This product—the high-energy, nutrient-dense emergency relief food product (EFP)—is intended to provide a compact, self-contained, high-energy, nutrient-dense emergency food for refugees and victims of disasters for a short duration at the initial stages of an emergency. The expected use period is 3 to 7 days, with a maximum use of up to 15 days. The product may be used in climatic extremes from arctic to tropical. The EFP is expected to be the sole source of food during the period of use and to provide adequate energy, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals to promote survivability. The product may be consumed directly or crumbled to make a gruel or porridge.
The EFP must be suitable for a wide age range—from infants over 6 months through older adults.
The EFP must be provided in a format acceptable to people from a wide range of ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds.
The EFP will be consumed under worldwide environmental extremes. It is essential that this item be produced in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices applicable to ready-to-eat food products.
There are five characteristics critical to development of a successful EFP. These are listed in order of importance. The EFP must be:
Easy to dispense
Easy to use
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product 4 Performance Specifications ITEM DESCRIPTION This product—the high-energy, nutrient-dense emergency relief food product (EFP)—is intended to provide a compact, self-contained, high-energy, nutrient-dense emergency food for refugees and victims of disasters for a short duration at the initial stages of an emergency. The expected use period is 3 to 7 days, with a maximum use of up to 15 days. The product may be used in climatic extremes from arctic to tropical. The EFP is expected to be the sole source of food during the period of use and to provide adequate energy, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals to promote survivability. The product may be consumed directly or crumbled to make a gruel or porridge. The EFP must be suitable for a wide age range—from infants over 6 months through older adults. The EFP must be provided in a format acceptable to people from a wide range of ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds. The EFP will be consumed under worldwide environmental extremes. It is essential that this item be produced in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices applicable to ready-to-eat food products. There are five characteristics critical to development of a successful EFP. These are listed in order of importance. The EFP must be: Safe Palatable Easy to dispense Easy to use Nutritionally complete.
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS Nutrition The EFP must provide a nutritional profile as described in Table 4-1. Each unit (nine bars) will provide 2,100 kcal. Shelf Life The packaged EFP shall meet the minimum shelf-life requirement of 36 months at 21º C (70º F). Appearance Exterior – The EFP will be a bar of a rectangular shape that promotes efficient packing. The color of the bar will depend on the ingredients and processing methods used. Artificial colors are not recommended, and it is required that the product not be white or cream-colored. The product, if dispersed in water, must not resemble milk. Interior – The EFP shall be a compressed, cold-extruded, or baked product of essentially uniform composition. General – The packaged EFP shall be free from foreign material such as, but not limited to, dirt, insect parts, hair, wood, glass, or metal. The product shall show no evidence of excessive heating (materially darkened or scorched). Odor and Flavor The EFP shall be slightly sweet with blended cereal flavor from the base ingredients, and no distinct flavor notes attributable to the protein source or vitamin and mineral additions may be present. Flavorings may be used, but should not be strong or unusual (i.e., not targeted for a specific population). The EFP shall be free from foreign odors and flavors such as, but not limited to, burnt, scorched, rancid, sour, or stale. Texture The texture of the bars will depend on the ingredients and processing methods used. When crumbled, particle size should be large enough to make a porridge-like product when dispersed in water, and not small enough to resemble milk. The EFP shall be sufficiently firm and resilient to withstand delivery via various modes of transportation (air, land, and sea) including low-altitude airdrop. It must maintain structural integrity through short periods of extreme temperatures.
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product Size The EFP dimensions shall be such that a unit will deliver 2,100 kcal and be divided into nine bars, each bar scored to yield two equal portions. Each portion will contain approximately 116 kcal. The total net weight of the unit (2,100 kcal/EFP) shall be approximately 450 g (~50 g/EFP bar). Acceptability A prototype of the finished product shall be tested by the procuring agency and must receive a hedonic score of 6.0 or better on a 1.0- to 9.0-point scale, where 9.0 represents “like extremely” when assessed by likely target populations under conditions simulating field use (e.g., during 3 to 7 days’ consumption). Nutrient Content The nutrient content is described in Table 4-1. The overall description is: Energy content – The EFP shall be designed as a 2,100-kcal unit. Moisture content – The moisture content shall not be greater than 9.5 percent. Water activity shall not be greater than 0.6. Protein content – The protein content shall be not less than 63 or greater than 80 g/2,100-kcal unit (8 to 9 g/EFP bar). The protein must have a minimum Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score of 1.0. Lipids – The lipids must be 22 percent by weight minimum (approximately 40 percent of kcal, 82 to 105 g/2,100 kcal unit, or 9 to 12 g/EFP bar). The source of lipids must not be lard, tallow, other animal fats, or similar animal-based products. The ratio of linoleic acid to α-linolenic acid shall be 5:1 to 10:1. Carbohydrates – The remaining calories will come from carbohydrates as specified in Table 4-1. Vitamins and minerals – As specified in Table 4-1. Note: Vitamin E must be encapsulated (or stabilized) for stability. Separate encapsulation is also necessary for ascorbic acid and for metals: iron (as NaFe EDTA), chromium, copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc. Caloric density must be between 233 and 250 kcal/50 g bar (2,100 kcal/unit). Additives Additives must be consistent with guidelines of both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Codex Alimentarius, and comply with the
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product TABLE 4-1 Nutrient Specifications for a High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense, Emergency Relief Food Product (EFP)a Nutrient Minimum Required Nutrient Density/EFP Bar (50 g) Maximum Required Nutrient Density/EFP Bar (50 g) Minimum Required Nutrient Density/1,000 kcal Energy 233 kcal 250 kcal Fat 9.1 g (35% of calories) 11.7 g (45% of calories) 39 g (35% of calories) Proteinb 7.9 g (13.5% of calories) 8.9 g (15% of calories) 34 g (13.5% of calories) Total carbohydrates 100–125 g (40–50% of calories) Total sugars 7–11.7 g (12–20% of calories) 14.7 g (25% of calories) 30–50 g (12–20% of calories) Glucose 2 g 8.5 g Lactose 4 g Monosaccharides 5.8 g Sodium 0.30 g 0.33 g 1.3 g Potassium 0.40 g 0.47 g 1.7 g Chloride 0.47 g 0.51 g 2.0 g Calcium 180 mg 207 mg 768 mg Phosphorus 172 mg 206 mg 740 mg Magnesium 44 mg 54 mg 190 mg Chromium 3.0 µg 13 µg Copper 131 µg 156 µg 560 µg Iodine 24.5 µg 53.6 µg 105 µg
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product Maximum Allowed Nutrient Density/1,000 kcal Minimum Required Nutrient Density/2,100 kcal Maximum Allowed Nutrient Density/2,100 kcal Comments 2,100 kcal 2,100–2,250 kcal/9 bars 50 g (45% of calories) 82 g (35% of calories) 105 g (45% of calories) Saturated fat > 10% of calories; PUFA 7–10% of calories from vegetable oil; LA:LNA ratio of 5:1 to 10:1 38 g (15% of calories) 71 g (13.5% of calories) 80 g (15% of calories) PDCAAS ≥ 1.00 210–263 g 63 g (25% of calories) 63–105 g (12–20% of calories) 131 g (25% of calories) Palatability requires the use of sugar or high fructose corn syrup 18 g 6 g/g of Na; from maltodextrins 17 g 36 g Should be present only if milk solids are used 25 g 53 g < 25% by weight of carbohydrates 1.4 g 2.7 g 3.0 g EFP should not taste salty 2.0 g 3.5 g 4.2 g EFP should not taste bitter 2.2 g 4.2 g 4.6 g Equimolar to sodium 885 mg 1,620 mg 1,865 mg Phosphate, citrate, or carbonate salt forms 890 mg 1,555 mg 1,865 mg Nonphytate form 230 mg (< 167 mg as supplement) 400 mg 480 mg (< 350 mg as supplement) Only supplemental Mg contributes to UL 27 µg 670 µg 1,180 µg 1,410 µg 230 µg 220 µg 480 µg
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product Nutrient Minimum Required Nutrient Density/EFP Bar (50 g) Maximum Required Nutrient Density/EFP Bar (50 g) Minimum Required Nutrient Density/1,000 kcal Ironc 3.7 mg 4.2 mg 16 mg Manganese 0.33 mg 0.40 mg 1.4 mg Selenium 6.5 µg 7.9 µg 28 µg Zinc 2.4 mg 2.7 mg 10.4 mg Vitamin A (preformed) 117 µg 233 µg 500 µg Vitamin D 1.2 µg 1.4 µg 5.2 µg Vitamin E 2.2 mg 16 mg Vitamin K 14 µg 60 µg Vitamin C 23.3 mg 46.6 mg 100 mg Thiamin 0.28 mg 0.33 mg 1.2 mg Riboflavin 0.28 mg 0.33 mg 1.2 mg Niacin 2.6 mg 2.9 mg 11.2 mg Vitamin B6 0.28 mg 0.33 mg 1.2 mg Folated 45.2 µg 49.7 µg 194 µg Vitamin B12 2.8 µg 3.4 µg 12 µg Pantothenic Acid 0.9 mg 1.1 mg 3.9 mg Biotin 5.6 µg 6.7 µg 24 µg Choline 85.3 mg 102.3 mg 366 mg a The energy content of the EFP is specified as 4.5 to 5 kcal/g, which provides a range of 2,100 to 2,250 kcal per 9-bar ration (EFP). It is important to note that calculation of nutrient density for all other nutrients is based on the minimum energy requirement for the EFP of 2,100 kcal (IOM, 1995). Calculations based on information in the text may differ slightly from the numbers presented in the table due to rounding. b Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method described by FAO/WHO (1989) for protein evaluation that is based on the essential amino acid requirements of the 2- to 5-year-old child. The use of this method of protein evaluation by U.S. food manufacturers has Food and Drug Administration approval.
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product Maximum Allowed Nutrient Density/1,000 kcal Minimum Required Nutrient Density/2,100 kcal Maximum Allowed Nutrient Density/2,100 kcal Comments 18 mg 34 mg 38 mg Encapsulated as NaFeEDTA suggested 1.7 mg 2.9 mg 3.5 mg 34 µg 60 µg 72 µg Selenomethionine form 11.4 mg 22 mg 24 mg Sulfate or acetate; molar ratio of Zn:phytate < 15 1,000 µg 1,050 µg 2,100 µg Does not include carotene 5.8 µg 11 µg 12 µg Cholecalciferol form 34 mg 0.6 mg/g PUFA 120 µg 200 mg 210 mg 420 mg Encapsulation required 1.4 mg 2.5 mg 3.0 mg 1.4 mg 2.5 mg 3.0 mg 12.4 mg 23.6 mg 26.0 mg Maximum only refers to added nicotinic acid 1.4 mg 2.5 mg 3.0 mg 213 µg 406 µg 447 µg Maximum only refers to added folate 14.4 µg 25.2 µg 30.2 µg 4.7 mg 8.2 mg 9.8 mg 28.8 µg 50.4 µg 60.5 µg 439 mg 769 mg 923 mg Choline could be provided as lecithin c Iron requirements based on FAO/WHO (2000) for adolescent girls, which assumes 10% bioavailability. d Assumes that folate provided will be as a food fortificant and thus will be synthetic folate, which is 1.6 times more available than naturally occurring food folate.
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product specifications set forth in the Food Chemicals Codex (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.). PROHIBITIONS The EFP shall contain no sensitive ingredients that would limit its intended use for diverse populations. No alcohol shall be incorporated in it, nor any meat products used. PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS Bars shall be prepared through extrusion, compression technology, or baked. Units will be prepared consisting of nine bars of approximately 233 kcal each, with central scores that allow easy division to 116-kcal portions. It is desirable that the EFP be amenable to being made into a gruel by crumbling the bar and mixing with water. PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS The EFP will be subjected to environments that exhibit a wide range, including extremes, of temperature and humidity, and to delivery conditions that will often be characterized by lack of infrastructure. Therefore, all packaging components must be capable of withstanding temperature and physical abuse. In addition, the EFP will be delivered using all modes of transportation, including airdrop. Separate packaging, or more likely, additional packaging, may be employed for airdrop requirements. Primary Packaging Each 2,100-kcal daily EFP unit will be prepared as nine equal-sized bars, each centrally scored to allow breaking into two segments. The nine bars will be individually wrapped to facilitate handling of individual bars, while reducing contamination to additional bars, through human, insect, animal, or microbial intervention. The primary wrap need not be a barrier material, and it is recommended that it be pulp-based, with a moisture-barrier coating. The coating may be polyolefin or wax-based. This primary package, after use, may also serve as an energy source through combustion. Polyethylene- or wax-coated paper both provide similar heating value as comparable weights of fuel oils. The package will be nitrogen flushed. Residual oxygen must not exceed 3 percent (2 percent if feasible).
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product Secondary Packaging A daily supply of nine bars will be packaged under a nitrogen flush or a vacuum, into a barrier package, to enhance product shelf life. The secondary packaging will be a pouch construction similar to the trilaminate construction utilized by the military for long shelf-life rations: from inside to outside, 0.003-to 0.004-in thick polyolefin, 0.00035- to 0.0007-in thick aluminum foil, and 0.0005-in thick polyester or nylon. The pouch material shall be FDA-approved for food use and shall show no evidence of delamination or degradation when heat sealed or fabricated into pouches. Pouches that contain the nine bars may be preformed or formed on line. The pouches will have an inside dimension sufficient to hold the nine individually wrapped bars. The pouch shall be made by heat-sealing three edges (two sides and bottom) with 3/8-in- (+/- 1/8 in) wide seals. The heat seals shall be made in a manner that will ensure hermetic seals. The pouch shall maintain its integrity and air tightness of the side and bottom seals when tested by appropriate methods. The side and bottom seals shall have an average seal strength of not less than 6.0 lb/in, and no individual specimen shall have a seal strength of less than 5.0 lb/in. A V-, C-, or U-shaped tear notch at least 1/32-in deep, located 3/4 to 1 in from the top edge of the pouch (excluding the lip) shall be made on one or both side seals. The distance between the inside edge of the tear notch and the inside edge of the seal shall be no less than 1/8 in. One side of the open end of the pouch may be provided with an extended or fold-over lip, extended not more than 1/8 in (+/- 1/16 in) to facilitate opening and filling. In order to discourage diversion of the product, the pouch must be of a neutral color (e.g., off-white, tan); no bright, attractive colors or shine may be used. A multiple set of bars, sufficient for a 5-day supply of nine bars per day (i.e., five pouches containing nine bars each) will be packaged together and constitute the distribution unit called a “bundle.” The five trilaminate pouches will be bundled into a low-density polyethylene bag to provide either a 5-day individual EFP supply or a daily ration for a family of five members. The film used to prepare the bundle will be monoaxially or biaxially oriented, with machine direction oriented across the pouch. Filling will therefore be accomplished on a horizontal wrapping machine. A V-, C-, or U-shaped tear notch at least 1/32-in deep, located 3/4 to 1 in from the top edge of the pouch (excluding the lip) shall be made on one or both side seals. The notch will allow easy opening by propagating the notch tear across the bundle bag. As an alternative, the outer package may be a reusable, semi-rigid polyolefin container which could be used for storage and/or water transport. A third option is to utilize a metal outer package, such as a tinplate box with a cover. The cover shall be easily removable. This container may also have multiple uses, such as storage and/or water carrier.
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product Tertiary Packaging Rations will be available in two formats: Ground delivery and airdrop. Ground delivery – Eight bundles consisting of five pouches each (each pouch contains five daily units) will be placed in a 4×2 configuration in a corrugated shipping container that constitutes 1 case. Approximately 50 cases will be placed on a pallet. The shipper will be sufficient to contain the rations and allow stacking to five pallets high in similar environmental temperature and relative humidity extremes as experienced in the Guam, Italy, and Maryland storage facilities used by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Airdrop – Pouches (five units each) or bundles (five pouches each) may be packaged for low-altitude airdrop using appropriate package protection to simultaneously provide impact protection for the EFP and reduce the terminal velocity to a level that prevents injury to recipients on the ground. Testing must be conducted to verify adequate protection. Labeling The secondary and tertiary packaging shall carry simple, graphic instructions on how to open the package and on alternative ways to consume the product (i.e., directly or as a porridge). A disclosure of the energy nutrient (fat, carbohydrate, protein) content by weight, in metric units, must be made on the basis of 1 day’s ration (2,100 kcal). In addition, each pouch shall carry a complete list of ingredients, the net weight of the unit, in grams, and any other information required by the purchasing agency. MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION Ingredients may be determined by bid from potential manufacturers to provide the nutritional profile and other characteristics defined above. The product will be distributed among multiple ethnic and cultural groups. Therefore, alcohol or animal products other than milk may not be used. Foods containing known allergens, such as peanuts, should be avoided. The vitamin and mineral mix must be encapsulated to provide required product shelf life and avoid objectionable odors or flavors. Recommended ingredients: Cereal base : wheat flour, corn, oat flakes or flour, rice flour Protein : soy products, such as concentrates, isolates, or TVP; milk solids, casein, or derivatives Lipid sources : partially hydrogenated soybean or cottonseed oil, flaxseed oil (source of omega-3 fatty acids), canola oil, sunflower oil Sugars : sucrose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, maltodextrins
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High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product Baking and leavening agents, if needed Vitamin and mineral premix as specified in the nutrient profile (see Table 4-1). The product must be prepared using Good Manufacturing Practices and maintain suitability as a food for the shelf life of the product. Note: This performance specification is written to facilitate innovation from suppliers. It is recommended that off-the-shelf ingredients and materials be utilized where possible.
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