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Means to discover, report, verify, and authoritatively correct
mistakes would need to be put in place.
A variety of security measures would need to be factored into
all aspects of the system to be sure that it meets its
objectives and is not vulnerable to things such as fraud or
denial-of-service abuses that can result in privacy violations.
Fraud (and security in general) is a significant concern in any
system, even the most technologically sophisticated. 2 The nationwide scale of such a system
would require knowing that all aspects of the system are
scalable—a daunting problem for lesser systems. 3 In any case, the challenges of
building robust and trustworthy information systems—they are
extensive and well-documented 4
—are accompanied by the even greater challenge of making the
systems resistant to attacks by well-funded adversaries.
Architectural issues include the degree of centralization of the
underlying databases as well as the location and cost of data storage,
computation, and communication, which can all be done at different
places. 5 For example, how would
authorized entities obtain the records they wanted, under what
circumstances, and with what degree of authorization? Would there be
daily or weekly downloads of selected records to more permanent
storage media? Would a real-time network feed be required (perhaps
similar to those used in real-time credit authorization systems)?
Would it be possible to secure such a feed sufficiently? 6
Choices among architectural options, as well as other options, would
depend on the functional goal(s) of the system. Architecture
influences scalability, cost, and usability/human factors. It also
interacts with proce