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THE IMPACT OF ACQUISITION REFORM ON DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARI)S FOR MATERIALS AND PROCESSES Report of the Workshop on Technical Strategies for Adoption of Commercial Materials anti Processing Standards in Defense Procurement October Il-12, 2000 Washington, D.C. Committee for the Workshop on Technical Strategies for Adoption of Commercial Standards in Defense Procurement National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approver! by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study by the National Materials Advisory Board was conducted under contract MDA 972-01 -D-001 with the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of individual workshop participants and JO not necessarily reflect the views of the organization or agency that provided support for the project. Available in limited supply from: National Materials Advisory Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3505 nmab~nas.edu h t t p : / / w w w . n a s . e ~ u / n m a b Cover illustration: Courtesy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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, ~ ~ . ~ J ~ ~ - as ~ . ~ s s ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ J National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering I institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, uncler the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed! at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science ant! technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies cletermined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies ant! the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON TECHNICAL STRATEGIES FOR ADOPTION OF COMMERCIAL STANDARDS IN DEFENSE PROCUREMENT THOMAS D. COOPER, Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, Chair SAMUEL P. GARBO, Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Stratford, Connecticut DAROLD L. GRIFFIN, Engineering and Management Executives, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia TIMOTHY L. GUILLIAMS, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington ERNEST M. PIISILA, ALLVAC, Monroe, North Carolina NEVILLE PUGH (until September 30, 2000), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland ROBERT STEFFEN, Raytheon Electronics Systems, Richardson, Texas CARL H. ZWEBEN, Independent Consultant, Devon, Pennsylvania IV

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NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD EDGAR A. STARKE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Chair EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cleveland Cliffs, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University, Columbus ALASTAIR M. GLASS, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JOHN A.S. GREEN, The Aluminum Association, Inc., Washington, D.C. THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW (retired), Redmond, Washington ALLAN J. JACOBSON, University of Houston, Houston, Texas MICHAEL JAFFE, New Jersey Institute of Technology and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California FRANK E. KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., Motorola, Schaumburg, Illinois JULIA PHILLIPS, Sanclia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois Staff SHARON YEUNG DRESSEN, Staff Officer PAT WILLIAMS, Project Assistant PAUL DOYLE, Consultant RICHARD CHAIT, Director (until November 7, 2000) TONI MARECHAUX, Director v

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that wit} assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Kathleen Kono, American Society for Testing and Materials, Robert Schafrik, General Electric Aircraft Engines, and Trudie Williams, Defense Standardization Program. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the viewpoints expressed, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by James Mattice of Universal Technology Corporation. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. vii

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION Background, 5 Objective and Tasks, 6 Committee Formation and Activities, 7 2 WORKSHOP SESSION 1: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS Past DoD and NMAB Involvement with Materials and Process Specifications and Standards, 9 Defense Standardization Program, MilSpec Reform, and Nongovernment Standards, 10 Issues Affecting the DoD, 11 Overview of the Specifications and Standards Symposium Sponsored by the NDIA's Technical Information Division, 12 Panel Discussion, 12 3 WORKSHOP SESSION 2: COMPANY, COMMERCIAL, AND MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS View from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 15 Society of Automotive Engineers Aerospace Materials Specification System, 16 Issues Related to QuaTifiecl Product Lists, 16 Aerospace Industries Association Early Warning Project Group, 17 Panel Discussion, 17 4 WORKSHOP SESSION 3: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUESGOVERNMENT AGENCIES' PERSPECTIVES NASA Implementation of Commercial Specifications, 19 Federal Aviation Administration Perspective, 20 Space Systems Perspective, 21 Panel Discussion, 22 WORKSHOP SESSION 4: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUESDOD AGENCIES' PERSPECTIVES Air Force Implementation of Commercial Specifications, 23 Navy Implementation of Commercial Specifications, 24 Army Air Systems Implementation of Commercial Specifications, 24 Army Land Systems Implementation of Commercial Specifications, 25 Panel Discussion, 25 zx 1 5 9 15 19 23

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6 WORKSHOP SESSION 5: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS' PERSPECTIVES Adopting Commercial Materials and Processing Standards in Defense Procurement at GE Aircraft Engines, 27 Boeing Implementation of Commercial Specifications, 29 Commercial Specifications at Lockheed Martin: Implementation Issues and a Proposed Plan for National Standards, 30 Panel Discussion, 31 7 WORKSHOP SESSION 6: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES SUPPLIER AND MANUFACTURER PERSPECTIVES Material Supplier Perspective, 33 Manufacturer Perspective, 33 Panel Discussion, 34 8 WORKSHOP SUMMARY Common Themes, 35 APPENDICES A PERRY MEMORANDUM B WORKSHOP AGENDA C WORKSHOP SPEAKERS AND PARTICIPANTS D BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS E ACRONYMS x 27 33 35 37 43 47 49 53