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Geoscience Data and Collections: National Resources in Peril
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR)
Techniques define subsurface fluid injection processes into hydrocarbon reservoirs to attain additional oil beyond that recovered by primary and secondary water and/or gas processes. The common methods are chemical flooding, gas (miscible) injection and thermal. EOR, also called tertiary recovery, supplement available reservoir energy, improved drive mechanism efficiency and/or production rate. Chemical flooding is an EOR method that involves the addition of chemicals to injected water or gas to recover additional oil by reducing the mobility of the injected fluid, or reducing the oil/water interfacial tension or both. Three common recovery processes are alkaline, polymer and surfactant/ polymer flooding.
Federal Geographic Data Committee, established by the Office of Management and Budget to address the coordination and standards objectives in the development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NRC, 1994).
A region or area that possesses or is characterized by a particular oil, gas, or mineral resource.
Any igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rock represented as a unit or any sedimentary bed or consecutive series of beds sufficiently homogeneous or distinctive to be a unit.
The remains or traces of living things from the geological past preserved in the sedimentary rock. They include a huge variety of objects from dinosaur bones and footprints to petrified wood to impressions of shells on large rock slabs to the remains of single-cell organisms mounted on microscope slides.
Hydrocarbons that exist as a vapor at ordinary temperatures and pressures.
The study of the Earth through chemical methods.
The use of multi-disciplinary databases that facilitate the extraction of knowledge from the geologic record.
A line along which a geophysical trace, or data position that can be read, occurs.
The study of the Earth through quantitative, physical methods. Sub-disciplines include seismology and tectonophysics, among others.
Tops of an anomalous subsurface pore pressure that is higher than the normal, predicted hydrostatic pressure for a given depth. Abnormally high pore pressure might occur in areas where burial of water-filled sediments by impermeable sediment such as clay was so rapid that fluids could not escape, and the pore pressure increased with deeper burial. Excess pressure, called over-pressure or geopressure, can cause fluids to escape rapidly leading a well to blow out or become uncontrollable during drilling. SOURCE: Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary, 2002.
A short term for the collective subdisciplines of the geological (solid Earth) sciences, including engineering geology, geobiology, geochemistry, geohydrology, geophysics, sedimentology, and stratigraphy, among others.
A term applied to geographic data that are spatial (they show the geographic distribution of a phenomenon).
The application of scientific methods and engineering principles to the acquisition, interpretation, and use of materials from the Earth’s crust.
Any organic compound—gaseous, liquid, or solid—consisting solely of carbon and hydrogen. Often used as generic term for oil and gas.
The point at which the oily hydrocarbon floats on the water of a reservoir. The formation still has irreducible water saturation. The gas-cap in the reservoir is also an example of a contact.
Long thin column of ice collected by drilling from a glacier or ice sheet, usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter.
The process of creating a searchable tool for a collection, work, or document.
The petroleum industry, including its various business segments such as exploration, production, refining, transportation, and marketing.
The collective knowledge and history of an organization held by employees of that organization (institution), especially those who have been there for a number of years.
Lying between particles comprising the matrix of a sample.
An animal without a spinal column or backbone, includes organisms such as insects, shellfish and worms.
The character of a rock formation or a rock formation having a particular set of characteristics.
See WELL LOG .
A set of specimens collected in one place at one time.
A tape that has a magnetic coating used for recording numeric data.
A low-producing oil or gas well which borders on being economically feasible to operate.
Term used to describe a dataset and bring value to the scientific data represented. Examples include collecting conditions, instrumentation parameters, location, depth, range, and the names of the analysts and techniques they employed.
Pertaining to the scientific study of various inorganic natural substances and their properties.
A collection of scientific value that is no longer wanted by the institution or individual that houses it, and the institution or individual, either publicly or de facto, has renounced its responsibility to care for the collection.
The process of dehydrogenation especially by the action of oxygen.
Pertaining to the study of life in past geologic time, based on fossil plants and animals.