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Army Robotics and Artificial Intelligence A 1987 Review Committee to Review Army Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Manufacturing Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1987
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report eras approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the I - titute of Medicine. The memben of the committee responsible for the report severe chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been retrieved by a Coup other than the authors according to procedure approved by a Report Retried Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Scienc - , the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a pn~rate, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Cony in 18", the Academy has a mandate that requires it loo advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. F'ranlc Press ~ president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering terse established in 196d, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, ~ a parallel ordination of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for ad~rising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of entineere. Dr. Robert M. White ~ president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine wry established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council eras organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to a~ociatc the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering l~no~rledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly~by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman' respectively, of the National Research Council. # This study eras supported by Contract No. DACA72-85-C-0006 between the United States Army and the National Academy of Sciences. limited number of copies are available from: Manufacturing Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of Amenca
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COMMITTEE TO REVIEW ARMY ROBOTICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE HALTER L. ABEL, Chairman, Vice President (retired), Emhart Corporation, Avon, Connecticut MARGARET A. EASTWOOD, Director, Integrated Factory Controls, CIMCORP, Inc., Aurora, Illinois FREDERICK W. FOX, Vice President, Operations, PAX International, Indianapolis , Indiana LESTER A. GERHARDT, ECSE Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JOHN R. GUTHRIE, General (retired), U.S. Army, Annandale, Virginia TENHO B. HUKKALA, Senior Analyst, National Security Research Group, System Planning Corporation, Arlington, Virginia ROGER N. NAGEL, Director, Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania CHARLES A. ROSEN, Chief Scientist, Machine Intel- ligence Corporation, Atherton, California STAFF GEORGE H. ROPER, Executive Director, Manufacturing Studies Board JANICE E. GREENE, Staff Officer DENNIS A. DRISCOLL, Staff Associate LUCY V. FUSCO, Administrative Assistant iii
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MANOFACTU~TNG STODTES BOARD EICKHAH SKINNER, Chairman, James E. Robison Professor of Business Administration (emeritus), Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts ANDERSON ASHBURN, Editor, AMERICAN MACHTNIST, New York, New York AVAK AVAKIAN, Vice President, GTE Sylvania Systems Group, Valtham, Massachusetts IRVING BLUESTONE, Professor of Labor Studies, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan BARBARA A. BURNS, Manager, SYSTECON, Division of Coopers & Lybrand, Duluth, Georgia CuARl~S E. EBERLE, Vice President, Engineering (retired), The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio ELLIOTT M. ESTES, President (retired), General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan ROBERT S. KAPLAN, Arthur Lowe s Dickinson Professor of Accounting, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts ROBERT B. KURTZ, Vice President (retired), General Electric Corporation, Fairfield, Connecticut JAMES F. LARDNER, Vice President, Component Group, Deere & Company, Moline, Illinois MARTIN J. McHALE, Vice President, Control Data Corpora- tion, Bloomington, Minnesota THOMAS J. MURRIN, President, Energy and Advanced Technol- ogy Group, Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ROGER N. NAGEL, Director, Manufacturing Systems Engi- neering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania RICHARD R. NELSON, H. C. Luce Professor of international Political Economy, Columbia University, New York, New York
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DAN L. SHUNK, Director, Center for Automated Engineering and Robotics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona JEROME A. SMITH, Director of Operations, Martin Marietta Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland JOHN M. STEWART, Director, McKinsey ant Company, Inc., New York, New York STEVEN C. WHEELWRIGHT, RIeiner Perkins Caulfield & Byers Professor of Management, Stanford University, Stanford, California JOHN A. WHITE, Regents' Professor of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia EDWIN M. ZIHKERKAN, Member, D. C. Bar, Washington, D.C. STAFF GEORGE H. ROPER, Executive Director KERSTIN B. POLLACK, Director, Program Development JANICE E. GREENE, Staff Officer THOMAS C. MAHONEY, Staff Officer VERNA J. BOWEN, Administrative Assistant LUCY V. FOSCO, Administrative Assistant MICHAEL S. RESNICK, Administrative Assistant vi
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ACKNOWIEDGMENTS The Committee to Review Army Robotics and Artificial Intelligence is responsible for organizing and conducting the research and writing the findings of this study. Our work would not have been possible, however, without the invaluable contributions of the Manufacturing Studies Board staff who facilitated our work: executive director George Super, staff officer Janice Greene, staff associate Dennis Driscoll, and administrative assistant Lucy Fusco. Ve also wish to thank the peer reviewers--Philip H. Francis, Ira Jacobson, Robert B. Kelley, Jerome A. Smith, and Arthur R. Thomson. Their thoughtful comments on our draft report enabled us to fine-tune its substance and presentation. Perhaps most importantly, we wish to thank the many people from the U.S. Army who so generously gave their time to meet with us and whose candor made this report possible. These people were: Ray E. Bowles, Chief, Mobility Branch, Laboratory Command Thomas Broach, Office of the Assistant Director for Army Research and Technology Philip Emmerman, Chief, Advanced Sensor Systems Branch, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Laboratory Command Larry Gambino, Director, Research Institute, U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories Ronald Green, U.S. Army Research Office, Electronics Division Lucy Hagan, Physical Science Administrator, U.S. Army Materiel Command Catherine Knudson, Research Psychologist/Staff Officer, U.S. Army Medical Research asset Development Command vii
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Robert Leighty, Director (retired), Research Institute, U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratory Joseph Psotha, U.S. Axmy Research Institute for Behavioral and Social Sciences Kenneth Rose, U.S. Army Training ant Doctrine Command Charles Shoemaker, Leader, Robotics Sciences and Military Applications Team, U.S. Army Buman Engineering Laboratory Alex Stewart, Electronics Engineer, Technology Planning & Management Directorate, Laboratory Command Richard Vitali, Technical Director, U.S. Army Laboratory Command Harry Wiggins, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, U.S. Army laboratory Command Bruce Zimmerman, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Research, Development, and Acquisition ~ . Walter L. Abel Chairman viii
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CONTENTS 1. HISTORY AND SCOPE OF THIS PROJECT. The Original Committee's 1983 Report, 1 Activities of this Committee, 3 2. ASSESSMENT OF INDIVIDUAL ARMY PROGRAMS The Teleoperated Mobile Anti-Axmor Program, 6 Robotic Material Handling Equipment, 7 Robotic Combat Vehicles, 8 Bawk Maintenance Tutor, 10 Legged Machines, 10 Summary of Technical Areas, 11 3. THE ARMY ENVIRONMENT FOR ROBOTICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. . . . . - - - . . . . Inter- and Intra-Agency Coordination, 15 The Need for Leadership and a Champion, 17 Funding of Applications, 17 Industrial Applications, 18 4. EDUCATION AND TRAINING . . The Urgent Army Need, 20 University Centers Sponsored by the Army, 21 Army Internal Education Programs, 22 army Internal Training Programs, 23 ix 15 20
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5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMXENDATIONS. ConcIusions, 24 Recommendations, 26 LIST OF ACRONYMS . . . 24 he ~ . go