MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

PROBLEMS, PROMISE, AND PRODUCTS

Committee on Marine Biotechnology: Biomedical Applications of Marine Natural Products

Ocean Studies Board

Board on Life Sciences

Division on Earth and Life Studies

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY PROBLEMS, PROMISE, AND PRODUCTS Committee on Marine Biotechnology: Biomedical Applications of Marine Natural Products Ocean Studies Board Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. • Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the committee were supported by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Sea Grant College Program, the National Science Foundation, The Whitaker Foundation, Minerals Management Service, Electric Power Institute, and the National Academy of Sciences. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. Library of Congress Control Number: 2002105053 International Standard Book Number: 0-309-08342-7 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products COMMITTEE ON MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS NANCY TARGETT (Chair), University of Delaware, Lewes ROBERT BAIER, State University of New York at Buffalo WILLIAM GERWICK, Oregon State University, Corvallis D. JAY GRIMES, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs JOHN HEIDELBERG, The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Md. SHIRLEY POMPONI, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc., Fort Pierce, Fla. ROGER PRINCE, ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company, N.J. STAFF JENNIFER MERRILL, Study Director, OSB JENNIFER KUZMA, Senior Program Officer, BLS DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant

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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products Preface In these proceedings the Ocean Studies Board and the Board on Life Sciences ad hoc Committee on Marine Biotechnology summarize and integrate information obtained from two workshops on Marine Biotechnology (October 5-6, 1999, and November 5-6, 2001). We use that information as a basis for recommending promising research areas in marine biotechnology. The 1999 workshop and its subsequent report emphasized environmental applications for marine biotechnology and included the topics of biomaterials, bioremediation, restoration, prediction and monitoring, and economic and regulatory aspects. The 2001 workshop (whose proceedings are incorporated into this report) emphasized biomedical applications of marine biotechnology and included the topics of drug discovery and development; genomic and proteomic applications for marine bioproduct discovery; biomaterials and bioengineering; and public policy, partnerships, and outreach. Considering marine biotechnology within this broad context, the committee identifies promising research areas and highlights issues that are slowing the implementation of marine biotechnology in the environmental and biomedical arenas. While aquaculture practices are relevant to the production and sustainability of marine natural products development, an in-depth examination of this large topic was beyond the scope of the current project. The Committee acknowledges the contributions of its sponsors: the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Sea Grant College Program, the National Science Foundation, The Whitaker

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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products Foundation, the Minerals Management Service, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the National Academy of Sciences. This report was also greatly enhanced by the participants of the two workshops. Those who participated in the 1999 workshop are acknowledged in its report. Here the committee acknowledges the efforts of those who gave oral presentations at the 2001 workshop: Rita Colwell, National Science Foundation; William Fenical, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Guy Carter, Wyeth Ayerst; Mary Ann Jordan, University of California, Santa Barbara; Patrick Walsh, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences; Bradley Moore, University of Arizona; Claire Fraser, The Institute for Genomic Research; Stephen Giovannoni, Oregon State University; Scott Peterson, The Institute for Genomic Research; Daniel Drell, U.S. Department of Energy; Anne Meyer, State University of New York at Buffalo; Rodney White, University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center; Cato Laurencin, Drexel University; Andrew Bruckner, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Joshua Rosenthal, National Institutes of Health; Donald Gerhart, University of Oregon; and James Cato, University of Florida Sea Grant. These speakers helped to set the stage for the fruitful committee discussions that followed the workshop. In its discussions, the committee also relied heavily on the published proceedings of the 1999 workshop (NRC, 2000) and on oral summary briefs presented to the committee by 1999 workshop participants Laurie Richardson and Roger Prince (a committee member). The committee is also grateful to the following people who have provided other important material for consideration: Christine Benedict, Niels Lindquist, Robert Jacobs, and Eric Mathur. Ruth Crossgrove (NRC) provided assistance with editing. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Russell Kerr, Florida Atlantic University; Judith McDowell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; David Newman, National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Laurie Richardson,

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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products Florida International University; Norman Wainwright, Marine Biological Laboratory; and Herbert Waite, University of California, Santa Barbara. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Burris, Beloit College. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Nancy Targett Chair

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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products Contents     Executive Summary   1     Biomedical Applications of Marine Natural Products: Overview of the 2001 Workshop   3     Introduction,   3     Drug Discovery and Development,   4     Genomics and Proteomics Applications for Marine Biotechnology,   10     Biomaterials and Bioengineering,   16     Public Policy, Partnerships, and Outreach in Marine Biotechnology,   19     References,   24     Environmental Aspects of Marine Biotechnology: Overview of the 1999 Workshop   29     Introduction,   29     Bioremediation,   29     Environmental Health,   30     Human Health,   32     References,   34

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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products     2001 WORKSHOP ABSTRACTS: BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS         Keynote Address   39     Fulfilling the Promise of Marine Biotechnology, Rita Colwell   39     Drug Discovery and Development   45     Accessing Marine Biodiversity for Drug Discovery, William Fenical   45     Marine Natural Products as a Resource for Drug Discovery: Opportunities and Challenges, Guy T. Carter   47     Mining the Ocean’s Pharmacological Riches: A Lesson from Taxol and the Vinca Alkaloids, Mary Ann Jordan and Leslie Wilson   52     Ecological Roles: Mechanisms for Discovery of Novel Targets, Comparative Biochemistry, Patrick J. Walsh   57     The Interface of Natural Product Chemistry and Biology, Bradley S. Moore   61     Genomics and Proteomics   65     High-Throughput Culturing for Microbial Discovery, Stephen J. Giovannoni   65     The Genomics Revolution: Challenges and Opportunities, Claire M. Fraser   66     Microbial Genomics: Where Do We Go Now?, Daniel Drell   67     Biomaterials and Bioengineering   69     The Commercialization of a Biopolymer Extracted from the Marine Mussel, Mytilus edulis, Christine Benedict   69     Self-Cleaning Surfaces: Biolubricants, Drag Reduction, Anne E. Meyer   75     Uniform Microporous Biomaterials Prepared from Marine Skeletal Precursors, Rodney A. White and Eugene W. White   79

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Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products     Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering, Drug Delivery, and Other Medically Related Applications: The Marine Source, Cato T. Laurencin   83     Public Policy, Partnerships, and Outreach   87     Biomedical Compounds Extracted from Coral Reef Organisms: Harvest Pressure, Conservation Concerns, and Sustainable Management, Andrew W. Bruckner   87     Productive Partnerships in Natural Product Discovery and Development, Joshua Rosenthal   91     Commercialization of Marine Bioproducts: Intellectual Property and Technology Transfer Issues, Donald Gerhart   94     Planning, Partnerships, and Progress in Marine Biotechnology Research and Outreach in Florida, James C. Cato and William Seaman, Jr.   97     Appendixes         A Committee and Staff Biographical Sketches   103     B National Research Council Project Oversight Boards   106     C 2001 Marine Biotechnology Workshop: Biomedical Applications of Marine Natural Products—Agenda   109     D 2001 Marine Biotechnology Workshop: Biomedical Applications of Marine Natural Products—Participants   114     E 1999 Marine Biotechnology Workshop: Opportunities for Advancement of Environmental Marine Biotechnology—Participants   116

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