1990). According to Poff et al. (1997), the flow regime of a river can be distinguished by several major components, including magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, and rate of change, as described in Box 2-1. River flows are often described using one or more of these components. Thus, for example the bank-full flow, which defines the bank- FIGURE 2-1 Stream orders for a watershed that includes first- to fourth-order streams. Ephemeral streams are not shown on this diagram. SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, Strahler (1952). © 1952 by The Geological Society of America.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management BOX 2-1 Components of Flow—the “Master” Variable Because streamflow is strongly correlated with critical physical and biological characteristics of rivers, such as water temperature, sediment transport, channel morphology and habitat diversity, it represents a “master variable” that influences the functions of associated riparian areas. Flow magnitude represents the amount of water moving past a given location per unit time. It can influence rates of solute, suspended sediment, and bedload sediment transport, and thus is a critical variable with regard to the creation of alluvial landforms (e.g., point bars, floodplains streambanks, and channel sinuosity). As discussed later in this chapter, high flows are needed for some species to create local zones of erosion/deposition for seedling establishment. Flow frequency refers to how often a flow of a given magnitude is equaled or exceeded over some time interval. Flow frequency, in combination with flow magnitude, indicates the amount of energy a stream has to do work (e.g., sediment transport, channel adjustments, etc.). Flow duration represents the period of time associated with a specific flow magnitude. From the perspective of riparian plant communities and floodplain functions, flow duration represents the length of time that overbank flows occur or that soils remain saturated from high flows. Flow duration is often a crucial variable for many riparian plants that have adapted their physiology to accommodate extended periods of high moisture levels. Flow timing generally refers to the seasonality of a given flow. For example, the timing of most snowmelt runoff for many western streams and rivers occurs in late spring and early summer. Fish and other organisms have adapted their life history strategies to the timing of these flow periods. Superimposed upon the long-term water and sediment budget of the watershed, flow timing determines the relative wetness or dryness of the adjacent riparian area and is therefore a primary structuring process. The rate of change in streamflow or water levels represents how quickly a flow changes from one magnitude to another. Streams and rivers that derive their flow from snowmelt are generally considered less “flashy” than those that respond to large amounts of rainfall. Rate of change can influence water sediment transport rates and riparian plant communities. For example, seedlings of deciduous woody species may need a relatively low rate of change during snowmelt recession flows for them to successfully establish. full channel, is the discharge of the 1.5- to 3-year return period storm (Dingman, 1984). Floods are of larger discharge and generally occur less frequently than bank-full events. Floods move and sort sediments and other materials, forming the physical structures that compose the riparian areas of rivers. Big floods, which are relatively rare, often create a physical template that is continually

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management reworked and modified by lower flows. Hence, diverse alluvial landforms, such as gravel bars, floodplains, islands, terraces, and the channel network, are created by flow-mediated movement of sediments and are in a constant state of change (Ward, 1998; Ward et al., 2000). The size and character of streamside riparian areas is directly related to water delivery to and flux through the watershed. One pattern is the tendency for riparian areas to be expansive next to big, larger-order rivers, which in part reflects multiple hydrologic sources (e.g., seasonal overbank flows from the river, flood-related flows in secondary channels, and groundwater discharge, all discussed in detail in a later section). Periods of high flow, particularly in unconstrained or relatively wide alluvial valleys, can create a multitude of landforms (e.g., streambanks, floodplains, and terraces) that are common to many riparian systems. However, such basic patterns are often too simplistic to be widely useful in predicting structure and function of riparian areas across many landscapes. For example, the lower Columbia River (9th-order) upstream of Portland, Oregon, is constrained by resistant bedrock, resulting in narrow floodplains and minimal riparian areas (see Figure 2-2 for the difference between constrained and uncon- FIGURE 2-2 Geomorphology of a stream corridor in (A) a constrained reach, (B) an unconstrained aggrading reach, and (C) an unconstrained degrading reach. SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Dahm et al. (1998). © 1998 by Blackwell Science Ltd.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management strained river reaches). Another generalization is that where fluvial systems encounter relatively wide valleys and low channel gradients, they typically develop a system of meanders and floodplains that represent both sediment and water discharge regimes in dynamic balance with valley and channel gradients, channel morphology, and riparian vegetation. In general, these sinuous channels occur within a definable meander belt, simply defined by a linear boundary that connects the outer margins of the existing channel meanders. More accurate geomorphic delineation of the meander belt would be based on the actual margin of the floodplain, boundaries of historical channel meanders (as shown for the Willamette River in Figure 2-3), or boundaries of past recorded inundation extent. Because river flow naturally is erosive and water is the universal solvent, particulate materials (sediment, rocks, trees) and dissolved materials (salts, organic compounds) are exported downstream in proportion to stream power and FIGURE 2-3 Meander belt of the Willamette River based on the channel meanders in a reach from Eugene to Harrisburg in 1850. SOURCE: Modified from Williamson et al. (1995).

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management deposited in a wide array of fluvial landforms within the river channel and floodplain. A generalized three-dimensional view of riparian areas includes portions of the channel and associated features (gravel bars, islands, large wood); a parafluvial zone (which corresponds to the bank-full width) that experiences the seasonal range of flow variation; a vegetated area of varying successional states influenced by floods, sediment deposition, and water availability; and a transitional zone to the uplands (see Figure 1-4). Furthermore, these features are generally underlain by an alluvial aquifer that can have a major influence on riparian processes, particularly where bed sediments are deep (Stanford, 1998). The longitudinal, lateral, and vertical pathways through which water and materials are conveyed through riparian areas are discussed in detail throughout this chapter. Erosion and Deposition The processes of erosion, transport, and deposition continually disturb and reshape the riparian environment. Materials from upstream sources such as erosion zones along hillslopes and riparian terraces or landslides are sorted by flowing water and transported downstream until the physics and energetics of the transport process dictate deposition either in the channel or on the floodplain of the river. As shown in Figure 2-4, flow-mediated erosion of sediment occurs in the steep gradients of lower-order segments, deposition of course material (gravel, FIGURE 2-4 The geomorphic zones of a fluvial system. SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Schultz et al. (2000). © 2000 by American Society of Agronomy.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management cobble) occurs in the middle reaches related to aggradation of the river valley and associated loss of flow velocity (energy dissipation), and deposition of fine materials (sand, silts) occurs in the lowest-velocity environments that characteristically occur in the high-order segments of the Piedmont or coastal plain. Hence, as the size of the stream increases, the size of the floodplain generally increases. Although these broad patterns in sediment transport explain a trend of downstream fining in the grain size of bed sediment in many river systems (Schumm, 1960), in reality sediments of all sizes are sorted along every channel or floodplain within the river corridor. Flowing water sorts the sediment between different areas of the channel with different capacities for maintaining sediment in suspension. Coarse sediments are suspended and deposited only in the highest-energy environments of the river channel, i.e., areas with relatively high velocity. Fine-grained sediments, in contrast, are generally restricted to the lowest-energy backwaters of the active channel or to the floodplain. Although bank-full flows maintain channels, floods account for much of the major work in reshaping channels and floodplains. Increased production of sediments from terrestrial sources and acceleration of bank erosion during floods can release large amounts of fine- and coarse-textured sediment into a channel over a short period of time, which are then deposited in downstream channels or on floodplains. Floods also cause substantial realignment of channels because of reoccupation of secondary or abandoned channels by newly released sediment (Beschta et al., 1987a). When significant amounts of coarse sediment become available locally, rapid adjustments to the morphology of the channel can occur. These effects may be transmitted in both the upstream direction (backwater effects, including upstream bed material storage and an altered channel morphology; channel incision and gully head cuts) and the downstream direction (higher levels of sediment transport with the potential for increased channel instabilities). The net result of fluvial processes over decades to millennia is a slow modification and reworking of the channel and floodplain physical template such that sediment routing must be viewed as a constantly changing feature of all alluvial rivers. Distinct features such as cutbanks, meander scrolls, and point bars migrate over time. Within the meander belt, the deposition of sediments on vegetated floodplains occurs periodically over time and the exact character, dimensions, and location of meanders may incrementally shift as a result of the migration of gravel point bars and the erosion of cutbanks. Secondary channels become plugged, creating backwater sloughs or oxbow lakes. Slugs of sediment derived from an episodic landslide may take many years to move down the river corridor, influencing riparian areas to different extents as they pass through specific segments. Large tree boles eroded from riparian areas substantially increase the variation in sediment transport and deposition, and thus also the variety of habitat types available for biota (Naiman et al., 2001). Cycling of sediments back and forth between the main channel and the channel’s banks and floodplain is an important component of sediment transport

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management in rivers (Meade et al., 1990). Floodplains expand laterally and “grow upward” due to the long-term deposition of fine sediment during recurring overbank flows. Seasonal high flows continually disturb new areas. Newly deposited sediments on floodplains undergo biogeochemical changes (i.e., diagenesis) that will over time transform a flood-deposited sediment into a riparian soil. The overall result is the creation of a complex patchwork of riparian areas, each with a slightly different microenvironment of sediment grain size and nutrient and water availability, and each at a different stage of development since the last disturbance (Amoros et al., 1987; Malanson, 1993). Because of the dynamic flow and sediment transport regimes often associated with riparian areas, their soils reflect a high degree of unevenness in particle sizes, soil depth, and the amount of associated compounds such as organic matter. Highly variable water levels typically result in morphological soil features such as mottling, gleying, oxidation/reduction, and others. However, in instances where floodplains have been slowly built up via the incremental deposition of fine silt layers over many centuries, soil characteristics across extensive areas may be relatively uniform. Floodplain soils have been some of the most productive areas in the nation for agricultural production due to their high levels of nutrients and organic matter. Flow Modification Within Riparian Areas Although the energy from water moving down a channel can be used to do work (e.g., scour banks and transport sediment), the vast majority is used to overcome the frictional resistance provided by a channel’s bed and banks and is eventually dissipated as heat. Thus, streamside riparian areas are responsible for the dissipation of energy associated with flowing water. The flow resistance, or roughness, of a stream reach, caused by the physical configuration of its channel, streambanks, and floodplains as well as by the riparian plant communities, can be described by a roughness coefficient, such as Manning’s n (Leopold et al., 1964). Cowan (1956) identified several major channel conditions that affect roughness: bed material, degree of surface irregularity, variations in channel cross section, relative effects of obstructions, degree of meandering, and effects of vegetation. Importantly, vegetation can directly or indirectly affect all these conditions, with the possible exception of bed material, thus indicating it often has a major influence on channel roughness and on how channels dissipate stream energy during periods of high flow. Herbaceous riparian vegetation increases local friction on streambanks by creating flexible and three-dimensional barriers to flow. Riparian graminoids (grasses, sedges, rushes) and shrubs are particularly effective at trapping sediments during high flows and helping to maintain stable streambanks. For forest floodplains, roughness increases directly with the density and size of trees (Li and Shen, 1973; Petryk and Bosmajian, 1975). Large wood provided to streams and rivers from riparian forests can also have a significant effect on

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management channel roughness via the occurrence of debris jams and other accumulations that alter flow patterns (Abbe and Montgomery, 1996; Montgomery et al., 1996; Piegay and Gurnell, 1997). At high flow, streambanks, floodplains, and their associated vegetation provide resistance to flowing water, thus locally altering patterns of scour, sediment transport, and deposition (Sedell and Beschta, 1991). For example, low velocity zones have been observed to develop when floods pass through riparian forests, creating sites for the retention of sediment and organic matter and refuges for aquatic organisms (Swanson et al., 1998). Floodplain vegetation is especially effective at providing protection from scour, which is why well-vegetated floodplains typically are areas of long-term sediment accumulation. During periods of low flow, woody species have a much less significant effect on flow roughness because of the smaller surface area exposed to surface flow, such that flow resistance tends to be controlled more by the morphology of the channel. In contrast, aquatic macrophytes and graminoids can greatly influence the resistance provided during low-flow periods (Kauffman and Krueger, 1984). Finally, the uptake and transpiration of water by riparian and upslope vegetation during low-flow periods can alter discharge, thereby influencing aquatic habitat (Rothacher, 1970; Troendle, 1983; Cheng, 1989; Keppeler and Ziemer, 1990; Hicks et al., 1991). Lacustrine Riparian Areas Unlike the riparian areas of stream and river (lotic) environments, riparian areas bordering lakes differ significantly in the energy sources that drive physical mixing (Wetzel, 2001). In the shallow littoral environments of lakeshores, mixing is generally driven by temperature gradients and storm-generated waves. An important contrast with lotic environments is the type and frequency of waterlevel changes at lakeshores. Seiches, for example, can cause substantial changes in water level over periods of days to weeks at the shores of large lakes without the kinds of erosive forces of floods that affect channel floodplains. Lakeshores also tend to have much larger water-level changes over longer-term (interannual) cycles, as determined by interannual variation in climate and the regional water balance. Large reservoirs and other river impoundments used for water storage may exhibit nonseasonal fluctuations in water level, with hydrographs varying erratically under the control of hydropower production or irrigation supply. Consequently, riparian areas around reservoirs are highly variable and often are composed of non-native, invasive species because they have little long-term continuity in water supply and occur in areas of the landscape that have no legacy of native plant colonization (e.g., Nilsson et al., 1997). Despite major differences in flow velocities and extent of water-level changes, the shallow littoral environment and riparian areas adjacent to lakeshores have much in common with riparian areas bordering streams. As in streams, a

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management broad range of sediment types and textures is often available, nutrients are often ample and primary productivity is high, water exchange between the surface and subsurface is conducive to high rates of biogeochemical cycling in sediments, and secondary productivity in these environments is typically high (Wetzel, 2001). In the case of large lakes with inlets from rivers, alluvial deltas may develop by sediment deposition in the river–lacustrine confluence. Often, river deltas in lakes and reservoirs facilitate robust riparian areas in a manner similar to the islands and low terraces that occur in alluvial rivers. Deltaic riparian areas can be large landforms up to many square miles in size. Few studies have been done in such environments (e.g., Stanford and Hauer, 1992). In summary, riparian areas are characterized by a spatial and temporal mosaic of conditions reflecting variability in sediment type and particle size distribution, timing of water sources and water quality, and time since disturbance by floods. Seasonal dynamics in flow and sediment transport constitute the foundation of riparian structure and thus influence the resulting colonization by riparian species and the many functions performed by these areas. Moisture availability and anoxia in riparian soil are additional factors that closely follow the distribution of grain sizes determined by fluvial processes. In many channels, the natural variability of flow has been regulated and sediment inputs have been curtailed downstream of dams and water diversions. As discussed in Chapter 3, the influence of humans in regulating river flow has had overwhelming effects on ecological processes in rivers and riparian areas, because of the disruption of flow seasonality, sediment dynamics, and moisture availability. HYDROLOGIC AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES Hydrologic Pathways in Riparian Areas Riparian areas receive water from three main sources: (1) groundwater discharge, (2) overland and shallow subsurface flow from adjacent uplands with additional input from direct precipitation, and (3) flow from the adjacent surface water body. The major losses of water from riparian areas include groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration. Plate 2-1 illustrates these major water flow paths for a streamside riparian area. Both the quality (in terms of dissolved and particulate constituents) and the timing of water from these sources vary considerably. For example, the discharge of deep groundwater is on the order of centuries, while overbank flows and intense rainstorms can change flows within minutes. Groundwater Sources Winter et al. (1998) outlines some of the basic interrelationships between groundwater and surface water in streams and lakes and shows how interactions vary as a result of differences in climate, topography, and surficial geology.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Streams whose downstream flows increase as a result of groundwater discharge are referred to as gaining streams. In contrast, flow in the channel decreases in the downstream direction in losing streams that recharge the groundwater system. Because of variability in water sources and hydrogeologic properties of aquifers, it is typical for streams to simultaneously experience discharge in one reach while experiencing recharge in others. For example, steep mountain streams gain water by groundwater discharge in their upper reaches and then lose water as they flow out of constricted mountain valleys onto alluvial fans. Lakes and wetlands share some of the same relationships with groundwater as do streams. Lakes and wetlands commonly discharge and recharge simultaneously in different parts of the system and experience flow reversals seasonally (Figure 2-5). As in streams and rivers, movement of water between groundwater and surface water is influenced by the nature of the substrata and the water elevation in the lake compared with water levels and gradients in groundwater of the adjacent aquifer (Sebestyen and Schneider, 2001). Water moves from areas of high elevation to areas of low elevation, sometimes involving streams or rivers at inlets or outlets to the lake. Because the majority of riparian areas are associated with stream and river channels, this discussion focuses on interactions between groundwater and river channels rather than lakes. From a relatively large-scale perspective (miles or greater), the direction of groundwater flow in the vicinity of rivers is typically associated with patterns of floodplain and channel topography. As a result, flow pathways are seldom entirely parallel or entirely perpendicular to the main channel but instead occur diagonally toward the channel in a downstream direction. The major controls on orientation of groundwater flow paths are hydraulic properties of aquifer materials, regional gradient, and sinuosity of channel (Larkin and Sharp, 1992). Groundwater that tends to flow parallel to a channel is referred to as underflow (Larkin and Sharp, 1992); in contrast, groundwater flow perpendicular to and toward the channel is referred to as baseflow (Hall, 1968) (see Figure 2-6). At much smaller spatial scales, i.e., feet to tens of feet, interactions between groundwater and riparian areas are influenced primarily by heterogeneities of riparian and channel sediments, which have a critical effect on local direction and flow rate of groundwater. In some settings, baseflow passes directly through riparian sediments, while in others, baseflow may bypass riparian sediments by flowing through coarse material underneath and discharging vertically from directly beneath the stream bed (Phillips et al., 1993). This short-circuiting of the root zone can have important implications for the extent of certain transformation processes that occur in riparian areas. As discussed later, the variation in the specific flow paths characteristic of riparian areas may explain why some buffers are not as effective as others. An often-overlooked aspect of groundwater–riparian–channel interactions is that groundwater discharge is not equivalent along all parts of a channel. Instead, certain channel subreaches tend to collect a significant proportion of all ground-

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Harmon, M. E., J. F. Franklin, F. J. Swanson, P. Sollins, S. V. Gregory, J. D. Lattin, N. H. Anderson, S. P. Cline, N. G. Aumen, J. R. Sedell, G. W. Lienkaemper, K. Cromack, Jr., and K. W. Cummins. 1986. Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research 15:133–302. Hartman, G. F., J. C. Scrivener, L. B. Holtby, and L. Powell. 1987. Some effects of different streamside treatments on physical conditions and fish population processes in Carnation Creek, a coastal rain forest stream in British Columbia. Pp. 330–372 In: Streamside management: forestry-fisheries interactions. E. O. Salo and T. W. Cundy (eds.). Seattle, WA: University of Washington Institute of Forest Resources. Harvey, J. W., et al. 1991. Preliminary investigation of the effect of hillslope hydrology on the mechanics of solute exchange between streams and subsurface gravel zones. Pp. 413–418 In: U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11–15, 1991. G. E. Mallard and D. A. Aronson (eds.). Water Resources Investigations Report 91-4034. Harvey, J. W., and K. E. Bencala. 1993. The effect of streambed topography on surface-subsurface water interactions in mountain catchments. Water Resources Research 29:89–98. Hauer, F. R., J. A. Stanford, J. J. Giersch, and W. H. Lowe. 2000. Distribution and abundance patterns of macroinvertebrates in a mountain stream: an analysis along multiple environmental gradients. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 27:1–4. Hawkins, C. P., M. L. Murphy, and N. H. Anderson. 1982. Effect of canopy, substrate composition, and gradient on the structure of macroinvertebrate communities in Cascade Range streams of Oregon. Ecology 63:1840–1856. Hayes, J. C., and J. E. Hairston. 1983. Modeling the long-term effectiveness of vegetative filters as on site sediment controls. ASAE Paper No. 83-2081. St. Joseph, MI: Am. Soc. Agric. Engrs. 27 pp. Heinselman, M. L. 1970. Landscape evolution, peatland types, and the environment in the Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, Minnesota. Ecological Monographs 40:235–261. Helmers, D. L. 1992. Shorebird management manual. Manomet, MA: Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. 58 pp. Henderson, C. L., C. C. Dindorf, F. J. Rozumalski. 1998. Landscaping for Wildlife and Water Quality. Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Hewlett, J. K., and A. R. Hibbert. 1967. Factors affecting the response of small watersheds to precipitation in humid areas. Pp. 275–290 In: International symposium on forest hydrology. W. E. Sopper and H. W. Lull (eds.). Oxford, England: Pergamon Press. 813 pp. Hickin, E. J. 1984. Vegetation and river channel dynamics. Canadian Geographer 28:111–126. Hicks, B. J., R. L. Beschta, and D. Harr. 1991. Long-term changes in streamflow following logging—western Oregon and associated fisheries implications. Water Resources Bulletin 27(2):217–226. Hinkle, S. R., J. H. Duff, F. J. Triska, A. Laenen, E. B. Gates, K. E. Bencala, D. A. Wentz, and S. R. Silva. 2001. Linking hyporheic flow and nitrogen cycling near the Willamette River—a large river in Oregon, USA. J. Hydrol. 244:157–180. Hoctor, T. S., M. H. Carr, and P. D. Zwick. 2000. Identifying a linked reserve system using a regional landscape approach: the Florida ecological network. Conservation Biology 14:984–1000. Holstein, G. 1984. California riparian forests: deciduous islands in an evergreen sea. Pp. 2–22 In: California riparian systems. R. E. Warner and K. M. Hendrix (eds.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Hughes, J. W., and W. B. Cass. 1997. Pattern and process of a floodplain forest, Vermont, USA: predicted responses of vegetation to perturbation. Journal of Applied Ecology 34:594–612. Hunt, R. J., D. P. Krabbenhoft, and M. P. Anderson. 1996. Groundwater inflow measurements in wetland systems. Water Resources Research 32(3):495–507.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Hunter, M. L., Jr. 1996. Fundamentals of Conservation Biology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science. 482 pp. Hupp, C. R. 2000. Hydrology, geomorphology and vegetation of Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern USA. Hydrological Processes 14:2991–3010. Hupp, C. R., and W. R. Osterkamp. 1985. Bottomland vegetation distribution along Passage Creek, Virginia, in relation to fluvial landforms. Ecology 66:670–681. Hupp, C. R., and W. R. Osterkamp. 1996. Riparian vegetation and fluvial geomorphic processes. Geomorphology 14:277–295. Huston, S. L. 1978. Prairie remnants along the Stillwater River in Miami County, Ohio. In: The Prairie Peninsula—in the “Shadow” of Transeau. Proceedings of the Sixth North American Prairie Conference, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Hyde, D. 1998. Stopover ecology of migratory birds along the central Lake Michigan shoreline. M.S. thesis, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI. Inamdar, S. P., R. R. Lowrance, L. S. Altier, R. G. Williams and R. K. Hubbard. 1999. Riparian ecosystem management model (REMM): II. Testing of the water quality and nutrient cycling component for a Coastal Plain riparian system. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 42:1691–1707. James, A., K. J. Gaston, and A. Balmford. 2001. Can we afford to conserve biodiversity? BioScience 51:43–52. James, F. C. 1971. Ordination of habitat relationships among breeding birds. Wils. Bull. 83:215–236. Jenkins, S. H. 1980. A size-distance relation in food selection by beavers. Ecology 61:740–746. Jenkins, S. H., and P. E. Busher. 1979. Castor canadensis. Mammalian Species 120:1–9. Johnson, A. S. 1989. The thin green line: riparian corridors and endangered species in Arizona and New Mexico. Pp. 35–46 In: Preserving communities and corridors. G. Mackintosh (ed.). Washington, DC: Defenders of Wildlife. Johnson, G. D., and M. S. Boyce. 1990. Feeding trials with insects in the diet of sage grouse chicks. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:89–91. Johnson, R. R., P. S. Bennett, and L. Haight. 1989. Southwestern woody riparian vegetation and succession: an evolutionary approach. Pp. 135–139 In: Proceedings of the California Riparian Systems Conference. D. L. Abell (ed.). USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW—110. Johnson, W. C., R. L. Burgess, and W. R. Keammerer. 1976. Forest overstory vegetation and environment on the Missouri River floodplain in North Dakota. Ecological Monographs 46:59–84. Johnston, C. A., and R. J. Naiman. 1990. Browse selection by beaver: effects on riparian forest composition. Can. J. For. Res. 20:1036–1043. Jones, K. B., and P. C. Glinski. 1985. Microhabitats of lizards in a southwestern riparian community. Pp. 342–346 In: Riparian ecosystems and their management: reconciling conflicting uses. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Bull. RM-120. Jones, J. B., and P. J. Mulholland. 2000. Streams and ground waters. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Jordan, J. W. 2001. Late Quaternary sea level change in Southern Beringia: postglacial emergence of the Western Alaska Peninsula. Quaternary Science Reviews 20:509–523. Judziewicz, E. J., and R. G. Koch. 1993. Flora and vegetation of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and Madeline Island, Ashland and Bayfield Counties, Wisconsin. The Michigan Botanist 32 (2):43–193. Junk, W. J., Bayley, P. B., and Sparks, R. E. 1989. The flood pulse concept in river floodplain systems. Pp. 110–127 In: Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium. D. P. Dodge (ed.). Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 106. Kalliola, R., and M. Puhakka. 1988. River dynamics and vegetation mosaicism: a case study of the River Kamajohka, northernmost Finland. Journal of Biogeography 15:703–719.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Kalliola, R., J. Salo, M. Puhakka, and M. Rajasilta. 1991. New site formation and colonizing vegetation in primary succession on the western Amazon floodplains. Journal of Ecology 79:877–901. Karr, J. R., and R. R. Roth. 1971. Vegetation structure and avian diversity in several new world areas. Am. Nat. 105:423–435. Kauffman, J. B., and W. C. Krueger. 1984. Livestock impacts on riparian ecosystems and streamside management implications. Journal of Range Management 37:430–437. Kelsey, K. A., and S. D. West. 1998. Riparian wildlife. Pp. 235–258 In: River ecology and management: lessons from the Pacific Coastal ecoregion. R. J. Naiman and R. E. Bilby (eds.). New York: Springer-Verlag. Keppeler, E. T., and R. R. Ziemer. 1990. Logging effects on streamflow-water yield and summer low flows at Caspar Creek in northwestern California. Water Resources Research 26:1669–1679. Kirby, R. E. 1975. Wildlife utilization of beaver flowages on the Chippewa National Forest, North Central Minnesota. The Loon Winter:180–181. Klebenow, D. A., and G. M. Gray. 1968. Food habits of juvenile sage grouse. J. Range Manage. 21:80–83. Klingeman, P. C., R. L. Beschta, P. D. Komar, and J. B. Bradley. 1999. In: Gravel-bed rivers in the environment. Highland Ranch, CO: Water Resources Publications. 832 pp. Klingeman, P. C., and J. B. Bradley. 1976. Willamette River basin streambank stabilization by natural means. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Water Resources Research Institute. Korth, R., and P. Cunningham. 1999. Margin of error? Human influence on Wisconsin shores. Wisconsin Lakes Partnership (Wisconsin Association of Lakes, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and University of Wisconsin-Extension). UWEX Lakes, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI. Krabbenhoft et al., 1990. Estimating groundwater exchange with lakes—1. the stable isotope mass balance method. Water Resources Research 26(10):2445–2453. Kratz, T. K., K. E. Webster, C. J. Bowser, J. J. Magnuson, and B. J. Benson. 1997. The influence of landscape position on lakes in northern Wisconsin. Freshwater Biology 37:290–17. Labaugh, J. W., Winter, T. C., Swanson, G. A., Rosenberry, D. O., Nelson, R. D., and Euliss, N. H. 1996. Changes in atmospheric circulation patterns affect midcontinent wetlands sensitive to climate. Limnology and Oceanography 41(5):864–870. Larkin, R. G., and J. M. Sharp. 1992. On the relationship between river-basin geomorphology, aquifer hydraulics, and ground-water flow direction in alluvial aquifers. Geological Society of America Bulletin 104:1608–1620. Larue, P. L. Belanger, and J. Huot. 1995. Riparian edge effects on boreal balsam fir bird communities. Can. J. For. Res. 25:555–566. Law, D. J., C. B. Marlow, J. C. Mosley, S. Custer, P. Hook and B. Leinard. 2000. Water table dynamics and soil texture of three riparian plant communities. Northwest Science 74(3):233–241. Lawrence, W. H. 1952. Evidence of the age of beaver ponds. J. Wildlife Management 16:69–78. Lee, D., T. A. Dillaha, and J. H. Sherrard. 1989. Modeling phosphorus transport in grass buffer strips. J. Environ. Eng. 115:409–427. Lee, L. C. 1983. The floodplain and wetland vegetation of two Pacific Northwest river ecosystems. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Leidholt-Bruner, K., D. E. Hibbs, and W. C. McComb. 1992. Beaver dam locations and their effects on distribution and abundance of coho salmon fry in two coastal Oregon streams. Northwest Science 66:218–223. Leopold, L. B., M. G. Wolman, and J. P. Miller. 1964. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman and Co. Li, R., and H. W. Shen. 1973. Effect of tall vegetation on flow and sediment. American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of the Hydraulics Division 99:793–814.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Lindsey, A. A., R. O. Petty, D. K Sterlin, and W. Van Asdall. 1961. Vegetation and environment along the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers. Ecological Monographs 31:105–156. Long, C. A., and C. F. Long. 1992. Some effects of land use on avian diversity in a Wisconsin’s oak– pine savanna and riparian forest. Passenger Pigeon 54:125–136. Lowe, C. H. 1961. Biotic communities in the sub-Mogollon region of the inland Southwest. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science 2:40–49. Lowe, C. H. 1964. The Vertebrates of Arizona. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press. 270 pp. Lowe, C. H. 1989. The riparianness of a desert herptofauna. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-110. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. Lowrance et al., 1995. Water quality functions of riparian forest buffer systems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Report No. EPA-R-95-004. Annapolis, MD: Chesapeake Bay Program. 67 pp. Lugo, A. E., S. L. Brown, R. Dodson, T. S. Smith, and H. H. Shugart. 1999. The Holdridge life zones on the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping. Journal of Biogeography 26:1025–1038. Lytjen, D. 1998. Ecology of woody riparian vegetation in tributaries of the upper Grande Ronde River basin, Oregon. M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 76 pp. MacArthur, R. H. 1964. Environmental factors affecting bird species diversity. Am. Nat. 98:387–397. MacDonald, B. C., and C. P. Lewis. 1973. Geomorphic and sedimentologic processes of rivers and coast, Yukon Coastal Plain. Geological Survey of Canada. Cat. No. R72-12173. Ottawa, Canada: Information Canada. Machtans, C., M. Villard, and S. J. Hannon. 1996. Use of riparian buffer strips as movement corridors by forest birds. Conservation Biology 1366–1379. MacNish, R. D., C. L. Unkrich, E. Smythe, D. C. Goodrich, and T. Maddock, III. 2000. Comparison of riparian evapotranspiration estimates based on a water balance approach and sap flow measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 105(1–3):271–280. Malanson, G. P. 1993. Riparian Landscapes. Cambridge Studies in Ecology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Maser, C., and J. R. Sedell. 1994. From the forest to the sea: the ecology of wood in streams. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press. 200 p. Maser, C., R. F. Tarrant, J. M. Trappe, and J. F. Franklin (eds.). 1988. From the forest to the sea: a story of fallen trees. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-229. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service. 153 pp. Mattoon, W. R. 1915. The Southern Cypress. Bulletin 272. Washington DC: USDA. 74 pp. McCullough, D. A. 1999. A review and synthesis of effects of alterations to the water temperature regime of freshwater life stages of salmonids, with special reference to chinook salmon. Water Resource Assessment EPA 910-R-99-010. Portland, OR: Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission. 291 pp. McDowell, D. M., and R. J. Naiman. 1986. Structure and function of a benthic invertebrate stream community as influenced by beaver (Castor canadensis). Oecologia 68:481–489. McGarigal, K., and W. C. McComb. 1992. Streamside versus upslope breeding bird communities in the central Oregon coast range. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:10–23. McRae, G., and C. J. Edwards. 1994. Thermal characteristics of Wisconsin headwater streams occupied by beaver: implications for brook trout habitat. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 123:641–656. Meade, R. H., T. R. Yuzyk, and T. J. Day. 1990. Movement and storage of sediment in rivers of the United States and Canada. Pp. 255–280 In: Surface water hydrology. M. G. Wolman and H. C. Riggs (eds.). Boulder, CO; Geological Society of America.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Meyer, J. L., and J. B. Wallace. 2001. Lost linkages and lotic ecology: rediscovering small streams. Pp. 295–317 In: Ecology: achievement and challenge. M. C. Press, N. J. Huntly, and S. Levin (eds.). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Midwest Plan Service. 1985. Livestock Waste Facilities Handbook. Ames, IA: Iowa State University. Minshall, G. W. 1988. Stream ecosystem theory: a global perspective. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7:263–288. Minshall, G. W. 1989. The ecology of stream and riparian habitats of the Great Basin region: a community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 85(7.24). Moench, A. F., Sauer, V. B., and M. E. Jennings. 1974. Modification of routed streamflow by channel loss and base flow. Water Resources Research 10(5):963–968. Montgomery, D. R., T. B. Abbe, J. M. Buffington, N. P. Peterson, K. M. Schmidt, and J. D. Stock. 1996. Distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels in forested mountain drainage basins. Nature 381:587–589. Moore, F. R., and T. R. Simons. 1992. Habitat suitability and stopover ecology of neotropical landbird migrants. Pp. 345–355 In: Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds. J. M. Hagan, III, and D. W. Johnston (eds.). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Moran, M. S., and P. Heilman (eds.). 2000. Special Issue: Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 105(1–3). 323 pp. Morris, L. A. 1977. Evaluation, classification and management of the floodplain forest of south central New York. M.S. Thesis, SUNY College Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, N.Y. Mosley, M. P. 1983. Variability of water temperatures in the braided Ashley and Rakaia rivers. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 17:331–342. Moyle, P. B., and R. M. Yoshiama. 1994. Protection of aquatic biodiversity in California: a five-tiered approach. Fisheries 19:6–19. Muldavin, E., P. Durkin, M. Bradley, M. Stuever, and P. Melhop. 2000. Handbook of wetland vegetation communities of New Mexico. Albuquerque, NM: New Mexico Heritage Program. Mundie, J. H. 1969. Ecological implications of diet of juvenile coho in streams. Pp. 135–152 In: Symposium on salmon and trout in streams. T. G. Northcote (ed.). H. R. MacMillan Lectures in Fisheries, Univ. of British Columbia. Murphy, M. L., C. P. Hawkins, and N. H. Anderson. 1981. Effects of canopy modification and accumulated sediment on stream communities. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110:469–478. Murray, N. L., and Stauffer, D. F. 1995. Nongame bird use of habitat in central Appalachian riparian forests. J. Wildl. Manage. 59:78–88. Naiman, R. J., and K. H. Rogers. 1997. Large animals and system-level characteristics in river corridors. BioScience 47:521–529. Naiman, R. J., C. A. Johnston, J. C. Kelley. 1988. Alteration of North American streams by beaver. BioScience 38:753–761. Naiman, R. J., D. G. Lonzarich, T. J. Beechie, and S. C. Ralph. 1992. General principles of classification and the assessment of conservation potential in rivers. Pp. 93–123 In: River conservation and management. P. Boon, P. Calow, and G. Petts (eds.). Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons. Naiman, R. J., H. Décamps, and M. Pollock. 1993. The role of riparian corridors in maintaining regional biodiversity. Ecological Applications 3:209–212. Naiman, R. J., J. M. Melillo, and J. E. Hobbie. 1986. Ecosystem alteration of boreal forest streams by beaver (Castor canadensis). Ecology 67:1254–1269. Naiman, R. J., R. E. Bilby, and P. A. Bisson. 2000. Riparian ecology and management in the Pacific coastal rain forest. BioScience 50:996–1011. National Research Council (NRC). 1995. Wetlands: characteristics and boundaries. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management NRC. 1996. Upstream: salmon and society in the Pacific Northwest. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Nehlsen, W., J. E. Williams, and J. A. Lichatowich. 1991. Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. Fisheries 16:4–21. Newbold, J. D., D. C. Erman, and K. B. Roby. 1980. Effects of logging on macroinvertebrates in streams with and without buffer strips. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37:1077–1085. Newbold, J. D., J. W. Elwood, R. V. O’Neill, and W. Van Winkle. 1982. Nutrient spiraling in streams: implications for nutrient limitation and invertebrate activity. American Naturalist 120:628–652. Nilsson, C. 1992. Conservation management of riparian communities. Pp. 352–372 In: Ecological principles of nature conservation. L. Hansson (ed.). London, England: Elsevier Applied Science. Nilsson, C., R. Jansson, and U. Zinko. 1997. Long-term responses of river-margin vegetation to water-level regulation. Science 276:798–800. Nolet, B. A., A. Hoekstra, and M. M. Ottenheim. 1994. Selective foraging on woody species by the beaver Castor fiber, and its impact on a riparian willow forest. Biological Conservation 70:117–128. Noss, R. F., H. B. Quigley, M. G. Hornocker,T. Merrill, and P. C. Paquet. 1996. Conservation biology and carnivore conservation in the Rocky Mountains. Conservation Biology 10:949–963. Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders Company. Ogle, D. W., and P. M. Mazzeo. 1976. Betula uber, the Virginia round-leaf birch, rediscovered in southwest Virginia. Castanea 41:248–256. Ohmart, R. D. 1996. Historical and present impacts of livestock grazing on fish and wildlife resources in western riparian habitats. Pp. 245–279 In: Rangeland wildlife. P. R. Krausman (ed.). Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 440 pp. Ohmart, R. D., and B. W. Anderson. 1978. Wildlife use values of wetlands in the arid southwestern United States. Pp. 278–295 In: Wetland functions and values: the state of our understanding. Proceedings of the National Symposium on Wetlands. P. E. Greeson, J. R. Clark, and J. E. Clark (eds.). Minneapolis, MN: American Water Resources Association. Ohmart, R. D., and B. W. Anderson. 1982. North American desert riparian ecosystems. Pp. 433–479 In: Reference handbook on the deserts of North America. G. L. Bender (ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 594 pp. Osborne, L. L., and D. A. Kovacic. 1993. Riparian vegetated buffer strips in water-quality restoration and stream management. Freshwater Biology 29:243–258. Parker, M., F. J. Wood, Jr., B. H. Smith, and R. G. Elder. 1987. Erosional downcutting in lower order riparian ecosystems: have historical changes been caused by removal of beaver? Pp. 35–38 In: Riparian ecosystems and their management: reconciling conflicting uses. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Bull. RM-120. Parkin, T. B. 1987. Soil microsites as a source of denitrification variability. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51(5):1194–1199. Patrick, R. 1995. Rivers of the United States. Volume II: Chemical and Physical Characteristics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Pauley, T. K. J. C. Mitchell, R. R. Buech, and J. J. Moriarty. 2000. Ecology and management of riparian habitats for amphibians and reptiles. Pp. 169–206 In: Riparian management in forests of the continental eastern united States. E. S. Verry, J. W. Hornbeck, and C. A. Dolloff (eds.). New York: Lewis Publishers. Peterjohn, W. T., and D. L. Correll. 1984. Nutrient dynamics in an agricultural watershed: observations on the role of a riparian forest. Ecology 65:1466–1475. Peterson, J. G. 1970. The food habits and summer distribution of juvenile sage grouse in central Montana. J. Wildl. Manage. 34:147–154.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Petryk, S., and G. Bosmajian III. 1975. Analysis of flow through vegetation. American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of the Hydraulics Division 101:871–884. Phillips, J. D., Denver, J. M., Shedlock, R. J., and P. A. Hamilton. 1993. Effect of forested wetlands on nitrate concentrations in groundwater and surface water of the Delmarva Peninsula. Wetlands 13:75–83. Piegay, H., and A. M. Gurnell. 1997. Large woody debris and river geomorphological pattern: examples from S.E. France and S. England. Geomorphology 19(1–2):99–116. Pielou, E. C. 1991. After the ice age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 366 pp. Pinay, G., A. Fabre, P. Vervier, and F. Gazelle. 1992. Control of C, N and P distribution in soils of riparian forests. Landscape Ecology 6:121–132. Pinder, G. F., and S. P. Sauer. 1971. Numerical simulation of flood wave modification due to bank storage effects. Water Resources Research 7(1):63–70. Poff, N. L., J. D. Allan, M. B. Bain, J. R. Karr, K. L. Prestegaard, B. D. Richter, R. E. Sparks, and J. C. Stromberg. 1997. The natural flow regime: a paradigm for river conservation and restoration. BioScience 47(11):769–784. Pollock, M. M., R. J. Naiman, and T. A. Hanley. 1998. Plant species richness in riparian wetlands—a test of biodiversity theory. Ecology 79:94–105. Post, R. A. 1996. Functional profile of black spruce wetlands in Alaska. EPA 910/R-96-006. Seattle, WA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Premo, D., Premo, B, Rogers, E. I., Tiller, D. J. 1992. The woodland vernal pond: an oasis of diversity. In: Total ecosystem management strategies Vol. 1(3), Amasa, MI: White Water Associates, Inc. Ralph, S. C., G. C. Poole, L. L. Conquest, and R. J. Naiman. 1994. Stream channel morphology and woody debris in logged and unlogged basins of western Washington. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51:37–51. Råsånen, M. E., J. S. Salo, and R. J. Kalliola. 1987. Fluvial perturbance in the western Amazon basin: regulation by long-term sub-Andean tectonics. Science 238:1398–1401. Reifsnyder, W. E., and H. W. Lull. 1965. Radian energy in relation to forests. USDA Forest Service, Technical Bull. No. 1344. 111 pp. Remillard, M. M., G. K. Gruendling, and D. J. Bogucki. 1987. Disturbance by beaver (Castor canadensis) and increased landscape heterogeneity. Pp. 103–122 In: Landscape heterogeneity and disturbance. Ecological Studies, Vol. 64. M. G. Turner (ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag. Rezendes, P., and P. Roy. 1996. Wetlands, the web of life. A Sierra Club Book. Burlington, VT: Verve Editions. Rice, J., B. W. Anderson, and R. D. Ohmart. 1984. Comparison of the importance of different habitat attributes to avian community organization. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:895–911. Rice, J., R. D. Ohmart, and B. W. Anderson. 1983. Habitat selection attributes of an avian community: a discriminant analysis investigation. Ecological Monographs 5:263–290. Rogers, E. I., D. Tiller, and D. Premo. 1992. Mammal tracking study along the West Fence River in Iron County, Michigan. TEMS Research Brief. Total Ecosystem Management Program Annual Report. (In house report.) Amasa, MI: White Water Associates, Inc. Rothacher, J. 1970. Increases in water yield following clear-cut logging in the Pacific Northwest. Water Resources Research 6(2): 653–658. Rudolph, D. C., and J. G. Dickson. 1990. Streamside zone width and amphibian and reptile abundance. The Southwestern Naturalist 35:472–476. Rutherford, I., B. Abernethy, and I. Prosser. 1999. Pp. 61–78 In: Riparian land management technical guidelines, volume one: principles of sound management. S. Lovett and P. Price (eds.). Canberra, Australia: Land and Water Resources Research Development Corporation. Ruthsatz, B., and W. Haber. 1981. The significance of small-scale landscape elements in rural areas as refuges for endangered plant species. Proc. Int. Congr. Neth. Soc. Landscape Ecol. Veldhoven, Pudoc, Wageningen.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Rutledge, A. T., and T. O. Mesko. 1996. Estimated hydrologic characteristics of shallow aquifer systems in the Valley and Ridge, the Blue Ridge, and the Piedmont Physiographic Provinces based on analysis of streamflow recession and base flow. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1422-B. 54 pp. Satterlund, D. R., and P. W. Adams. 1992. Wildland watershed management. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 436 pp. Sauer, J. D. 1988. Plant migration: the dynamics of geographic patterning in seed plant species. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 298 pp. Scatena, F. N., and A. E. Lugo. 1995. Geomorphology, disturbance, and the soil and vegetation of two subtropical wet steepland watersheds of Puerto Rico. Geomorphology 13:199–213. Schade, J. D., S. G. Fisher, N. B. Grimm, and J. A. Seddon. 2001. The influence of a riparian shrub on nitrogen cycling in a Sonoran desert stream. Ecology 82:3363–3376. Scharf, W. C., and J. Kren. 1997. Summer diet of Orchard Orioles in southwestern Nebraska. Southwestern Naturalist 42:127–131. Schlesinger, W. H., and J. M. Melack. 1981. Transport of organic carbon in the world’s rivers. Tellus 33:172–187. Schlosser, I. J. 1982. Fish community structure and function along two habitat gradients in a headwater stream. Ecological Monographs 52(4):395–414. Schlosser, I. J. 1991. Stream fish ecology: a landscape perspective. BioScience 41:704–712. Schloz, J. 2001. The variability in stream temperatures in the Wenatchee National Forest and their relationship to physical, geological, and land management factors. M.S. Thesis. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Schultz, R. C., J. P. Colletti, T. M. Isenhart, W. W. Simpkins, C. W. Mize, and M. L. Thompson. 1995. Design and placement of multi-species riparian buffer strip system. Agroforestry Systems 29:201–226. Schultz, R. C., J. P. Colletti, T. M. Isenhart, C. O. Marquez, W. W. Simpkins, and C. J. Ball. 2000. Riparian forest buffer practices. Pp. 189–281 In: North American agroforestry: an integrated science and practice. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy. Schumm, S. A. 1960. The shape of alluvial channels in relation to sediment type. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 352B, 17–30. Scott, M. L., J. M. Friedman, and G. T. Auble. 1996. Fluvial process and the establishment of bottomland trees. Geomorphology 14:327–339. Sebestyen, S. D., and R. L. Schneider. 2001. Dynamic temporal patterns of nearshore seepage flux in a headwater Adirondack lake. Journal of Hydrology 247(3–4):137–150. Sedell, J. R., and K. J. Luchessa. 1982. Using the historical record as an aid to salmonid habitat enhancement. Pp. 210–223 In: Acquisition and utilization of aquatic habitat inventory information. N. B. Armantrout (ed.). Portland, OR: Western Division, American Fisheries Society. Sedell, J. R., and R. L. Beschta. 1991. Bringing back the “bio” in bioengineering. American Fisheries Society Symposium 10:160–175. Seefelt, N. 1997. Foraging behaviors and attack rates of American redstarts and black–throated green warblers. M.S. Thesis, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI. Semlitsch, R. D. 1998. Biological delineation of terrestrial buffer zones for pond-breeding salamanders. Conservation Biology 12:1113–1119. Seton, E. T. 1929. Lives of game animals. Vol. 4, Part 2. Rodents, etc. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. Slough, B. G., and R. M. F. S. Sadleir. 1977. A land capability classification system for beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl). Can. J. Zool. 55:1324–1335. Smith, R., M. Hamas, M. Dallman, and D. Ewert. 1998. Spatial variation in the foraging of the black-throated green warbler along the shoreline of northern Lake Huron. The Condor 100:474–484.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Spackman, S. C., and J. W. Hughes. 1995. Assessment of minimum stream corridor width for biological conservation: species richness and distribution along mid-order streams in Vermont, USA. Biological Conservation 71:325–332. Squillace, P. J. 1996. Observed and simulated movement of bank-storage water. Ground Water 34(1):121–134. Stanford, J. A., and F. R. Hauer. 1992. Mitigating the impacts of stream and lake regulation in the Flathead River catchment, Montana, USA: An ecosystem perspective. Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems 2(1):35–63. Stanford, J. A., and J. V. Ward. 1993. An ecosystem perspective of alluvial rivers: connectivity and the hyporheic corridor. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12:48–60. Stanford, J. A. 1998. Rivers in the landscape: introduction to the special issue on riparian and groundwater ecology. Freshwater Biology 40(3):402–406. Stauffer, D. F., and L. B. Best. 1980. Habitat selection by birds of riparian communities: evaluating effects of habitat alterations. J. Wildl. Manage. 44:1–15. Stebbins, R. C. 1966. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 279 pp. Stine, S., D. Gaines, and P. Vorster. 1984. Destruction of riparian systems due to water development in the Mono Lake watershed. Pp. 528–533 In: California riparian systems. R. E. Warner and K. M. Hendrix (eds.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Strahler, A. N. 1952. Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis of erosional topography. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 63:1117–1142. Stromberg, J. C., R. Tiller, and B. Richter. 1996. Effects of groundwater decline on riparian vegetation of semiarid regions: the San Pedro, Arizona. Ecological Applications 6:113–131. Swanson, F. J., S. H. Johnson, S. V. Gregory, and S. A. Acker. 1998. Flood disturbance in a forested mountain landscape. BioScience 48(9):681–689. Swanson, F. J., S. M. Wondzell, and G. E. Grant. 1992. Landforms, disturbance, and ecotones. Pp. 304–323 In: Landscape boundaries: consequences for biotic diversity and ecological flows. A. J. Hansen and F. di Castri (eds.). New York: Springer Verlag. Szaro, R. C. 1991. Wildlife communities of southwestern riparian ecosystems. Pp. 174–200 In: Wildlife habitats in managed landscapes. J. E. Rodiek and E. G. Bolen (eds.). Washington, DC: Island Press. Tockner, K., F. Mallard, and J. V. Ward. 2000. An extension of the flood pulse concept. Hydrological Processes 14:2861–2883. Trimble, S. W. 1997. Stream channel erosion and change resulting from riparian forests. Geology 25(5):467–469. Triska, F. J., V. C. Kennedy, R. J. Avanzino, G. W. Zellweger, and K. E. Bencala. 1989. Retention and transport of nutrients in a third-order stream in northwestern California: hyporheic processes. Ecology 70:1893–1905. Troendle, C. A. 1983. The potential of water yield augmentation from forest management in the Rocky Mountain Region. Water Resources Bulletin 19:359–373. Tweit, S. J. 2000. The next spotted owl? Audubon Nov.–Dec. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2000. Conservation buffers to reduce pesticide losses. Washington, DC: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 21 pp. USDA NRCS. 2001. Plants Database. Baton Rouge, LA: National Plant Data Center. Utter, J. M., and A. W. Hurst. 1990. The significance and management of relict populations of Chamaelirium luteum (L.) Gray. In: Ecosystem management: rare species and significant habitats. R. S. Mitchell, C. J. Sheviak, and D. J. Leopold (eds.). Proceedings of the 15th Annual Natural Areas Conference. New York State Museum Bulletin No. 471. Albany, NY. Van Cleef, J. S. 1885. How to restore our trout streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 14:50–55.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Van Cleve, K., F. S. Chapin III, C. T. Dyrness, and L. A. Viereck. 1991. Element cycling in taiga forests: state-factor control. BioScience 41:78–88. Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedell, and C. E. Cushing. 1980. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37:130–137. Vervier, P. 1990. Hydrochemical characterization of the water dynamics of a karst system. Journal of Hydrology 121:103–117. Vervier, P., M. Dobson, and G. Pinay. 1993. Role of interaction zone between surface and ground waters in DOC transport and processing: considerations for river restoration. Freshwater Biology 29:275–284. Vervier, P., J. Gibert, P. Marmonier, and M.-L. Dole-Olivier. 1992. A perspective on the permeability of the surface freshwater–groundwater ecotone. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 11:93–102. Vogt, R. C. 1981. Natural history of amphibians and reptiles in Wisconsin. Milwaukee, WI: The Milwaukee Public Museum. 205 pp. Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan flora, Part I, gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 55 and University of Michigan Herbarium. Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III, Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium. Wake, D. B. 1991. Declining amphibian populations. Science 253. Walker, L. R., J. C. Zasada, and F. S. Chapin, III. 1986. The role of life history processes in primary succession on an Alaskan floodplain. Ecology 67:1243–1253. Wang, L., Lyons, J., Kanehl, P, Gatti, R. 1997. Influences of watershed land use on habitat quality and biotic integrity in Wisconsin streams. Fisheries 22:6–12. Ward, J. R., K. Tockner, and F. Schiemer. 1999. Biodiversity of floodplain river ecosystems: ecotones and connectivity. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 15:125–139. Ward, J. V. 1998. A running water perspective of ecotones, boundaries and connectivity. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26:1165–1168. Ward, J. V., K. Tockner, P. J. Edwards, J. Kollmann, A. M. Gurnell, G. E. Petts, G. Bretschko, and B. Rossaro. 2000. Potential role of island dynamics in river ecosystems. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 27. Ware, G. H., and W. T. Penfound. 1949. The vegetation of the lower levels of the floodplain of the south Canadian River in Central Oklahoma. Ecology 30:478–484. Warren, P. L., and C. R. Schwalbe. 1985. Herpetofauna in riparian habitats along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Pp. 347–354 In: Riparian ecosystems and their management: reconciling conflicting uses. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Bull. RM-120. Wells, J. R., and P. W. Thompson. 1974. Vegetation and flora of Keweenaw County, Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 13:107–151. Wesche, T. A., C. M. Goertler, and C. B. Frye. 1987. Contribution of riparian vegetation to trout cover in small streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7:151–153. Wetzel, R. G. 1999. Plants and water in and adjacent to lakes. In: Eco-hydrology: plants and water in terrestrial and aquatic environments. A. J. Baird and R. L. Wilby (eds.). London: Routledge. Wetzel, R. G., and M. Søndergaard. 1998. Role of submersed macrophytes for the microbial community and dynamics of dissolved organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Pp. 133–148 In: Role of submersed macrophytes in structuring the biological community and biogeochemical dynamics in shallow lakes. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Publishers. Wetzel, R. G. 2001. Limnology: lake and river ecosystems. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Wharton, C. H., Kitchens, W. M., and Sipe, T. W. 1982. The ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps of the southeast: a community profile. FWS/OBS-81/37. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 133 pp. Whitmore, R. C. 1975. Habitat ordination of passerine birds of the Virgin River Valley, southwestern Utah. Wils. Bull. 87:65–74.

OCR for page 49
Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management Whittaker, R. H., and W. A. Niering. 1965. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona: a gradient analysis of the south slope. Ecology 46:429–452. Williams, K. K. C. Ewel, R. P. Stumpf, F. E. Putz, and T. W. Workman. 1999. Sea-level rise and coastal forest retreat on the west coast of Florida, USA. Ecology 80:(6)2045–2063. Williamson, K. J., D. A. Bella, R. L. Beschta, G. Grant, P. C. Klingeman, H. W. Li, and P. O. Nelson. 1995. Gravel disturbance impacts on salmon habitat and stream health, Volume 1: Summary report. Corvallis, OR: Oregon Water Resources Research Institute, Oregon State University. 52 pp. Wilson, L. G. 1967. Sediment removal from flood water by grass filtration. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 10:35–37. Wilson, T. 2000. Vernal use of riparian habitats by neotropical migrants. M.S. Thesis, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI. Wilzbach, M. A. 1985. Relative roles of food abundance and cover in determining the habitat distribution of stream-dwelling cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42:1668–1672. Wilzbach, M. A., and J. D. Hall. 1985. Prey availability and foraging behavior of cutthroat trout in an open and forested section of stream. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 22:2516–2522. Winter, T. C., J. W. Harvey, O. L. Franke, and W. M. Alley. 1998. Ground water and surface water: a single resource. USGS Circular 1139. Denver, CO: USGS. Winter, T. C. 2001. The concept of hydrologic landscapes. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37(2):335–349. Wistendahl, W. A. 1958. The flood plain of the Raritan River, New Jersey. Ecological Monographs 28:129–153. Wolfe, C. B., Jr., and J. D. Pittillo. 1977. Some ecological factors influencing the distribution of Betula nigra L. in western North Carolina. Castanea 42:18–32. Wolock, D. M. 2001. USGS. Personal Communication. Reston, VA. Wroblickly et al. 1998. Seasonal variation in surface-subsurface water exchange and lateral hyporheic area of two stream-aquifer systems. Water Resources Research 34(3):317–328. Young, J. R. 1994. The influence of sexual selection on phenotypic and genetic divergence of Sage Grouse. Ph.D. diss. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana. Young, J. R., Braun, C. E., Oyler-McCance, S. J., Hupp, J. W., and T. W. Quinn. 2000. A new species of sage-grouse from southwestern Colorado. Wils. Bull. 112:445–453. Zimmerman, R. C. 1969. Plant ecology of an arid basin: Tres Alamos-Redington area, southeastern Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 485-D. 47 pp.