CLOSURE AND JOHNSTON ATOLL CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL SYSTEM

Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System CLOSURE AND JOHNSTON ATOLL CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL SYSTEM Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAD19-01-C-0001 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08405-9 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM PETER B. LEDERMAN, Chair, New Jersey Institute of Technology (retired), Newark CHARLES I. McGINNIS, Vice Chair, Consultant, Charlottesville, Virginia DAVID H. ARCHER, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PIERO M. ARMENANTE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark (until 07/01/01) JERRY L.R. CHANDLER, George Mason University, McLean, Virginia JOHN J. COSTOLNICK, Exxon Chemical Company (retired), Houston, Texas FRANK P. CRIMI, Lockheed Martin (retired), Saratoga, California (until 11/30/01) ELISABETH M. DRAKE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (as of 10/01/01) MICHAEL R. GREENBERG, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick (until 08/31/01) DEBORAH L. GRUBBE, DuPont Company, Wilmington, Delaware DAVID A. HOECKE, Enercon Systems, Inc., Elyria, Ohio DAVID H. JOHNSON, ABS Consulting, Irvine, California GARY L. LAGE, ToxiLogics, Inc., Titusville, New Jersey JOHN L. MARGRAVE, Rice University, Houston, Texas (as of 10/01/01) JAMES F. MATHIS, Exxon Corporation (retired), Houston, Texas FREDERICK G. POHLAND, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ROBERT B. PUYEAR, Consultant, Chesterfield, Missouri CHARLES F. REINHARDT, DuPont Company (retired), Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania KENNETH F. REINSCHMIDT, Consultant, Littleton, Massachusetts (until 01/31/02) W. LEIGH SHORT, URS Greiner Woodward-Clyde (retired), Mount Pleasant, South Carolina JEFFREY I. STEINFELD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CHADWICK A. TOLMAN, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. (until 07/31/01) RAE ZIMMERMAN, New York University (as of 10/01/01) Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia Staff DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Study Director HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Program Officer DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate CARTER W. FORD, Senior Project Assistant

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY JOHN E. MILLER, Chair, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Vice Chair, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia ROBERT L. CATTOI, Rockwell International (retired), Dallas, Texas RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT F. DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering (retired), Glendale, California ROBERT R. EVERETT, MITRE Corporation (retired), New Seabury, Massachusetts PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana HENRY J. HATCH, (Army Chief of Engineers, retired) Oakton, Virginia EDWARD J. HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City GERALD J. IAFRATE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh MIRIAM E. JOHN, California Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore DONALD R. KEITH, Cypress International (retired), Alexandria, Virginia CLARENCE W. KITCHENS, IIT Research Institute, Alexandria, Virginia SHIRLEY A. LIEBMAN, CECON Group (retired), Holtwood, Pennsylvania KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology (professor emerita), Roswell STEPHEN C. LUBARD, S-L Technology, Woodland Hills, California JOHN W. LYONS, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland JOHN H. MOXLEY, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MILLARD F. ROSE, Radiance Technologies, Huntsville, Alabama JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Associate Director WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate GWEN ROBY, Administrative Assistant DEANNA P. SPARGER, Senior Project Assistant

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Preface The Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS), the first fully integrated U.S. chemical agent disposal facility, was constructed in the late 1980s on Johnston Island, located in the Pacific Ocean some 800 miles southwest of Hawaii. Agent operations began during the summer of 1990. With the disposal of the last land mine on the island in November 2000, this landmark incineration facility concluded more than 10 years of almost uninterrupted, extremely hazardous agent and munitions disposal operations. The relatively large, two-story JACADS complex included myriad electrical, mechanical, automated, and robotic equipment (including many monitoring devices) used to destroy or dispose of multiple types of agents and all their varied kinds of containers and weapons systems. Constant attention had to be paid to safety while meeting production goals. Now that the fundamental job of JACADS—to destroy more than 2,000 tons of the U.S. stockpile of chemical agents—has been accomplished, a major operation has begun to clean up the site. Buildings and equipment must be decontaminated of any residual agent and agent degradation products, with all hazardous waste properly disposed of. This is a difficult task and requires extensive coordination among numerous interested local and federal agencies. A lot must be done, and much can be learned from this effort. It is hoped that this report will aid in the process and point to ways of facilitating the closure process at other chemical agent disposal facilities in the future. We wish to express our appreciation to the members of the committee—particularly Frank P. Crimi, who took the lead for the study—for their contributions to the preparation of this report by collecting significant data and information, making site visits to JACADS and other facilities under construction or in operation, and writing the report. The committee is also grateful to the Office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization and its contractors for the useful information they provided. The committee greatly appreciates the support and assistance of National Research Council staff members Donald L. Siebenaler, Harrison T. Pannella, Daniel E.J. Talmage, Jr., Carter W. Ford, and Elizabeth Fikre in the production of this report. Peter B. Lederman, Chair Charles I. McGinnis, Vice Chair Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Charles Baronian, Consultant, Jan Beyea, Consulting in the Public Interest, Elvin R. Heiberg III, Heiberg Associates, Inc., James R. Hunt, University of California at Berkeley, Walter Loveland, Oregon State University, Richard S. Magee, Carmagen Engineering, Inc., E. Timothy Oppelt, National Risk Management Research Center, Carl R. Peterson, Consultant, Mark N. Silverman, Consultant, Harold P. Smith, Jr., University of California at Berkeley, and Gordon J. Wozniak, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert E. Connick (NAS), University of California, Berkeley (professor emeritus). Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   6     Background,   6     Chemical Agent Stockpiles Elsewhere,   6     Johnston Island Chemical Agent Stockpile,   8     Role of the National Research Council,   8     Composition of the Stockpile Committee,   8     Purpose of the Report,   8     Statement of Task,   9     Organization of the Report,   9 2   INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR FACILITY CLOSURE   10     Ownership,   10     Determination of End Use,   11     End-State Cleanup Criteria,   11     Retention of Personnel,   12     Exit Strategy,   12 3   PLANNING THE CLOSURE OPERATION   13     Closure Objectives,   13     Closure Alternatives,   14     Risk Assessment,   14     Acquisition Strategy,   14     Background,   14     Closure Acquisition,   14     Closure Materiel Procurement,   15     Chemical Demilitarization Procurement Process,   16     Categories of Contamination,   16     Permitting Considerations,   16     Preparation of Detailed Engineering Requirements,   18     Sampling and Analysis Plans,   18     JACADS Operational and Storage Areas,   19     Decontamination,   20     Decontamination Technologies,   20     Adjacent Sources of Contamination,   20     Concrete,   20

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System     Schedule and Cost Estimates,   21     Development and Implementation of a Safety Program,   22     Security and Surety Requirements,   22     General Security,   22     Physical Security of Storage Areas and the Processing Facility,   22     Chemical Surety Program,   22     Surety and Security After Completion of Agent Operations,   23 4   EXECUTING THE CLOSURE PLAN   24     Decontamination of Systems, Structures, and Components,   24     Removal of Systems, Structures, and Components,   24     Risks During Dismantlement,   24     Closure Safety and Health Risks,   25     Contaminated Material and Equipment,   26     Safety Program,   26     Monitoring of Areas, Workers, and Materials,   27     Multiagent Monitoring of Areas and Workers,   27     Waste Management,   28     The Problem,   28     The Process,   29     Waste Minimization,   29     Public Communications and Involvement,   29     Background,   29     Public Information and Outreach for JACADS,   30     Stakeholder Issues,   30     Planning for Transition to Closure,   31 5   FACILITY CLOSEOUT ACTIVITIES   32     Sampling Methods, Sample Analysis, and Area Survey Methodology,   32     Area Sampling and Survey Documentation,   33     Final Closure Survey Report and Closure Certification,   33     Postclosure Monitoring Requirements,   33 6   LESSONS LEARNED   34     General Considerations,   34     Preplanning Process,   34     Specific Closure Lessons Learned from the JACADS Experience,   35 7   FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   36     Decision Making and Project Planning,   36     Personnel Retention,   37     Acquisition Strategy and Procurement,   37     Cost Control,   37     Monitoring,   37     Security,   38     Safety,   38     Public Affairs and Public Involvement,   39     REFERENCES   40

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System     APPENDIXES         A Reports by the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee),   45     B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members,   47     C Closure Planning and Implementation,   51     D JACADS Sampling and Analysis Plan Maps and Photographs,   53     E Examples of Information Required for Two Types of Final Closure Survey Reports,   61

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Figure, Plates, Tables, and Boxes FIGURE 1-1   Location of JACADS, the Red Hat Storage Area, and other facilities on Johnston Island,   7 PLATES D-1   Location of areas on Johnston Island,   53 D-2   Location of hazardous waste management units within the Red Hat Storage Area,   54 D-3   Sampling Strata G, H, I, J, K, L, M—areas outside the munitions demilitarization building,   55 D-4   Red Hat building 850 (SWMU No. 13),   56 D-5   Red Hat Area hazardous waste storage warehouse, Building 851 (SWMU No. U21),   57 D-6   Red Hat Area hazardous waste storage warehouse, Building 852 (SWMU No. U21),   58 TABLES 1-1   Munitions and Bulk Containers Destroyed at JACADS,   8 3-1   Hazard Categories for JACADS Process Areas,   16 3-2   Permit Modifications Submitted for JACADS Closure,   16 3-3   Agent Degradation Products Listed in the RCRA Facility Investigation Sampling and Analysis Work Plan,   19 C-1   Closure Planning and Implementation Activities,   51 BOXES E-1   Typical Contents Page for RFI Facility Investigation,   59 E-2   Typical Contents Page for Interim Remedial Measures Report,   63

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Acronyms ACAMS Automatic Continuous Air Monitoring System ADP agent degradation product AOI area of interest CMS carbon micronization system COC chemicals of concern CSDP Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program CSM conceptual site model CWA chemical warfare agent DAAMS Depot Area Air Monitoring System DPE demilitarization protective ensemble DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency ECP engineering change proposal EPA Environmental Protection Agency FWS Fish and Wildlife Service GB sarin (a nerve agent) GSA General Services Administration HD distilled mustard agent HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning HWMU hazardous waste management unit IPT integrated project team JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System JCC JACADS Closure Campaign MACT maximum achievable control technology MDB munitions demilitarization building MPF metal parts furnace NRC National Research Council OSC Operations Support Command OVT operational verification testing PCB polychlorinated biphenyl PMCD Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RFA RCRA facility assessment RFI RCRA facility investigation RHSA Red Hat Storage Area RMP risk management program SIMS secondary ion mass spectrometry SSC systems, structures, and components SWMU solid waste management unit TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility TSDF treatment, storage, and disposal facility TWA time weighted average USACAP U.S. Army Chemical Activity–Pacific USACHPPM U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine USARPAC U.S. Army Pacific VX a nerve agent WDC Washington Demilitarization Company

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System 1X 1X indicates that the level of contamination is unknown or that an item is contaminated to the extent that vapor concentrations from the bagged item exceed 0.0001 mg/m3 for agent VX or 0.003 mg/m3 for agent HD. 3X The 3X decontamination level refers to solids decontaminated to the point that the agent concentration in the headspace above the encapsulated solid does not exceed the health-based, 8-hour, time-weighted average limit for worker exposure. The limit for HD is 3.0 µg per cubic meter of air. Materials classified as 3X may be handled by qualified plant workers using appropriate procedures but cannot be released to the environment or sold for general public reuse. In specific cases in which approval has been granted, a 3X material may be shipped to an approved hazardous waste treatment facility for disposal in a landfill or for further treatment. 5X The use of 5X indicates that an item has been decontaminated completely of the indicated agent and may be released for general use or sold to the general public in accordance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. An item is decontaminated completely when it has been subjected to procedures that are known to completely degrade the agent molecule, or when analyses, submitted through Army channels for approval by the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board, have shown that the total quantity of agent is less than the minimal health effects dosage as determined by the Surgeon General. A 5X condition must be certified by the commander or designated representative. One approved method is heating the item to 538°C (1,000°F) for 15 minutes. This is considered sufficient to destroy chemical agent molecules. 5R (No Agent Hazard) Classification. An agent symbol with five Rs means that all previously contaminated surfaces are decontaminated and analyzed to demonstrate the absence of residual agents. 5R is defined as a room sealed (ventilation turned off) for at least 4 hours at a temperature of at least 70°F prior to sampling and that shows an agent vapor concentration less than the 8-hour time-weighted average concentration for unmasked workers.

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Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System CLOSURE AND JOHNSTON ATOLL CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL SYSTEM

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