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Transport Protocols for Department of Defense Data Networks Report to the Department of Defense and the National Bureau of Standards Committee on Computer-Computer Communication Protocols Board on Telecommunications and Computer Applications Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. February 1985

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board on the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors, ac- cording to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and tech- nology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advis- ing the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with genera] policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of lS63, which establishes the Academy as a pri- vate, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineer- ing communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This is a report of work supported by Contract No. DCA-83-C-0051 between the U.S. Defense Communications Agency and the National Academy of Sciences, underwritten jointly by the Department of Defense and the National Bureau of Standards. Copies of this publication are available from: Board on Telecommunications and Computer Applications Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

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BOARD ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS-COMPUTER APPLICATIONS COMMITTEE ON COMPUTER-COMPUTER COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS Chairman C. CHAPIN CUTLER, Professor of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California Members HERBERT D. BENINGTON, Technical Director, System Development Corporation, McLean, Virginia DONALD ~ BOYD, Director, Honeywell Corporate Computer Sciences Center, Honeywell Corporate Technology Center, Bloomington, Minnesota DAVID ~ FARBER, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor of Computer Science, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware ENCE H LANDWEBER, Professor, Computer Sciences Department, Univer- sity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin ANTHONY G LAUCK, Manager, Distributed Systems Architecture and Advanced Development, Digital Equipment Corporation, Tewksbury, Massachusetts KEITH A LUCKE, General Manager of Control Data Technical Standards, Control Data Corporation, Minneapolis, Minnesota MISCHA SCHWARTZ, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Columbia University, New York, New York ROBERT F STEEN, Director of Architecture, Communication Products Division IBM Corporation, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina CARL A SUNSHINE, Principal Engineer, Sytek, Incorporated, Los Angeles Operation, Culver City, California DANIEL ~ FINK, (Ex-officio), President, D Arlington, Virginia Fink Associates, Inc , JAMES ~ FLANAGAN, (CETS LIAISON MEMBER), Head, Acoustics Research Department, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey Staff RICHARD B MARSTEN, Executive Director JEROME D ROSENBERG, Senior Staff Officer and Study Director LOIS A LEAK, Administrative Secretary

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COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS BOARD ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS-COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Chairman DANIEL ~ FINK, President, D J. Fink Associates, Inc , Arlington, Virginia Past-Chairman BROCKWAY MCMILLAN, Vice President (Retired), Bell Laboratories, Sedgwick, Maine Members ARTHUR G ANDERSON, Vice President (Retired), IBM Corporation, San Jose, California DANIEL BELL, Henry Ford IT Professor of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts HERBERT D BENINGTON, Technical Director, System Development Corporation, McLean, Virginia ECWYN R BERLEKAMP, Professor of Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, California ANTHONY ~ DEMARIA, Assistant Director of Research for Electronics and Electro-Optics Technology, United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut GERALD P DINNEEN, Vice President, Science and Technology, Honeywell Incorporated, Minneapolis, Minnesota GEORGE GERBNER, Professor and Dean, The Annenberg School of Communica- tions, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ANNE P JONES, Partner, Sutherland, Asbil] and Brennan, Washington, D C ADRIAN M MCDONOUGH, Professor of Management and Decision Sciences (Retired), The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Havertown, Pennsylvania WILBUR ~ PRITCHARD, President, Satellite Systems Engineering, Inc , Bethesda, Maryland MICHAEL B PURSLEY, Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois {VAN SELIN, Chairman of the Board, American Management Systems, Inc. , Arlington, Virginia v

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MISCHA SCHWARTZ, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Columbia University, New York, New York ERIC E. SUMNER, Vice President, Operations System and Network Planning, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey KEITH W UNCAPHER, Executive Director, USC-Information Sciences Institute Associate Dean, School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Marina de] Rey, California JAMES L. FLANAGAN, (CETS LIAISON MEMBER), Head, Acoustics Research Depart- ment, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey Staff Richard B Marsten, Executive Director Jerome D Rosenberg, Senior Staff Officer Karen Laughlin, Administrative Coordinator Carmen A Ruby, Administrative Assistant Lois A Leak, Administrative Secretary V1

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CONTENTS PREFACE . . . . . . . . e~ee~~~e~ee~eae-eee EXECUTIVE SUMMARY e.~------~---~---~-. xi I Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II Review of NBS and DOD Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 III Comparison of DOD and ISO Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 IV Status of DOD and ISO Protocol Implementations and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Development of Standard Commercial versus Special Commercial Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIT Responsiveness of International Standards Process to Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix V VI 39 43 VIll Options for DOD and NBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 OX Cost Comparison of Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Evaluation of ODtions Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 vii

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PREFACE This is the final report of the National Research Council Committee on Computer-Computer Communication Protocols. The committee was estab- lished in May 1983 at the request of the Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), Department of Commerce, to develop recommendations and guidelines for resolving differences between the two agencies on a data communications transport protocol standard. Computer-based information and transaction-processing systems are basic fools in modern industry and government. Over the past several years there has been a growing demand to transfer and exchange digitized data in these systems quickly and accurately. This demand for data transfer and exchange has been both among the terminals and computers within an organization and among those in different organizations. Rapid electronic transport of digitized data requires electronic communication links that tie the elements together. These links are established, organized, and maintained by means of a layered series of procedures performing the many functions inherent in the communications process. The successful movement of digitized data depends upon the participants using identical or compatible procedures, or protocols. The DOD and NBS have each developed and promulgated a transport protocol as standard. The two protocols, however, are dissimilar and incompatible. The committee was called to resolve the differences between these protocols. The committee held its first meeting in August 1983 at the National Research Council in Washington, D.C. Following th is two-day meeting the committee held five more two-day meetings, a three-day meeting, and a one-week workshop. The committee was briefed by personnel from both agencies. In addi- tion, the committee heard from Jon Postel, University of Southern California's Information Systems Institute; Dave Oran, Digital Equipment Corporation; Vincent Cerf, MCI; David Wood, The Mitre Corporation; Clair Miller, Honeywell, and Robert Foe, IBM, representing the Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturer's Association; and John Newman, Ultimate Corporation. In most cases the briefings were followed by discussion. The committee wishes to thank Philip Selvaggi of the Department of Defense and Robert Blanc of the NBS, Institute of Computer Sciences and 1X

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Technology, for their cooperation as their agency's liaison representa- tives to the committee. The committee appreciates the contributions and support of Richard B. Marsten, Executive Director of the Board on Tele- communications-Computer Applications (BOTCAP), and Jerome D. Rosenberg, BOTCAP Senior Staff Officer and the committee Study Director. We also wish to thank Lois A. Leak for her expert administrative and secretarial support. x