The presence of bacteria in the bloodstream.


Microscopic, single-celled organisms that have some biochemical and structural features different from those of animal and plant cells.


A virus that infects bacteria—also called phage.

Basic research:

Fundamental, theoretical, or experimental investigation to advance scientific knowledge, with immediate practical application not being a direct objective.


For a particular indicator or performance goal, the industry measure of best performance. The benchmarking process identifies the best performance in the industry (health care or nonhealth care) for a particular process or outcome, determines how that performance is achieved, and applies the lessons learned to improve performance.

Broad-spectrum antibiotic:

An antibiotic effective against a large number of bacterial species. It generally describes antibiotics effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative classes of bacteria.

BSL (Biosafety Level):

Specific combinations of work practices, safety equipment, and facilities, designed to minimize the exposure of workers and the environment to infectious agents. Biosafety Level 1 applies to agents that do not ordinarily cause human disease. Biosafety Level 2 is appropriate for agents that can cause human disease but whose potential for transmission is limited. Biosafety Level 3 applies to agents that may be transmitted by the respiratory route, which can cause serious infection. Biosafety Level 4 is used for the diagnosis of exotic agents that pose a high risk of life-threatening disease, which may be transmitted by the aerosol route and for which there is no vaccine or therapy.


The leading cause of bacterial food poisoning, caused by a Campylobacter jejuni, most often spread by contact with raw or undercooked poultry. A single drop of juice from a contaminated chicken is enough to make someone sick with campylobacteriosis (disease due to Campylobacter bacteria).

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention):

A public health agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.

Clinical practice guidelines:

Systematically developed statements that assist practitioners and patients with decision making about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances.

Clinical research:

Investigations aimed at translating basic, fundamental science into medical practice.

Clinical trials:

As used in this report, research with human volunteers

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